Micromodules: Gram negative Cocci Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micromodules: Gram negative Cocci Deck (23):
1

What are some common gram negative cocci Genus?

Neisseria
Moraxella
Chlamydiaceae family: Chlamydia, Chlamydophilia
Mycobacterium
Treponema
Mycoplasma/urea

2

Where do you find Neisseria species on the human body?

As commensals of the respiratory tract and the female genital tract

3

What are the two most important Neisseria species in regards to human disease, and which disease do they cause?

Neisseria meningitidis: causes meningococcal, meningitis and bacteraemia
Neisseria gonorrhoeae: causes gonorrhoea

4

What is the appearance of Neisseria species?

Gram negative (clearly)
Diplococci, some coccobacilli (shape between a sphere and a rod)

5

Why are members of the Chlamydiaceae not seen on a gram stain?

They lack a peptidoglycan wall

6

What type of parasite are the Chlamydiaceae family?

Obligate intracellular

7

What disease does Chlamydia trachomatis cause?

Trachoma (WHOOO)
Chlamydia

8

What disease does Chlamydophilia pneumoniae cause?

Lower respitory tract infections:
Bronchitis
Pharyngitis
Community acquired pneumonia

9

In which animal does Chlamydophilia psittaci originate from?

Birds/mammals, and causes parrot fever

10

What type of staining is used on Mycobacterium and why?

Ziel-Neelsen stain, because they have a thick cell wall with lots of mycolic acid. This also makes them hardy and resistant to drying

11

Which pathogen causes Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

12

What is the appearance of Treponema pallidum, what kind of pathogen is it and what disease does it cause?

It's a spirochaete which although gram negative, cannot be seen on gram stain as it is too thin. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen and causes Syphilis.

13

What is used to detect syphilis and why?

NAAT - nucleic acid amplification test. This used because of how long it takes to grow syphilis: about a month

14

How is veneral syphilis contracted?

Usually via direct skin or mucous membrane (anogenital most common) contact with someone who has first or second degree syphilis

15

What is a Chancre and where do you find them?

A chancre is a painless ulcer with firm, raised edges that is found at the site of inoculation of syphilis. It contains replicating spirochaetes and is infectious

16

How does second degree syphilis usually start and what are its systemic symptoms?

With a skin rash, usually on palms or soles of feet.
Systemic symptoms include fever, pharyngitis, alopaecia, weight loss, fatigue and muscle aches

17

How big are myco/ureaplasmas?

The smallest form of free-living life

18

What are the four antibiotics used to treat tuberculosis?

Isoniazid
Rifampicin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

19

What are the three species of Mycoplasma we need to know about?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma hominis
Mycoplasma genitalium

20

What disease do Mycoplasma pneumoniae cause?

Lower respiratory tract infections such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia (walking pneumonia because they don't appear toxic)

21

What disease does Mycoplasma hominis cause?

PID
Chorioamnionitis and prem labour
Adverse pregnancy outcomes
Postpartum fever and post abortal fever

22

What disease does Mycoplasma genitalium cause, and where is it found?

Causes non gonnococcal urethritis in men
Causes cervicitis and PID in women

23

WHat disease does Ureaplasma urealyticum cause?

Essentially the same as Mycoplasma hominis:
Chorioamnionitis, premature labour and adverse pregnancy outcomes, post partum and post abortal fevers
Non-gonnococcal urethritis in men

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