Flashcards in "Microscopic Anatomy Male Reproductive Margaret Maimone" 4/6 Deck (36):
What is the endocrine function of the testes?
Produce steroid hormones, like testosterone
What is the exocrine function of the testes?
Spermatogenesis, produce spermatozoa
What is the serous sac covering the anterolateral surface of each testis?
Tunica vaginalis, has a parietal and visceral layer
Vessels and ducts pass through the ____ as they enter and leave the testis.
Mediastinum testis, no tunica vaginalis here
What type of epithelium is found in the seminiferous tubules?
Stratified germinal epithelium
What type of epithelium is found in the tubuli recti?
Sertoli cells and simple cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium is found in the rete testes?
Simple epithelium that varies from squamous to low columnar
What type of epithelium is found in the ductuli efferentis?
Scalloped, simple epithelium of alternating non-ciliated cuboidal cells and ciliated tall columnar cells
**only true cilia in the male reproductive system**
What type of epithelium is found in the ductus epidydymus
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What type of epithelium is found in the ductus deferens
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia,
surrounded by thick muscular layer
In spermatogenesis, what cells divide during the first meiotic division?
In spermatogenesis, what cells divide during the second meiotic division?
What morpholgical changes occur to the spermatid during spermiogenesis?
Conversion of spermatid to spermatozoa
No cell division
Spermatids are still attached to Sertoli cell membrane
Formation of acrosome occurs
Nuclear changes - nucleus condenses
Change in orientation so head is pointint towards basal lamina and tail is in lumen
Spermiation - late change in spermiogenesis
The release of spermatozoa from Sertoli cells is called:
Mitochondria are concentrated in what portion of spermatozoa?
Name 4 functions of Sertoli cells.
*Prominent nuceolus, extend from lumen to BM**
1. The blood-testis barrier occurs vis occluding junctions of Sertoli cells
2. Support, protect, give nutrients to developing sperm
3.Phagocytosis of residual bodies shed from spermatids and degenerate failing sperm
4. Secretion of testicular fluid for sperm transport, secretion of androgen binding protein
What is the function of Leydig cells?
Secrete steroid hormones, stimulated by LH
**may have lipofuscin in the cytoplasm**
What is the role of androgen binding protein?
It binds testosterone to trap it in the seminiferous tubules to promote sperm development.
What is cryptorchidism and why does it result in sterility if not corrected?
Failure of 1 or both testes to descend
Most of the testicular fluid is produced by:
List 4 functions of the epidydimus.
1. Maturation of sperm happens here
2. Reabsorption of testicular fluid
3. phagocytosis of remaining residual bodies and degenerating sperm
4. principal reservoir for mature sperm (tail)
5. contraction of smooth muscle layers in tail expel sperm during ejaculation
How can you differentiate the ductus deferens from the ductus epidydimis in cross section?
1.ductus deferens has a smaller lumen to muscle ratio
2. ductus deferens has layers of smooth muscle, and it only 1 cross section
3. ductus epididymis has many lumens, it's cleaner looking that the rete testes
4. ductus epididymis has stereocilia
5. ductus epididymis should have no smooth muscle
In which portion of the male reproductive system is the transport of sperm passive?
Passive from seminiferous tubules to efferent ductules
In which portion of the male reproductive system is the transport of sperm active?
Active from efferent ductules to urethra
Efferent ductules, sperm cannot yet swim, which is why there are cilia here.
Epidydimis, contractions by muscles move sperm along.
Secretions from what accessory gland are responsible for liquefying sperm?
Prostate, contains enzymatic fluid that liquefies semen
Fructose is a major component of the secretions from which accessory gland?
Secretions from what accessory gland play a role in lubricating the penile urethra?
Foremost: bulbourethral glands - discharges first during ejaculation fo lubricate urethra
Glands of Littre, small glands located along the length of the penile urethra
In what order are the secretions from the accessory glands released during ejaculation?
bulbourethral glands and glands of Littre
prostatic fluid and sperm
seminal vesicle fluid
What accessory gland contributes the greatest volume to semen?
Which zone of the prostate surrounds the urethra?
Which zone of the prostate surrounds the ejaculatory ducts?
Which zone of the prostate is the site of origin for most prostatic cancers?
Which zone of the prostate is the site of origin of BPH?
Transition zone, leading to obstruction of the penile urethra
What are the prostatic concretions?
Calcifications forming concentric condensations in lumen of glands
prostatic concretions frequently observed in lumen
increase with age
What is prostate-specific antigen (PSA)? Why does it increase with prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer cells overproduce PSA and release it into circulation
Dramatically increased early detection of prostate cancer
Increased levels alone are not diagnostic of cancer (needle biopsy required)