Flashcards in Mid-term 1 Deck (85):
the capacity for discovery, whether of facts, insights, or self-awareness
the inherent power of language itself to motivate, captivate, and injure
the ability to turn or direct human thought (persuasion)
This man was a poet
In ancient greece, poems were ___________
What city is rhetoric as a systematic discipline traced back to
Who taught rhetoric in Syracuse
On what island was rhetoric taught as a systematic discipline
Sicily and by corax
Who ruled Syracuse
Why did Corax begin teaching people about rhetoric in Syracuse
Because after Hieron died, people needed to know how to make their cases to gain ownership once again to their lands
Where and in what way did Corax's teachings spread
A model for Athens
This was the form of government in Athens
Why did Athenians have a strong focus on educating the youth
They are expected to actively participate in daily affairs of legislature
In Athens, what were men taught
literature, music, gymnastics, democracy, public speaking/rhetoric
Why did Sophists come to Athens
They promised to provide training in rhetoric
Who are the Sophists
itinerants teachers that taught rhetoric
What separated the Sophists from other teachers
They would provide it to any family that could afford it, not just the aristocracy
What does Sophists translate to
what is the latin term for argumentation
techné of logos
what is the latin term for a sophist that taught speechwriting
What are the three ways in which the sophists taught that competence was gained?
natural ability, training, practice
What is the latin term for education for the masses
What is another word for virtue
inventing arguments for or against a proposition: what kind of teaching method am I ?
contradictory arguments against any claim: What kind of teaching method am I?
Appropriateness or timeliness: What kind of teaching method am I?
memorizing and reciting the speeches of famous orators: what kind of teaching method am I?
Gorgias of Leontini
one of the earliest and most famous orators and teachers of rhetoric
nothing exists, if anything exists, we could not know it, if we could know it, we would not be able to communicate it
who boasted that he could persuade anyone of anything at anytime
Who regarded persuasion as an "art of deception"
Who claimed that advocacy of rhetoric was based on its "ability to make men slaves by persuasion, not force"
Who considered rhetoric to be magical or supernatural, a king of incantation
Who taught emphasis on speaking styles
to say one thing and mean another: What kind of speaking style am I?
analogy, repetition of words: What kind of speaking style am I?
use of balanced clauses: What kind of speaking style am I?
antithesis: What kind of speaking style am I?
transposing word order in parallel clauses: What kind of rhetorical device am I?
JFK Inauguration: Ask not what your country can do for you, rather ask what you can do for your country: This is an example of what rhetorical device
switching the order of elements in adjacent clauses: What kind of rhetorical device am I?
Kennedy: "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate" This is an example of what rhetorical device
Placing opposed ideas near one another: What kind of rhetorical device am I?
MLK: "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character" This is an example of what rhetorical device
Who was important to developing the philosophy underlying rhetorical practices
Who said" "Man is the measure of all things, of things that are not, that they are not, of things that are, that they are"
Who was the first person to systems the eristic argument or contrived disputes with no goal other than victory (debates)
Who taught a practical approach to reasoning
Who said that an argument prevails only when "it has been tested by and withstood the attacks of the opposite sides"
Who taught that contradictory arguments are possible on every issue
Who was a native Athenian that taught rhetoric, but disapproved of the sophists
Who was a famous teacher, but not a speaker
why couldn't Isocrates speak well to audiences
He had a weak voice
Who charged a lot of money for his teaching
Who maintained that virtue (Arete) could not be taught
Who said: "Let no one suppose that I claim just living can be taught; for I hold that there does not exist an art of the kind that can implant sobriety and justice in depraved natures"
Isocrates thought the essence of rhetoric was what?
sound arguments, thematic and pragmatic
who set a high moral standard for students
what did Isocrates believe separated humans from wild beasts?
the human's ability to persuade
Isocrates believed that there was no ________ ______________ which the power of speech did not help build
Who was one of the only women in ancient Greece who had a bearing on the development of rhetoric
Women were ____________ from citizenship and prohibited from making speeches
Who was Aspasia's companion in 5 BCE
Plato's teacher, believed in Philosophy and the search for Truth, distrusted Athenian democracy, was hostile towards the Sophists, and skeptical about rhetoric as a true art, believed there is a difference between true knowledge (episteme) and "mere belief" (pistis), rhetoric substitutes true knowledge for mere belief in the swaying of public opinion, he is concerned that Sophists such as Gorgias teach justice without any understanding of justice.
He is one of the most important philosophers of ancient Greece, he was a student of Socrates, the most important and famous philosopher of all time.
In his dialogues, Socrates is the protagonist, believed the purpose of philosophy was the search for Truth, and the process of dialectic or the Socratic Method was the means by which ideas and issues were examined until Truth was finally revealed; philosophy was the only real path to knowledge
Found in Plato's The Phaedrus, he was a Sophist and famous orator that gave a speech on love; the main argument of his speech is that the nonlover is to be preferred over the lover.
He was Plato's most famous pupil, educated at Plato's Academy, he was trained in the Socratic dialectic and to believe that Philosophy and the search for Truth was the most noble art and the highest calling one could pursue, he studied and wrote on the arts, sciences, politics, and on rhetoric, his "On Rhetoric" is arguably the most important of the classical works that survive from Ancient Greece, he began to question some of Plato's teachings, particularly his teachings on rhetoric, in fact, the opening line of On Rhetoric is a direct shot at Plato's teachings on Philosophy. The first sentence in Aristotle's "On Rhetoric" claims that "Rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic," to say that rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic is to say that it is equal to philosophy as an art or academic discipline.
Decisions about Athenian policy were made by this, a body made up of citizens chosen by lot. Meeting perhaps 40 times each year, this listened to speeches on a wide range of topics; gaining and holding attention of this several hundred-member body involved considerable rhetorical skill
The Athenian Assembly (legislature)
A belief or opinion; also mere opinion
A line of argument
Plato's term for true knowledge
The study of human character; the persuasive potential of the speaker's character and personal credibility; on of Aristotle's three artistic proofs
The study of arguments; one of Aristotle's three artistic proofs; an account, or a clear and logical explanation a word or an argument
The study of psychology of emotions; one of the three artistic proofs of Aristotle
A rhetorical syllogism; an argument built from values, beliefs, or knowledge held in common by a speaker and an audience
The kind of speaking characteristic of public ceremonies such as funerals or events commemorating war heroes
A "speaker of words and a doer of deeds"
Homeric idea of a leader
Rhetoric is planned
Rhetoric is adapted to an audience
Rhetoric reveals human motives
Rhetoric is responsive/response-inviting
Rhetoric seeks persuasion
Rhetoric addresses contingent issues
Characteristics of Rhetoric
Ideas are tested
Advocacy is assisted
Power is distributed
Facts are discovered
Knowledge is shared
Communities are built
Social Functions of Rhetoric
A professional speech writer