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Flashcards in Mid-sem exam Deck (132):
1

Functions of stereotypes:

To simplify / explain / justify the world

2

Why do stereotypes survive?

- Kernel of truth
- Legitimising function
- Socialisation
- Media
- Sub-typing
- Cognitive factors:
--- Assimilation & accentuation
--- Expectancies

3

What are stereotypes?

- Pictures in our head / images that spring to mind
- Things we believe of certain groups

4

Describe 'kernel of truth' in relation to stereotypes.

- Based on an element of truth (biological differences, status, history, culture, socialisation, desire for intergroup distinctiveness
- However, research shows that people's perceptions of the personality traits of the "typical person" in their culture and the actual traits (via self-report and observer ratings) correlated at .04.

5

Describe 'legitimising myths' in relation to stereotypes.

- Used by groups with high status / power to rationalise & reinforce outgroups with low status / power (e.g., men >> women)
- Used by low status / power groups to rationalise their position & protect their self-esteem (e.g., 30 ethnic groups in East Africa - the richer tribe in Kenya was described by other tribes as intelligent & progressive but also pushy & proud)

6

Describe Orinthians & Ackmians in relation to 'legitimising myths' in stereotypes.

- 2 hypothetic groups of aliens
- one group child raisers and the other city workers
- city workers seen as more agentic and child raisers as more communal, particularly when participants had to explain the difference (using stereotypes to justify)

7

Describe 'socialisation' in relation to stereotypes.

- Stereotypes survive through socialisation and learning (e.g., boys and girls are treated differently from birth; people interact in a more physical way with boy babies than with girl babies)

8

Describe 'media' in relation to stereotypes.

- Conspiracy by white males (not motivated to change)
- Unconscious
- Laziness
- Time savers
- Commercial considerations

9

What is face-ism?

- Men and women in media photographed differently
- Men: head and shoulders (facial prominence = ambition and intelligence)
- Women: full body (women valued for physical beauty rather than intellect)

10

Ethnic minorities in the media:

Depicted with smaller heads; associated with perceptions of dominance, cuteness, intellectual ability.

11

What is 'book-keeping' in relation to stereotypes?

Stereotypes change over time to adjust to reality.

12

What is 'conversion' in relation to stereotypes?

When counter-stereotypical info is dramatic enough, it causes a sudden change in attitudes.

13

Describe 'sub-typing' in relation to stereotypes.

Stereotype-inconsistent info produces a sub-type (e.g., SNAGs, career women) so over-riding stereotype becomes more complex but stereotype of subordinate group remains unchanged.

14

What is 'attributes' in relation to stereotypes?

Attributes are assigned to stereotypes or the opposite thereof (e.g., people changing a tyre - male success attributed to ability, while female success attributed to luck).

15

What are the two basic processes of categorisation in relation to stereotypes?

- Accentuation (differences are exaggerated)
- Assimilation (differences are minimised)

16

Describe the outgroup homogeneity effect.

Outgroup members are viewed more homogenously and less differentiated than ingroup members (they're all the same, but we're different).

17

Explanations for outgroup homogeneity effect?

- Familiarity: we know ingroup members better than outgroup members
- Abstractness: people represent categories in terms of their group (fuzzy prototypes) rather than as individuals

18

Describe the study of photos of black & white people, in relation to the familiarity explanation of outgroup homogeneity effect.

- Black & white Ps attempted to identify individuals in photos of both black & white people
- Ease of recognition: black people found it easier to identify black faces; white people >> white faces

19

Describe the study of nurses in relation to the familiarity explanation of outgroup homogeneity effect.

- Over time nurses saw less variability between themselves, i.e., the ingroup was seen to be more homogenous than the outgroup
- Explanation >> cohesiveness?
- This study is in contrast to B&W photos study

20

Does the outgroup homogeneity effect occur in minimal group situations?

Yes, occurs even when there is zero contact between individuals and members of either group.

21

What is meant by stereotypes as "expectancies"?

