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Flashcards in Mid-term 1 Deck (85):
1

the capacity for discovery, whether of facts, insights, or self-awareness

heuristic

2

the inherent power of language itself to motivate, captivate, and injure

eristic

3

the ability to turn or direct human thought (persuasion)

protreptic

4

This man was a poet

Homer

5

In ancient greece, poems were ___________

spoken

6

What city is rhetoric as a systematic discipline traced back to

Syracuse

7

Who taught rhetoric in Syracuse

Corax

8

On what island was rhetoric taught as a systematic discipline

Sicily and by corax

9

Who ruled Syracuse

Hieron

10

Why did Corax begin teaching people about rhetoric in Syracuse

Because after Hieron died, people needed to know how to make their cases to gain ownership once again to their lands

11

Where and in what way did Corax's teachings spread

A model for Athens

12

Greek city-state

Polis

13

This was the form of government in Athens

democracy

14

Why did Athenians have a strong focus on educating the youth

They are expected to actively participate in daily affairs of legislature

15

In Athens, what were men taught

literature, music, gymnastics, democracy, public speaking/rhetoric

16

Why did Sophists come to Athens

They promised to provide training in rhetoric

17

Who are the Sophists

itinerants teachers that taught rhetoric

18

What separated the Sophists from other teachers

They would provide it to any family that could afford it, not just the aristocracy

19

What does Sophists translate to

wisdom

20

what is the latin term for argumentation

techné of logos

21

what is the latin term for a sophist that taught speechwriting

logographos

22

What are the three ways in which the sophists taught that competence was gained?

natural ability, training, practice

23

paideia

What is the latin term for education for the masses

24

arete

What is another word for virtue

25

inventing arguments for or against a proposition: what kind of teaching method am I ?

dialectic

26

contradictory arguments against any claim: What kind of teaching method am I?

dissoi logoi

27

Appropriateness or timeliness: What kind of teaching method am I?

kairos

28

memorizing and reciting the speeches of famous orators: what kind of teaching method am I?

memory

29

Gorgias of Leontini

one of the earliest and most famous orators and teachers of rhetoric

30

nothing exists, if anything exists, we could not know it, if we could know it, we would not be able to communicate it

skeptical philosophy

31

who boasted that he could persuade anyone of anything at anytime

Gorgias

32

Who regarded persuasion as an "art of deception"

Gorgias

33

Who claimed that advocacy of rhetoric was based on its "ability to make men slaves by persuasion, not force"

Gorgias

34

Who considered rhetoric to be magical or supernatural, a king of incantation

Gorgias

35

Who taught emphasis on speaking styles

Gorgias

36

to say one thing and mean another: What kind of speaking style am I?

Allegoria

37

analogy, repetition of words: What kind of speaking style am I?

Catachresis

38

use of balanced clauses: What kind of speaking style am I?

Parisosis

39

antithesis: What kind of speaking style am I?

Apostrophe

40

transposing word order in parallel clauses: What kind of rhetorical device am I?

antimetabole

41

JFK Inauguration: Ask not what your country can do for you, rather ask what you can do for your country: This is an example of what rhetorical device

antimetabole

42

switching the order of elements in adjacent clauses: What kind of rhetorical device am I?

chiasmus

43

Kennedy: "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate" This is an example of what rhetorical device

chiasmus

44

Placing opposed ideas near one another: What kind of rhetorical device am I?

antithesis

45

MLK: "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character" This is an example of what rhetorical device

antithesis

46

Who was important to developing the philosophy underlying rhetorical practices

Protagoras

47

Who said" "Man is the measure of all things, of things that are not, that they are not, of things that are, that they are"

Protagoras

48

Who was the first person to systems the eristic argument or contrived disputes with no goal other than victory (debates)

Protagoras

49

Who taught a practical approach to reasoning

Protagoras

50

Who said that an argument prevails only when "it has been tested by and withstood the attacks of the opposite sides"

