Microbiology - GI Parasites - James L. Vossler Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology - GI Parasites - James L. Vossler Deck (46):
1

How is giardia transmitted?

Cysts!
Fecal-oral

2

What is the diagnostic test for giardia?

Trophozoites in the stool
Stool O&P test
ELISA stool antigen test

3

How is giardiasis treated?

Metronidazole

4

What are the symptoms of giardiasis?

Steatorrhea

5

How is entaemoeba histolytica transmitted?

Contaminated water, cysts

6

What is one patient population to be concerned about w/r/t Entaemoeba histolytica?

MSM bc of anal-oral transmission

7

What is the most common site for an amoebic liver abscess?

Right lobe of lover

8

What parasite causes RUQ pain and an enlarged tender liver?

Entaemoeba histolytica
Abscess described as having "anchovy paste" consistency

9

What is intestinal amebiasis?

Ulcerations in colon caused by Entaemoeba histolytica;
Causes bloody diarrhea

10

How is Entaemoeba histolytica diagnosed?

Stool O&P to look for trophozoites or cysts
**Trophozoites have endocytosed RBCs**
Intestinal biopsy may show flask-shaped lesions

11

How is Entaemoeba histolytica treated?

Metronidazole;
Luminal agents - Paramycin and Lodoqional - to eliminate cysts

12

In what population does Cryptosporidium cause severe, unrelenting diarrhea?

AIDS patients

In immunocompetent - causes mild, watery diarrhea

13

What is unique about Cryptosporidium as a parasite w/r/t staining?

It is partially acid-fast;
Looks like amethyst crytsals

14

What is the mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium?

Fecal oral, dirty water;
Infectious cysts get passed through watery stool

15

How does Cryptosporidium infect?

Sporozoites attach to intenstinal wall and cause diarrhea and small intestine damage

16

What is the treatment for Cryptosporidium?

Nitazoxanide treatment;
Spiramycin (not in US)

17

Why is filtration of water a better option for removing Crypto?

Because Crypto is resistant to chlorination

18

Enterobius vermicularis is aka:

Pinworm

19

How is Enterobius vermicularis transmitted?

Fecal oral
Buttscratchers, children

20

How is Enterobius vermicularis treated?

Albendazole
A MT inhibitor
Do not give to pregnant women

21

Where are Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus found?

Southern U.S.
Hookworms

22

How are Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus transmitted?

Through the soles of the feet

Blood stream --> lungs --> GI tract

23

What is one major effect on infection with Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus?

Iron deficiency anemia

24

How do you diagnose infection with Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus?

Eosinophilia;
Eggs in stool

25

How is infection with Ancyclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus treated?

Albendazole (A MT inhibitor
Do not give to pregnant women);
Pyrantel pamoate

26

What kind of parasite is Ascaris lumbricoides?

Roundworm
Blood stream --> lungs --> GI tract

27

Of the parasites that travel into the lungs, which is the most likely to have respiratory symptoms attached to it?

Ascaris lumbricoides

28

What is the major complication of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides?

GI obstruction

29

How is infection with Ascaris lumbricoides diagnosed?

Eosinophilia, eggs in stool

30

How is infection with Ascaris lumbricoides treated?

Albendazole
A MT inhibitor
Do not give to pregnant women

31

How is Strongyloides Stercoralis transmitted?

Feet, an also auto-infect once in intestinal wall;
Blood stream --> lungs --> GI tract

32

How is infection with Strongyloides Stercoralis diagnosed?

Larvae in stool, but not eggs;
Eosinophilia

33

How is Strongyloides Stercoralis treated?

Albendazole (A MT inhibitor
Do not give to pregnant women);
Ivermectin

34

Where is Trichinella spiralis found?

Undercooked meat like pork or bear

35

What are the symptoms of infection with Trichinella spiralis?

Fever, vomiting, periorbital edema, severe myalgias due to larvae forming cysts in striated muscle cells

36

How is Trichinella spiralis treated?

Albendazole
A MT inhibitor
Do not give to pregnant women

37

What is the common name for Taenia saginana?

Beef tapeworm

38

What is the common name for Taenia Solium?

Pig tapeworm

39

What parasite is responsible for neurocysticercosis?

Taenia eggs transmitted by water contaminated by animal feces

40

What are the symptoms/findings in neurocysticercosis?

Swiss cheese looking brain;
Seizures;
Hydrocephalus

41

How do you treat infection with Taenia species?

Praziquantel;
Add Albendazole for neurocystercersosis

42

What is the transmission for Diphyllobothrium latum?

Eating uncooked or undercooked fish

43

Diphyllobothrium latum is associated with diarrhea, due to its setting up shop in the intestine, as well as what deficiency?

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Megaloblastic anemia

44

What is the longest tapeworm?

Diphyllobothrium latum (fish)

45

How is infection with Diphyllobothrium latum diagnosed?

Proglottid segments seen on stool O&P

46

How is infection with Diphyllobothrium latum treated?

Praziquantal
Niclosamide