- People view behaviour through the lens of a stereotype
- Neutral or disconfirming info is perceived as confirming info

22

Describe the study of the photo of a woman sitting in a room in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Ps were told she was either a waitress or nurse
- Asked to recall items in the room
- Recalled items stereotypically related to her occupation

23

Describe the study of photos of men & women in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Men & women in photos were same height
- Ps rated men as taller even when told there were no height differences and even when cash incentive

24

Describe the study of the 9mth old baby in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Social psych class, half told baby was called Karen and the other half told Keith
- Keith was rated more athletic, noisy, active and rough than Karen

25

Describe the study of occupations & character traits in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Ps shown slides depicting a person in occupation (accountant / doctor / salesman) and list of traits
- Ps had to recall the pairings of traits & occupations
- Ps remembered traits in line with the stereotypes: accountant - perfectionist & serious; doctor - wealthy & attractive; salesman - talkative & busy

26

Describe the study of the black & white men arguing in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- White Ps saw film of black & white men arguing that degenerates into one person shoving the other
- Black person described as violent
- White person described as playful
- Same action viewed through different lens, based on 'kernel of truth'

27

Describe the police officer's dilemma computer game in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Ps have to decide whether to shoot or not
- Targets are either black or white, armed or unarmed
- Black targets shot more often than white targets
- Shooter's bias occurred for both black & white Ps

28

Describe the study of the girl in an academic test in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Ps told girl was wealthy or was deprived working class
- Ps had to rate her performance after viewing her perform on English & Math tests, or not viewing her performance
- Wealthy girl was rated as better performer
- Ps cited evidence from the ability test to support their conclusions
- Thus, stereotypes create an hypothesis that we test in a biased fashion, leading to false confirmation
- Confirmation bias: look for evidence to support your belief

29

Describe the skin-head study in relation to stereotypes as "expectancies".

- Ps shown photo of skin-head and asked to write essay describing his typical day
- Half told to avoid stereotyping; half told nothing
- Then all Ps shown photo of another skin-head and asked to write essay with no instructions
- Those who were initially told to ignore stereotypes wrote an even more stereotypical essay than other group
- Initial suppression resulted in a rebound effect when Ps were allowed to stereotype again

30

Name the 4 dimensions of cross-cultural values isolated in the the IBM study across 40 countries.

- Power distance: degree to which unequal power is accepted
- Uncertainty avoidance: planning for stability (rule following)
- Masculinity / femininity: valuing ambition / achievement versus harmony / caring
- Individualism / collectivism: identity determined by personal choices or collective

31

Name the values of individualist cultures.

- Independent control
- Goals for oneself
- Competition with others
- Uniqueness is valued
- Private self-knowledge
- Direct communication
- Consistent self in all situations
- Prefer to work alone

32

Name the values of collective cultures.

- Relational with group
- Sense of belonging
- Duty to group
- Harmony with others
- Advice sought from others
- Self alters according to context
- Hierarchy important
- Prefer working in groups

33

Collectivism vs Individualism parts of the world?

- Collectivism: South Americas, Africa, Asia
- Individualism: North Americas, Western Europe, Aust-NZ

34

Describe the findings of the study into the efforts of Chinese and US managers working on tasks.

- US managers performed better in individual tasks
- Chinese managers performed better in group tasks
- US managers displayed social loafing
- Chinese managers displayed social compensation

35

Describe the findings of the study into Israeli participants and problem-solving tasks.

- Half the Ps were from the city (individualist), the other from a kibbutz (collectivist)
- Half told being tested on individual achievement, the other half told it was an intergroup competition
- Were told they could ask for help, if stuck
- Collectivists asked for help in group task
- Individualists asked for help in individual task

36

Describe what happens when you ask people from collectivist and individual cultures about their values.

- Little differences arise
- Partly due to frame of reference effect: your own values, attitudes and behaviours are benchmarked against your own culture, ironing out cultural differences
- e.g., Korean kids rate themselves as worse at math than American kids

37

Describe the colour of pen choice study.

- Americans favoured the colour of pen that was least common
- East Asians favoured the most common colour of pen

38

Describe the study on how individualist and collectivist values leak out in advertising.

- In South Korea more ads emphasise themes of conformity ("building a harmonious society", "7 out of 10 people chose...")
- In the US more ads emphasise uniqueness ("choose your own view", "you're not everybody")

39

What happens when you're shown that there's 100% overlap of your characteristics with someone else?

Anxiety and a need to increase interpersonal difference.

40

Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

- Self-actualisation
- Esteem needs
- Belonging needs
- Safety needs
- Physiological needs

41

Balancing the need to be different with the need to belong.

- Self-perceiving loyalty without conformity
- Identifying with individualist groups
- Seeing self as more normative than others

42

Describe what is meant by self-perceiving loyalty without conformity.