Protagoras

51

Who taught that contradictory arguments are possible on every issue

Protagoras

52

Who was a native Athenian that taught rhetoric, but disapproved of the sophists

Isocrates

53

Who was a famous teacher, but not a speaker

Isocrates

54

why couldn't Isocrates speak well to audiences

He had a weak voice

55

Who charged a lot of money for his teaching

Isocrates

56

Who maintained that virtue (Arete) could not be taught

Isocrates

57

Who said: "Let no one suppose that I claim just living can be taught; for I hold that there does not exist an art of the kind that can implant sobriety and justice in depraved natures"

Isocrates

58

Isocrates thought the essence of rhetoric was what?

sound arguments, thematic and pragmatic

59

who set a high moral standard for students

Isocrates

60

what did Isocrates believe separated humans from wild beasts?

the human's ability to persuade

61

Isocrates believed that there was no ________ ______________ which the power of speech did not help build

human institution

62

Who was one of the only women in ancient Greece who had a bearing on the development of rhetoric

Aspasia

63

Women were ____________ from citizenship and prohibited from making speeches

banned

64

Who was Aspasia's companion in 5 BCE

pericles

65

Plato's teacher, believed in Philosophy and the search for Truth, distrusted Athenian democracy, was hostile towards the Sophists, and skeptical about rhetoric as a true art, believed there is a difference between true knowledge (episteme) and "mere belief" (pistis), rhetoric substitutes true knowledge for mere belief in the swaying of public opinion, he is concerned that Sophists such as Gorgias teach justice without any understanding of justice.

Socrates

66

He is one of the most important philosophers of ancient Greece, he was a student of Socrates, the most important and famous philosopher of all time.
In his dialogues, Socrates is the protagonist, believed the purpose of philosophy was the search for Truth, and the process of dialectic or the Socratic Method was the means by which ideas and issues were examined until Truth was finally revealed; philosophy was the only real path to knowledge

Plato

67

Found in Plato's The Phaedrus, he was a Sophist and famous orator that gave a speech on love; the main argument of his speech is that the nonlover is to be preferred over the lover.

Lysias

68

He was Plato's most famous pupil, educated at Plato's Academy, he was trained in the Socratic dialectic and to believe that Philosophy and the search for Truth was the most noble art and the highest calling one could pursue, he studied and wrote on the arts, sciences, politics, and on rhetoric, his "On Rhetoric" is arguably the most important of the classical works that survive from Ancient Greece, he began to question some of Plato's teachings, particularly his teachings on rhetoric, in fact, the opening line of On Rhetoric is a direct shot at Plato's teachings on Philosophy. The first sentence in Aristotle's "On Rhetoric" claims that "Rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic," to say that rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic is to say that it is equal to philosophy as an art or academic discipline.

Aristotle

69

Decisions about Athenian policy were made by this, a body made up of citizens chosen by lot. Meeting perhaps 40 times each year, this listened to speeches on a wide range of topics; gaining and holding attention of this several hundred-member body involved considerable rhetorical skill

The Athenian Assembly (legislature)

70

A belief or opinion; also mere opinion

doxa

71

The people

demos

72

Mere belief

pistis

73

A line of argument

Topoi

74

Plato's term for true knowledge

episteme

75

The study of human character; the persuasive potential of the speaker's character and personal credibility; on of Aristotle's three artistic proofs

ethos

76

The study of arguments; one of Aristotle's three artistic proofs; an account, or a clear and logical explanation a word or an argument

logos

77

The study of psychology of emotions; one of the three artistic proofs of Aristotle

pathos

78

A rhetorical syllogism; an argument built from values, beliefs, or knowledge held in common by a speaker and an audience

enthymeme

79

Courtroom speaking

forensic

80

The kind of speaking characteristic of public ceremonies such as funerals or events commemorating war heroes

Epideictic

81

A "speaker of words and a doer of deeds"

Homeric idea of a leader

82

Rhetoric is planned
Rhetoric is adapted to an audience
Rhetoric reveals human motives
Rhetoric is responsive/response-inviting
Rhetoric seeks persuasion
Rhetoric addresses contingent issues

Characteristics of Rhetoric

83

Ideas are tested
Advocacy is assisted
Power is distributed
Facts are discovered
Knowledge is shared
Communities are built

Social Functions of Rhetoric

84

A professional speech writer

Logragophos

85

The city-state, particularly the people making up the state

polis