Micronutrients Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (48):
1

What are the four fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

2

What are the two water soluble vitamins?

B group and C

3

What are the different types of B group vitamin

B1, B2, B3, B12, Folic Acid

4

What is the function of vitamin A, and name some sources?

Is stored in the liver and is used for growth and development in the body

Is also used for eyesight and healthy skin

Is an antioxidant

Sources include carrots, sweet potatoes and spinach

5

What is the function of vitamin D, and name some sources?

Produced by the action of sunlight on the skin

Prevents bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis

Helps to keep good bones and teeth, and helps to heal broken bones

Sources include milk, butter, eggs and oily fish

6

What is the function of vitamin E, and name some sources?

Found in every cell in the body. Protects the body

Is an antioxidant

Forms red blood cells

Sources include sunflower oil, nuts and soya

7

What is the function of vitamin K, and name some sources

Makes blood clot normally

Maintains a good bone health

Sources include green leafy vegetables, cereals and vegetable oils

8

What is the function of vitamin B1, and name some sources?

Helps the nervous system work

Helps to release energy

Sources include liver, bread and dried fruit

9

What is the function of vitamin B2,and name some sources?

Helps the body to release energy

Keeps skin, eyes and nervous system healthy

Sources include chicken, yoghurt and rice

10

What is the function of vitamin B3,and name some sources?

Enables energy to be released from food in body cells during respiration

Sources include beef, maize and pork

11

What is the function of folic acid, and name some sources?

Reduces the risk of nervous system defects in unborn babies

Keeps healthy red blood cells

Sources include broccoli, brussel sprouts and fortified breakfast cereals

12

What is the function of vitamin B12, and name some sources?

Maintains nerve cells

Makes red blood cells

Processes folic acid

Sources include cheese, salmon and cod

13

What is the function of vitamin C, and name some sources?

Maintains healthy connective tissue

Helps wounds to heal and repairs body tissue

Sources include oranges, blackcurrants and potatoes

14

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin A?

Deficiency: Called night blindness - the failure to see in dim light

Excess: Retinol - can be poisonous in large amounts. Pregnant women cannot have it

15

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin D?

Deficiency: Rickets (bone bending)

Excess: Too much is stored, but is unlikely to have any problems

16

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin E?

Deficiency: Rare

Excess: Causes a loss of appetite

17

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin K?

Deficiency: May cause easy bruising and blood that takes longer to clot

Excess: Not enough evidence

18

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin B1?

Deficiency: Beri Beri - a muscle wasting disease

Excess: Rare unless on supplements

19

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin B2?

Deficiency: Rare. May cause skin problems like dry lips, and poor growth

Excess: No known side effects

20

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin B3?

Deficiency: Dermatitis and pellagra - skin conditions

Excess: No known side effects

21

What is the deficiency and excess of folic acid?

Deficiency: Increased risk of spina bifida in newborns

Excess: No known side effects

22

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin B12?

Deficiency: Most likely in vegans. Anaemia

Excess: No known side effects

23

What is the deficiency and excess of vitamin C?

Deficiency: Scurvy - swollen gums, severe joint pain and wounds fail to heal

Excess: Causes stomach pain and diarrhoea

24

What are micronutrients?

Vitamins and minerals

Are required in very small amounts, and are measured in either milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg)

25

How long can fat soluble vitamins be stored in the body for?

For months, or even years

26

Do fat soluble vitamins need to be eaten regularly?

No - they tend to stay in the body for a long time

27

Do water soluble vitamins need to be eaten regularly?

Yes - they tend to be lost from the body easily, such as in sweat or urine

28

How can water soluble vitamins be destroyed?

- Heat
- Air
- Sunlight
- Affected by enzymes

29

Give three ways in which you can reduce the loss of water soluble vitamins

- Blanching vegetables
- Avoid soaking in water
- Eat fruit and vegetables raw
- Use the cooking water to make a sauce
- Buy fruit and vegetables that are in good condition

30

What are antioxidants?

Antioxidants are vitamins A, C, E (ACE)

31

What are the functions of antioxidants?

All bodily functions produce substances called free radicals that can attack healthy cells

When free radicals are found in large amounts in the body, the healthy cells are weakened, and are more vulnerable to heart disease and certain types of cancer

Antioxidants help to protect healthy cells from damage caused by free radicals

32

What are the six different minerals (excluding water)?

Calcium, iron, sodium, fluoride, iodine, phosphorus

33

What is the function of calcium, and name some sources?

Helps to build strong bones and teeth, and controls muscle contractions such as heartbeat. Also ensures that blood cells clot normally

Sources include nuts, milks and oily fish

34

What is the function of iron, and name some sources?

Making red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. Is also important for brain development in young children

Sources include liver, beans and meat

35

What is the function of fluoride, and name some sources?

Helping to prevent tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel. Also supports bone health

Sources include fish where bones are included, tea and seafood

36

What is the function of iodine, and name some sources?

Making the hormone thyroxine, which maintains a healthy metabolic rate

Sources included sea fish, red meat and grains

37

What is the function of phosphorus, and name some sources?

Maintains the bones and teeth, and releases energy from food

Sources include dairy foods, brown rice and oats

38

What is the function of sodium, and name some sources?

Keeping the water level in the body balanced

Sources include smoked fish, bacon and cheese

39

What are three main function of water?

- Cooling the body
- Removing waste from the body
- Helping the body to use the food that we eat (water is essential in saliva)

40

How much water is needed per day?

The amount of water that is needed varies based on your age, diet, physical activity and climate

Most people drink around 2 litres, however water can be obtained from other sources such as tea, coffee and soft drinks

41

What happens if you are deficient in water?

Your body will become dehydrated. One of the first signs is thirst, but others include

- Dark urine / lack of urine
- Headaches
- Lack of energy
- Feeling light headed

42

What happens if you have too much water?

Many people think that there is no excess issues with water. Most do not recognise the line between being hydrated and having too much water

Called water intoxication. It is rare, and can only occur if many litres of water are consumed over a short amount of time

43

What is the deficiency and excess of calcium?

Deficiency: Rickets in children or osteoporosis in adults. Causes the softening of bones

Excess: Stomach pain and diarrhoea

44

What is the deficiency and excess of iron?

Deficiency: Iron deficiency anaemia. has symptoms of tiredness, dizziness and having a pale complexion

Excess: Harmful. Causes constipation, nausea and stomach pain

45

What is the deficiency and excess of sodium?

Deficiency: Muscle cramps

Excess: Increased blood pressure. Raised risk of a heart attack or stroke

46

What is the deficiency and excess of iodine?

Deficiency: Goitre - swelling of the thyroid gland. Rare in the U.K.

Excess: Thyroid problems. Weight gain

47

What is the deficiency and excess of phosphorus?

Deficiency: Unlikely - common in most foods

Excess: Reduced amount of calcium, which causes bone problems

48

What is the deficiency and excess of fluorine?

Deficiency: Tooth decay

Excess: Staining and pits develop in the teeth