- We identify selves as loyal, but not conformist
- Others identify us as equally loyal and conformist

43

Describe what is meant by identifying with individualist groups.

- Social identity theory: the more you identify with a group, the more you conform to the norms of that group
- Paradox occurs when the group prescribes individualist behaviour (e.g., the more someone identifies with being American, the more they describe themselves as individual

44

Describe what is meant by seeing self as more normative than others.

- Tendency to see self as more characteristic of your group than others in your group (first among equals); e.g., if group is based on co-operation, see self as more co-operative than others in your group
- Collectivists balance need to be different with need to show group loyalty be seeing themselves as more groupy

45

What has been noted in the increase of individuality since the 1970s (i.e., the cult of the individual)?

- People becoming increasingly solitary and disengaged with society
- Resulting in increased loneliness and breakdown of communal values
- Club membership and meetings down
- Union membership down
- Social visits down
- Entertaining out of fashion
- Family dinners less common
- Socialising less common

46

What is the difference between tight and loose cultures?

- The willingness to tolerate deviance
- Tight cultures have strongly enforced rules and little tolerance for deviance
- Loose cultures have few strongly enforced rules and greater tolerance for deviance

47

How does Gelfand explain why countries might be high or low on tightness?

More survival threats (less food, water, resources; more natural disasters and territorial threats) result in more cohesion
^^Could have evolutionary basis

48

What is meant by a culture of honour?

- Emphasis placed on honour, status and personal dignity (particularly for males)
- Even minor disputes are challenges to status and reputation
- Aggression is used to protect honour

49

Outline the cultural differences between the North and the South in the US.

- North: settled by farmers so livelihood not easily stolen; cooperation & community are adaptive; honour not paramount; insult says something about insulter
- South: settled by herders so livelihood easily stolen; independence & toughness are adaptive; honour is paramount; insult says something about self

50

Describe results of culture of honour study.

- Ps were white males from North or South
- Ps were bumped into and insulted by confederate
- South Ps had higher cortisol and testosterone levels (more stressed - took insult personally) and shook hands harder and played chicken for longer (acting like tough guys)

51

Describe the difference between holistic and analytic cultures.

- Holistic (Hindu, Buddhist, etc): +ve & -ve co-exist, with contradiction assimilated; world seen in state of constant change & flux; self is construed in a social context
- Analytic (Christian): +ve & -ve are opposites, in a state of hydraulic tension; world is steady or linear; self is defined as abstract from the social context

52

Describe the study into contradictory arguments provided to Chinese and American Ps.

- When provided with just one argument, both groups agreed on which was more plausible
- When provided with both statements at once, Americans continued to differentiate which was more plausible, while Chinese believed both statements could be true

53

What happened when people were culturally primed with the Eastern symbols (e.g., yin-yang symbol)?

People predict a greater likelihood of change in stock market trends and weather patterns.

54

Discuss culture and context.

- Easterners understand self as connected to the social context
- E.g., Japanese Olympic athletes use more emotion words when talking about relationships than American ones
- E.g., Japanese more likely to refer to others when describing their success
- E.g., Japanese more emotional at pictures with teammates, while Americans more emotional at pictures of self

55

Discuss culture and mental health.

- East Asian cultures report more negative affect (sadness, anxiety) and reduced life satisfaction / well-being than Western cultures
- However, prevalence of affective disorders (anxiety, social anxiety, mood disorders, depression) is actually lower in Asian nations
- I.e., Asian cultures self-report more unhappiness but studies show they are actually less sick than Westerners

56

Explain why the mental health differences between East & West might not be seen as real.

- Measures are culturally specific as they're developed in West (BUT interviews conducted culturally specific by culturally competent experts)
- Eastern stigma around mental illness, so under-reported (BUT no evidence of this)
- Western symptoms of the mind (intrapsychic) experienced as bodily symptoms (somatization) in the East (BUT only evidence is in China, and this is patchy at best)

57

Explain why the mental health differences between East & West are believed to be real.

- Norm in West is happiness, so failure to experience happiness leads to depression and anxiety
- Easterners have more modest notion of ideal, so have lower bar for perfection (Westerners want more happiness, pleasure, freedom, health, self-esteem, IQ, longevity
- Easterners better at managing negative emotions, so can experience sadness and anxiety without leading to clinical disorder
-Easterners experience mixed emotions, are more flexible and can regulate emotions; Westerners have +ve and -ve in competition
- Easterners less likely to see negative emotions as moral failing and can distance perspective from experience

58

What is the Black Sheep Effect?

