Flashcards in Micromodules: Gram negative Cocci Deck (23):
What are some common gram negative cocci Genus?
Chlamydiaceae family: Chlamydia, Chlamydophilia
Where do you find Neisseria species on the human body?
As commensals of the respiratory tract and the female genital tract
What are the two most important Neisseria species in regards to human disease, and which disease do they cause?
Neisseria meningitidis: causes meningococcal, meningitis and bacteraemia
Neisseria gonorrhoeae: causes gonorrhoea
What is the appearance of Neisseria species?
Gram negative (clearly)
Diplococci, some coccobacilli (shape between a sphere and a rod)
Why are members of the Chlamydiaceae not seen on a gram stain?
They lack a peptidoglycan wall
What type of parasite are the Chlamydiaceae family?
What disease does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?
What disease does Chlamydophilia pneumoniae cause?
Lower respitory tract infections:
Community acquired pneumonia
In which animal does Chlamydophilia psittaci originate from?
Birds/mammals, and causes parrot fever
What type of staining is used on Mycobacterium and why?
Ziel-Neelsen stain, because they have a thick cell wall with lots of mycolic acid. This also makes them hardy and resistant to drying
Which pathogen causes Tuberculosis?
What is the appearance of Treponema pallidum, what kind of pathogen is it and what disease does it cause?
It's a spirochaete which although gram negative, cannot be seen on gram stain as it is too thin. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen and causes Syphilis.
What is used to detect syphilis and why?
NAAT - nucleic acid amplification test. This used because of how long it takes to grow syphilis: about a month
How is veneral syphilis contracted?
Usually via direct skin or mucous membrane (anogenital most common) contact with someone who has first or second degree syphilis
What is a Chancre and where do you find them?
A chancre is a painless ulcer with firm, raised edges that is found at the site of inoculation of syphilis. It contains replicating spirochaetes and is infectious
How does second degree syphilis usually start and what are its systemic symptoms?
With a skin rash, usually on palms or soles of feet.
Systemic symptoms include fever, pharyngitis, alopaecia, weight loss, fatigue and muscle aches
How big are myco/ureaplasmas?
The smallest form of free-living life
What are the four antibiotics used to treat tuberculosis?
What are the three species of Mycoplasma we need to know about?
What disease do Mycoplasma pneumoniae cause?
Lower respiratory tract infections such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia (walking pneumonia because they don't appear toxic)
What disease does Mycoplasma hominis cause?
Chorioamnionitis and prem labour
Adverse pregnancy outcomes
Postpartum fever and post abortal fever
What disease does Mycoplasma genitalium cause, and where is it found?
Causes non gonnococcal urethritis in men
Causes cervicitis and PID in women