Flashcards in Microbiology--Virology Deck (56):
Live attenuated vaccines:
induce humoral and cell-mediated immunity: smallpox, yellow fever, chickenpox, sabin polio virus, MMR, intranasal influenza
induce only humoral immunity: rabies, influenza, salk polio, HAV
HBV (HBsAg), HPV (6/11/16/18)
which DNA viruses are dsDNA
all except parvovirus (ssDNA)
which DNA viruses are linear?
all except papilloma, polyoma and hepadenaviruses (circular)
which RNA viruses are ssRNA?
all except reoviridae (dsRNA)
which RNA viruses are positive stranded?
retrovirus, togavirus, flavivirus, coronavirus, hepevirus, calicivirus, picornavirus: I went to a retro toga party where I drank flavored Corona and ate hippy california pickles.
which purified nucleic acids of viruses are infection? general rules?
most dsDNA (except poxvirus/HBV) and +strand ssRNA viruses are infection. -strand ssRNA and dsRNA are not infectious and require polymerases contained in complete virion.
DNA viruses replicate where?
nucleus (except poxvirus--carries its own DNA dependent RNA polymerase)
RNA viruses replicated where?
cytoplasm (except influenza and retroviruses)
Naked viruses are which:
Papillomavirus, adenovirus, parvovirus, polyomavirus, calicivirus, picornavirus, reovirus, hepevirus: give PAPP smears and CPR to a naked Heppy (DNA = PAPP, RNA = CPR)
what are the DNA viruses:
HHAPPPPy: hepadna, herpes, adeno, pox, parvo, papilloma, polyoma
what are the two polyoma viruses:
JC virus: PML in HIV; BK virus: transplant patients targeting kidney
flesh colored dome lesions with central umbilicated dimple
latent in trigeminal ganglia
latent in sacral ganglia
latent is dorsal root or trigeminal ganglia
infects B cells, reactive cytotoxic T cells seen on smear
EBV (HHV 4)
Which diseases is EBV ass. with?
hodgkin lymphoma, endemic burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal Ca
latent in mononuclear cells, owl eye inclusions
CMV (HHV 5)
roseola--exanthem subitum; high fevers that can cause seizures followed by diffuse macular rash
dark/violaceous flat and nodular skin lesions
Kaposi sarcoma--HHV8, endothelial growths
smear of opened skin vesicle to detect multinucleated giant cells
intranuclear Cowdry A inclusions
a cell infected with HSV
What are the negative stranded RNA viruses?
Arenaviruses, Bunyavirus, Paramyxoviruses, Orthomyxovirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus; Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication; All have RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Which are the segmented viruses?
All RNA viruses. BOAR: bunyavirus, orthomyxoviruses (influenza), arenaviruses, reoviruses
What are some picornaviruses?
Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV (PERCH)--RNA is translated into 1 large polypeptide that is cleaved by proteases into functional viral proteins
high fever, black vomitus, jaundice
flavivirus--yellow fever virus--"flavi" = yellow; abovirus via Aedes mosquito
most important global cause of infantile gastroenteritis, acute diarrhea esp during winter in daycares
rotavirus; segmented dsRNA virus (reovirus); villous destruction with atrophy leads to hyponatremia and hypokalemia
what proteins does influenza virus have to help in virulence?
hemagglutinin to promote viral entry, neuraminidase to promote progeny release
fever, postauricular and other lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, fine rash
rubella vrus, togavirus
"blueberry muffin" appearance in newborn
congenital rubella infection indicative of extramedullary hematopoesis
what diseases to paramyxoviruses cause?
Parainfluenza (croup); RSV (bronchiolitis in babies; ribavirin); Measles, Mumps
what is common to all paramyxoviruses that aids in their virulence?
all make F (fusion) protein that causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multinucleated cells--Pavalizumab is monoclonal ab against F protein (used to prevent RSV infection in premature infants)
koplik spots and descending maculopapular rash
measles virus--paramyxovirus, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, cough/coryza/conjunctivitis; use vit Ato prevent exfoliative dermatitis in malnourished children
paratotitis, orchitis, aseptic meningitis
bullet shaped virus
Rabies--negi bodies found in purkinje cells of cerebellum and in hippocampal neurons--retrograde movement up nerve axons
HIV env protein
gp120 (docking glycoprotein, attachement to host CD4+ T cells) gp41 (transmembrane glycoprotein, fusion and entry)
reverse transcriptase, aspartate protease, integrase
which receptors on which immune cells does HIV bind to
early: HIV binds to CCR5 on CD4+ T cells; late: HIV binds CXCR4; binds CCR5 and CD4 on macrophages; homozygous CCR5 mutation gives immunity to HIV
HIV positive adult: low grade fevers, cough, HSM, tongue ulcer, CD4 < 100
histoplasma capsulatum (only causes pulmonary symptoms in immunocompetent hosts)
HIV positive adult: fluffy white cottage cheese lesions
C albicans: mouth if CD4 < 400; esophageal CD4 < 100
HIV positive adult: hairy leukoplakia
HIV positive adult: superficial vascular proliferation with neutrophilic inflammation
HIV positive adult: chronic water diarrhea with acid fast cysts
cryptosporidium CD4 < 200
HIV positive adult: encephalopathy
JC virus, CD4 < 200
HIV positive adult: meningitis
cryptococcus, CD < 50
HIV positive adult: retinitis and esophagitis
CMV, CD4 < 50
EBV + HIV associations:
non hodgkin large cell lymphoma (often on oropharynx) and primary CNS lymphoma
HIV positive adult: cancer on anus
SCC, HPV, men who have sex with men
HIV positive adult: superficial neoplastic proliferation of vasculature with lymphocytic inflammation
HIV positive adult: pleuritic pain, hemoptysis, infiltrate
HIV positive adult: CD4 < 200, ground glass on imagine
HIV positive adult: pneumonia, CD4 > 200