Ingroup deviants are rated more harshly than outgroup members who behave the same way as their behaviour reflects badly on the group; they're seen as dislikable, incompetent, disloyal.

59

Describe the Black Sheep Effect in reference to the study regarding law students.

- Law students exposed to speech (good or poor) by either law student (ingroup) or philosophy student (outgroup)
- Good speech by ingroup rated higher than outgroup
- Poor speech by ingroup rated harsher than outgroup

60

Discuss kids and ingroup deviancy.

- Tendency to punish ingroup deviants get stronger as kids get older (more socially experienced and cognitively sophisticated)
- Irony: as kids can take perspective of others and empathise they are also more aware of expectations and consequences of fitting in (could explain why kids don't get nicer as they get smarter)

61

What is the implicit message of groups in classic social psychology?

- Groups are big & powerful, individuals are week & easily influenced
- E.g., Asche's conformity study; Milgram's obedience to authority; holocaust; Jonestown massacre

62

Describe Asche's conformity study.

- Asked to say which line is longer
- Confederates give obviously wrong answer
- 12% Ps over-ride own truth to conform
- 24% never conformed

63

Describe Milgram's obedience to authority.

- Ps asked to administer electric shocks to learners (confederates) who answered Qs incorrectly
- Learners in severe distress, mentioned heart condition, asked to stop, eventually silent
- Experimenter said to Ps 'the study requires that you continue'
- 63% delivered the maximum shock
- 37% insisted on stopping at some point
- when confederates refused to go all the way the Ps who gave the full shock dropped to 10%

64

When is normative influence strongest?

- When the attitude is of little importance (ppl with up costs of standing out & fitting in)
- More morally intense, the less ppl conform
- The more you're in a minority, the more you will speak up & crusade when the topic is important

65

What is disinhibitory contagion?

When one person steps away from the pack it can give others the courage to also deviate; snowball effect (conformity levels drop from 36% to <10% when on person "breaks the spell" - the power of one)

66

What are the stats in the bystander effect in relation to the smoke under door study?

- 80% investigate when alone
- 10% investigate when confederates do nothing

67

Describe study related to reading out insults to person doing an oral exam.

- 90% were obedient and read out insults when alone
- only 18% obeyed when with a principled objector

68

How do people view moral rebels?

- When moral rebels are helpful to a P they are rated as likeable, intelligent and dynamic
- When their stance makes a P look bad, they are rated negatively

69

Why are people defensive in the face of moral rebels?

- Imagined reproach: moral superiority; seen as moral slap in face to those who didn't rebel
- Validity of defiance: creates cognitive dissonance as you start to see the validity of their claims
- Reminder of freedom: people who had told themselves they had no choice but to go along with consensus are reminded that they were free to rebel all along

70

Outline Serge Moscovici's genetic model of minority influence to produce change.

- Influence is not unilateral but reciprocal: minorities and majorities influence each other
- Influence social change as well as social control
- Influence is related to conflict: people do not like conflict; minority exploits this by creating or drawing attention to conflict; only way to reduce conflict is for majority to change

71

How is consistency important to minorities when producing change?

- Must propose clear position to an issue & hold firm to it
- Consistency over time (diachronic)
- Consistency with the minority (synchronic)

72

What are the effects of a consistent minority?

- Disrupts the majority norm
- Draws attention to minority as an entity
- Draws attention to alternative viewpoint
- Demonstrates certainty & commitment to a point of view
- Highlights that the only solution to conflict is adoption of the minority viewpoint

73

Describe Moscovici's blue / green study.

- Ps in groups of 6, to name colours of slides
- 2 confeds in groups: consistent / inconsistent minority
- There was conformity to the minority, but only when it was consistent

74

Name some effective style factors of minorities that produce change.

- Investment: make personal sacrifices for the cause (Nelson Mandela)
- Autonomy: acting out of principle rather than ulterior motive (Galileo)
- Rigidity / flexibility: too rigid and risk being rejected as dogmatic; but too flexible and seen as inconsistent

75

Dual process model of influence - majorities.

- Direct public compliance
- Accepted passively w/o much thought
- Little / no private attitude change
- Short-term change
- Observed more on direct measures

76

Dual process model of influence - minorities.

- Indirect, latent, private change
- More enduring
- Delayed or indirect measures
- Cognitive conflict + thinking about ideas of minority
- Occurs through conversion and validation

77

What are dissenters?

