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Flashcards in Microcytic anaemia Deck (8)
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what are the causes of microcytic anaemia?

- iron def (blood loss, dec absorption, inc demand, dec intake)
- thalassaemia
- sideroblastic anaemia (abnormal haem synthesis inherited or secondary to alcohol/drugs)
- lead poisoning


what are the presenting symptoms?

- non-specific: tiredness, lethargy, malaise, dyspnoea, pallor
- lead poisoning: anorexia, N&V, abdo pain, constipation, peripheral nerve lesions


what are the signs of microcytic anaemia?

- anaemia signs: pallor, brittle nails/hair, koilonychia
- glossitis
- angular stomatitis
- lead poisoning signs (blue gum line, peripheral nerve lesions, reduced consciousness, encephalopathy, convulsions)


what investigations should you do?

- FBC = iron def (low serum iron, high total iron binding capacity, low serum ferritin)
- blood film


how does iron deficiency appear on a blood film?

- macrocytosis
- hypochromic
- anisocytosis
- poikilocytosis


how does sideroblastic anaemia appear on a blood film?

- dimorphic blood film
- hypochromic
- microcytosis
- ring sideroblasts in bone marrow


how does lead poisoning appear on a blood film?

basophilic stippling


what is the management?

- iron def: oral iron
- sideroblastic anaemia: pyridoxine (inherited), blood transfusion, iron chelation
- lead poisoning: dimercaprol, D-penicillinamine