"Microbiology/Immunology Innate Immunity" SANA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in "Microbiology/Immunology Innate Immunity" SANA Deck (15):

Most bacteria die inside a _____



Describe the structure of the lipopolysaccharide molecule

It has a lipid concentrated end (hydrophobic) and a polysaccharide rich end (hydrophilic), which is often antigenic.


What is the function of the endotoxin?

Induces the body to produce toxic molecules.


If a media culture is loaded with endotoxins, will there be growth in it?

Yes because endotoxin is not an actual toxin, it just induces toxic results.


If you cleave the core polysaccharide from an LPS molecule, what will happen to its activity?

There will be no change as the Lipid A region of the LPS is where the endotoxicity is coming from.


One of your patients in the hospital has been infected with a contaminated IV solution. Why has this resulted in vomiting, fever and headaches?

The patient has been infected with high dose LPS and has gone into septic shock, resulting in low blood pressure and low cardiac output. This is a gram negative infection.


A patient with septic shock is most susceptible to which of the following?
a. Thrombocytopenia
c. immunosuppression
d. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
e. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

d and e
DIC will result in formation of platelet thrombi and blood clotting is many places, causing depletion of clotting components and hemorrhage.
ARDs is also associated with lung insult due to septic shock.


To destroy LPS, which of the following procedures should we perform?
a. Filtration
b. Baking glassware at high temperatures.
c. alcohol wipes

b. baking glassware at high temperatures.


Negative reagents to LPS are referred to as _____



The following protein is produced by macrophages in response to LPS exposure and cause blood vessels to become more permeable, allowing effector cells to enter infected tissue:
a. IL-1B
b. IL-6
c. TNF-a
d. CXCL8
e. both a and c



The following proteins recruites NK cells, which secrete cytokines, increasing macrophage response:
a. TNF-a
b. IL-6
c. IL-12
d. IL-1B



True or false: a macrophage exposed to LPS, induces only one type of protein in response.

False: the macrophage will induce many different types of proteins such as IL-1B, TNF-a, IL-6, CXCL8 and ILl-12 at the same time.


The drug treatment for arthritis, Humira, warn users that they should not take it if they have an infection. Why is that?

A lot of anti-arthritis drugs are TNF-a blockers. If a patient has an infection, she or he needs the TNF-a blockers to clear the infections.


LPS receptor complexes are made of which three main molecules?

MD2, TLR4 and CD14


Which of the following the most critical LPS receptor component? and why?

Toll-like receptor 4 because it recognizes LPS (in a complex with the other molecules) and results in signal transduction pathway.

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