- Ppl who don't conform to the group position in a small group discussion
- Often not well liked and face a lot of pressure to conform

78

Why do groups like harmony?

- Group locomotion: unanimity is desirable b/c it helps achieve our goals
- Social reality: dissent shatters the certainty and sense of what our world is like

79

When do deviants in a group face more rejection?

- When group facing a deadline
- When group discussion is carried out in a noisy versus a quiet environment
- Sheer energy to discuss / process deviant position becomes too much in above circumstances
- So dissent is more likely to be indulged when group is relaxed and under little pressure

80

Outline incidents where dissent could have stimulated divergent thinking, integrative complexity and better outcomes.

- Collapse of Enron: organisational silence; lack of dissent in face of crazy decision making
- Bay of Pigs fiasco: if one senior advisor had opposed the plans, Kennedy would have cancelled it
- Decision to escalate Vietnam War: familiarity led to harmony, even in disagreement
- Challenger disaster: open communication was discouraged through direct pressure and self-censorship
- Most successful top management teams in Fortune 500 companies encourage dissent in private meetings

81

What are the antecedents and symptoms of poor decision-making by groups?

- Antecedents: excessive cohesiveness; insulation of group from outside; lack of impartial leadership; ideological homogeneity; high stress from external threats
- Symptoms: feelings of invulnerability; unanimity; belief that group is right; info contrary to beliefs is ignored or discredited; dissidents pressured into conforming
- E.g., Robert Kennedy told group member to conform in Bay of Pigs fiasco; top brass joking about position of enemy immediately before Pearl Harbour

82

According to Packer's normative conflict model, which people are most likely to dissent?

Those who care a lot about the group (high identification) and feel as though its norms have become suboptimal (high normative conflict).

83

Describe how criticism is seen as good and bad?

- Good: brings unrecognised problems to light; acts as catalyst for growth & change
- Bad: is threatening; promotes defensiveness, mistrust, hurt, denial

84

When will criticism be taken in a constructive way and when will it be taken in a negative way?

- Constructive from ingroup
- Negative from outgroup
- It's ok when we say it, but not when you say it

85

Describe the intergroup sensitivity effect.

- Strong defensiveness in the face of outgroup criticisms
- Surprisingly high levels of tolerance toward ingroup criticism

86

Describe the criticism of maths-science students study.

- Criticism of maths-science student either came from ingroup (maths-science students) or outgroup (social-science students)
- Ingroup critics seen as more likeable and agreed with
- Outgroup critics seen as more negative

87

Define credentialing.
Does it help mediate the intergroup sensitivity effect?

- Outsiders try to demonstrate the experience they have of the group they're criticising.
- No evidence for this.

88

Define spotlighting.
Does it help mediate the intergroup sensitivity effect?

- Outsiders say their comments only apply to a subset of the group they're criticising.
- No evidence for this.

89

Define sweetening.
Does it help mediate the intergroup sensitivity effect?

- Outsiders attach praise to the criticism.
- Mixed results: helps likeability a lot; helps agreement a little; doesn't help negativity at all.

90

Define argument quality.
Does it help mediate the intergroup sensitivity effect?

- Outsiders use evidence and high quality arguments.
- No evidence for this.

91

What is the attributional bias explanation in relation to the intergroup sensitivity effect?

- Outsider comments have destructive motives
- Insider comments are constructive

92

What implications should outgroup critics consider in order to be listened to?

It's not enough to be knowledgeable, experienced or even right; need to defuse expectation that they are motivated by destructive reasons.

93

What evidence is there that the intergroup sensitivity effect can be overcome?

Outgroup member should:
- Use inclusive language that locates them as a member of a shared superordinate ingroup
- Acknowledge failings of own group at the same time as criticising the group

94

Why is it important for ingroup critics to establish their credentials?

- If ingroup critic is strongly committed then their criticism will be accepted
- If ingroup critic is not strongly committed then their criticism will be rejected same as an outgroup critic

95

Outline differences of ingroup criticism of newcomers vs oldtimers.

- Oldtimers: criticism received; know they care; proved credentials
- Newcomers: criticism may not be received; don't know if they care yet; haven't proved commitment to group yet
- E.g., allied health professional criticism study: oldtimer criticism agreed with, while newcomer criticism viewed same as outgroup (nurse) criticism

96

Outline the 3 step model for appraising / accepting criticism of the group.

