Mid Term #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mid Term #2 Deck (58):
1

Nocturnal

Organisms that are awake and active during the night.

2

Diurnal

Organisms that are normally awake and active during the day.

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Rhinarium

Moist, naked surface around he nostrils of the nose in MOST animals

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Preadaptation

An organism using an anatomical feature in a way that’s unrelated to the features original function

5

Power Grip

Basically the grip you have when you grab a hammer.

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Precision Grip

Basically the grip you have when you pick up a coin with the tips of your fingers

7

Tooth Comb

Anterior teeth, that are tilted forward, creating a scraper

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Y-5

Hominoids pattern of lower molar cusps. Has a Y-Shape.

9

Loph

Enamel ridge connecting cusps on a tooth’s surface

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Sectoral

A premolar made for sharpe cutting. looks like a dagger tooth

11

Olfactory Bulb

The anterior portion of the brain associated with hearing and smelling

12

Primitive Characteristics

Characteristics present in multiple species of a group

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phylogeny

The evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.

14

Prehensile Tails

A tail that acts as an extra hand, common in new world monkeys

15

Habituate

the process of animals becoming accustomed to humans observing them.

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Polygynous

Social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offsprings.

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Polyandrous

Social group that includes one female, several males, and their offsprings

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Monogamous

Social group that includes a male, a female, and their offspring.

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Infanticide

The killing of an offspring to mate with the mother

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Sexual Selection

The traits needed to mate with the opposite sex. Ex. the bigger and stronger the gorilla, the easier it is to mate with a female.

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Altruistic

a behavior that benefits others while being a disadvantage to the individual

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Kin selection

Altruistic behaviors that are used with relatives

23

Strata

layers of rock, that tell periods of time

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Taphonomy

The study of what happens to an organisms remains.

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Sedimentary

A rock formed through layers of sediments, or strata

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Eras

Major divisions of geological time that are divided into periods and then subdivided into epochs.

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Epochs

Divisions of periods in geological time.

28

Paleozoic

First major era. fish, reptile, and insects appear

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Mesozoic

Second major era. Ex. dinasours

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Cenozoic

The 3rd era till present day. mammals, primates, and humans

31

Pangaea

When all continents were together before spreading.

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Tectonic

The tectonic plates or whatever.

33

Stenos Laws of Superposition

The lower the layer of ground, the older it ages. so the youngest areas are on top.

34

Biostratigraphic Dating

Think about mammoths. First appearance, to evolutionary change, then extinction.

35

Index Fossils

Fossils of one species, from different regions. to determine the age of strata

36

Cultural Dating

Dating method in which you base it off of material remains.

37

Dendrochronology

Tree rings to determine how old a tree is

38

RadioCarbon Dating

A radio metric dating method in which the ratio of Carbon14 to Carbon12 is measured to give an absolute date of a material younger than 50,000 years

39

Radio-potassium Dating

Radiometric dating method in which the ration from K40 to Ar40 is measured to provide an absolute date for a material older than 200,000 years

40

Amino Acid Dating

An absolute dating method for organic remains, measured by the change in amino acid structure

41

Paleomagnetic Dating

Absolute dating method based on earths magnetic field

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Electron Spin Resonance Dating

Absolute dating method electron spins. idk complicated

43

Thermoluminescence Dating

Energy trapped in the martial is measured when the object is heated

44

C3 and C4 Plants

C3 plants include trees, bushes, and shrubs. C4 plants include grasslands and tropical forests.

45

Arboreal Hypothesis

Primates main distinction is from living in trees

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Visual Predation Hypothesis

The hypothesis that primates adapted to preying on insects and small animals.

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Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis

Hypothesis that certain primate traits, like visual acuity, happened bc of availability of fruit and flowers following the spread of angiosperms

48

Adapis

Euprimates of the Eocene that were likely ancestral to modern lemurs and anthropoids.

49

Omomyids

Eocene euprimates that may be ancestral to tarsiers

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Euprimates

The first true primates from the Eocene: the tarsier like Omomyids and the lemur-like Adapids

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Proprimates

Fake first primates in the paleocene era, PLESIADAPIFORMS!

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Basal Anthropoids

Eocene primates that are the earliest anthropoids.

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Oligopthecids

Earliest Anthropoids ancestors in the Oligocene

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Aegyptopithecus

Ancestral to the catarrhines

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Proconsul

Early miocene species. ancestral to catarrhines

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Dryopithecids

Early miocene apes found in various locations in europe.

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Sivapithecus

Ancestral to orangutans.

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Gigantopithecus

Huge ancestral to orangutans