1. Appraisal of motives: is critic being constructive - if no, reject criticism, if yes go to step 2
2. Appraisal of message: is criticism justified - if no, reject, if yes go to step 3
3. Acceptance of the critic and the message

97

Outline the strategic responses to criticism.

- Ppl tend to be more defensive than they really are when they think other ppl are listening, particularly people with high status in their group
- Study re criticism of social sciences, given by ingroup & outgroup critics; led to believe either agreement was private, heard by low status or high status group members

98

What are the overall takeaways from the lecture on deviance, dissent & criticism?

- Group leaders will over-estimate support for status quo
- Ingroup critics will underestimate level of support for status quo
- Dynamics surrounding ingroup criticism might be reason for organisational silence
- It's in leaders' interests to promote a culture where ppl feel they can give negative feedback w/o fear of consequence

99

List terms for ostracism.

- Silent treatment
- Cold shoulder
- Exiling
- Blackballing
- Shunning
- Ghosting
- Ex-communication

100

Where does the term ostracism stem from?

- Ostrakismos
- Athens, 488BC
- Used to remove those with dictatorial ambitions from the democratic state

101

List places where ostracism is used.

- Amish: mediung is most sever form of punishment, no-one can talk or eat with offender, not even family
- Most ethnic groups
- Adults to punish kids (time out)
- Kids to punish adults
- Kids to punish other kids (from age 6)
- To punish whistle-blowers and dissenters
- Solitary confinement in prison
- Primates use it too

102

What is the % of ostracism used by Americans on / by loved ones.

- 75% have received silent treatment
- 67% have administered it

103

Effect of ostracism on perpetrators?

Ostracisers had more depressed mood and less persistence on problem-solving and physical tasks (compared to control group); gave up easier due to mental strain.

104

Effect of ostracism on victims?

Changes sense of self; describe self as withdrawn, shy, alone.

105

Describe ball-tossing paradigm and effects.

After just a few mins of being ignored by strangers:
- Men tried to look indifferent (blank face)
- Women looked crushed and depressed
- Both genders reported
-- lower moods, self-esteem, sense of belonging
-- reduced control over life, meaningfulness of life
-- heightened awareness of death

106

Describe cyber-ostracism and effects.

- Cyber ball-toss game
- Same effects as IRL ball-toss
- Effects continue even when told game has been programmed not to include

107

Describe how the negative reaction to ostracism could be a hard-wireded evolutionary response.

- Prehistoric times: rejection from group could mean death, so we've evolved to be hyper-vigilant to signs of exclusion
- Research has shown that cyber-ostracism causes same part of brain to light up as when experiencing physical pain; i.e., social pain and physical pain in same part of brain (further research disputes this)

108

Are there gender differences in responding to ostracism?

- Men more likely to attribute ostracism to personality of the ostraciser (it's them not me)
- On subsequent tasks after tests of ostracism women work extra hard (social compensation) while men bludged (social loafing)

109

Outline two other standard manipulations of social rejections (other than ostracism), and their effects.

- Future alone: given feedback from standardised test that you will die alone
- Group formation: told that you're the least liked person in group of strangers
- People demonstrate: increased risk-taking & procrastination; reduced self-regulation; lower scores on IQ tests; more likely to choose chair w/ back to mirror; cognitive deconstruction (meaninglessness, lethargy, altered perception of time, avoidance of self-focused attention)

110

Discuss rejection and emotional numbness.

- Experience own emotional numbness and numbness to emotions of others; less emphatic >> considered to be an analgesic response, like physiological symptoms reducing after you stub your toe

111

Describe sociometer theory.

- Self-esteem is a measure of whether you feel accepted or rejected by others
- Just like physical pain signals you need to attend to a physical wound, low self-esteem flags that you need to work harder to build acceptance with others

112

Discuss personal insight in relation to feedback from others (study re live feedback while public speaking).

- Ppl spoke publicly, given live feedback while speaking
- When they were made to feel bad the rated others more negatively
- Made no difference whether ppl said they did / didn't care in advance
- Ppl have no personal insight

113

Discuss ostracism and dehumanising.

- Ostracised ppl dehumanise others: potential for revenge; made burgers with very spicy sauce for ppl who didn't like spicy sauce; lashing out at strangers
- Ostracised ppl dehumanise self: potential for depression and meekness
- Literature is mixed: sometimes lash out, sometimes don't; sometimes withdraw from group, sometimes work harder to please group (latter true for high identifiers)

114

Discuss rejection and aggression.

- Ps told others don't like them and likely to not be accepted throughout life >> displayed increased interpersonal aggression to strangers via long & loud bursts of white noise
- Study of 15 school shootings in US in the 1990s: in 13 out of 15 acute or chronic rejection experiences were present

115

Where did social psychology begin?

William Wundt >> folk psychology >> social psychology

116

What was much of psychology dedicated to proving b/t 1880s & 1920s?

Inferiority of blacks and women

117

`Why was prejudice not really seen as a topic of interest in the late 1800s / early 1900s?

It was just accepted way of life; if it's there all the time you don't really notice it

118

How was psychology used in WWII?

- Applied problems: interventions, propaganda to overcome revulsion of killing others, action research, boosting morale, commitment to war effort
- After WWII & holocaust, Adorno studied 'what kind of people would do this' and Milgram studied 'what kind of situation could cause this'

119

Discuss the effect of Gordon Allport's book (1950s) about prejudice.

- Template for prejudice research for decades after
- US Supreme Court ruled against segregated schools that perpetuated prejudice and intolerance

120

What triggered psychological studies after the Korean War?

US panicked research into supposed Chinese brain-washing techniques.

121

Describe the socialisation process into a group.

- Both individual and group want it
- Individual must assimilate to group norms
- Real nature of group becomes apparent
- Newcomers have low status; not listened to
- Honeymoon period

122

List 3 strategies newcomers may use when joining a group.

1. Playing role of newcomer
2. Seeking patrons in group
3. Public displays of groupy behaviour

123

What is involved in playing role of newcomer in a group?

- Anxious (implies that you care)
- Passive (quieter & less involved in group activities)
- Conform (less innovative, avoid disagreements)
- Dependent on oldtimers
(Proving ppl prove selves to group norms overtime, more permission they have to stray from group norms down the track)

124

What is involved in seeking patrons in a new group?

Oldtimers help newcomers fit in:
- Models: newcomers observe them
- Trainers: formally given job of teaching newcomers
- Sponsors: brought person into group so responsible
- Mentors: close professional relationship

125

What is involved in public displays of groupy behaviour?

- Oldtimers defend the group regardless of context
- Newcomers defend group more when others are watching, particularly high status ingroup members
- Noel et al (1995) had active members & pledges rate a rival sorority: pledges were +ve about outgroup in private but -ve about them in public (faking hostility to prove credentials), while active members were consistent about views in both public & private

126

List types of hazing / initiation ceremonies.

When a new member joins a group it is typically marked by a ceremony that sometimes involves a physically stressful or embarrassing initiation.
- Beatings
- Exposure to cold
- Thirst
- Eating unsavoury food
- Punishment
- Threats of death

127

Discuss cognitive dissonance in relation to joining a group where hazing is involved.

- Change behaviour: leave the group, thus weeding out the uncommitted
- Change attitude: convince self we must really want to be in group otherwise wouldn't accept the bad treatment

128

Discuss cognitive dissonance of Aronson & Mills (1959) study of college women and discussions of sex.

- Women told to hear group discussion on sex: undergo mild embarrassment test, severe embarrassment test, no test
- Subsequent discussion was boring
- Both discussion and discussants were rated more +ve when given severe embarrassment (rationalise by saying it was worth it)

129

Discuss cognitive dissonance of Gerard & Mathewson (1966) study of college women and electric shock to join group discussion.

- Either mild or painful electric shock required to join group or shocks but not related to joining
- Severe pain initiation made group much more attractive

130

Discuss elements of severity-attraction hypothesis.

- More intense pain >> group more attractive
- High-order ritual >> higher charitable giving
- More intense pain >> higher giving
- Desensitising to violence to become more violent

131

Discuss long-term effects of severity-attraction hypothesis.

- Longitudinal studies of ppl joining sororities suggest negative effects of hazing
- Retrospective accounts showed severity of initiation associated with loneliness, frustration, depressed mood >> flowed through to lower group attraction

132

List possible explanations / purpose of acceptance of hazing / initiation.

- Ritual is intrinsically good: ppl like it
- Socialisation: know your place; newcomers
- Basic training: learn or leave
- Degradation: need for affiliation
- Schadenfreude: perverse form of justice
- Sadistic (no evidence for this)
- Shared dysphoria: bonding
- Common fate
- Dome of silence
- Fun