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Which of the following is NOT a descriptive research method?

experimental method

1

A case study is a(n)____in which ___ is/are studied in depth, over along period of time.

descriptive research method; one or a few individuals

2

In survey research a ______ should be used to help to avoid a biased sample.

random sample

3

Lorna, a sports psychologist,devised a new therapy technique aimed at helping basketball players make a higher percentage of their free throws. To test out her technique, she had 50 male basketball players participate in the study.She followed the rules for the experimental method to a tee. Lorna was delighted to see that the group who learned the therapy technique showed a largeincrease in free throw percentage,whie the other group showed no change. Loma concluded that based on her research,the new therapy technique would increase free throw percentages for all basketball players. What error did Lorna just make?

She used a biased sample.

4

What two pieces of information can be gathered from looking at the correlation coefficient?

The direction and the strength of the relationship betweenthe two variables

5

When examining the correlation coefficient in correlational research,which of the following indicates the strength of the relationship?

the number

6

In correlational research,sometimes the variables are strongly related.How is this relationship expressed by the correlation coefficient?

The correlation coefficient will be closer to 1.

7

In correlational research,sometimes research shows the variables are not related. How is this expressed by the correlation coefficient?

The correlation coefficient will be a close to 0

8

Which of the following would likely have a negative correlation?

use of sunscreen and sunburn

9

Which of the following correlation coefficients is most likely to reflect the relationship between low calorie intake and overallweight loss?

-.80

10

In which of the following research methods can researchers establish the cause of a particular behavior?

experiments

11

Why is the experimental method considered the gold standard in research?

It allows researchers to infer cause and effect.

12

In the experimental method, the _____ is sometimes referred to as the treatment.

Independent variable

13

The variable that the experimenter changes,or manipulates, in an experimental method is referred to as the ______.

Independent variable

14

The variable that is measured in the end of an experimental method is referred to as the ____.

Dependent variable

15

In the experimental method, participants who experience the independent variable are a part of the _____ group.

experimental

16

A confounding variable is ____.

a variable that can creep up Into the study and potentially throw off the results.

17

When a researcher somehow influences participants' responses and/or behaviors, even though the researcher may not consciously aware of it,______has occurred.

Experimenter bias

18

Travis has spent most of his career studying treatments for depression. When he finally gets a chance to test out the new treatment he has spent the last five years creating, his colleague suggests he use a double-blind technique. Travis should

thank his colleague for helping him to avoid experimenter bias.

19

Motivation is defined by psychologists as

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

20

A complex ,unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)

An instinct

21

A need refers to

A physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.

22

Fora thirsty person,drinking water serves to reduce _____

a drive

23

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

24

Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?

dehydration

25

On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star ontheir helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of

incentives

26

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of

Boredom.

27

The most basic orlowest-levelneedin Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

Food and water

28

Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as

self-transcendence needs.

29

According to Maslow,our need for must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ____.

adequate clothing; self-esteem

30

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are

sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.

31

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to

Facilitate the reliability of a diagnosis

32

A generalized anxiety disorderis characterized by

a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

33

In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder,panic disorderis characterized by periods of distress that are

more intense and less prolonged.

34

Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of

Agoraphobia

35

Sadie is so fearfulof being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and gettinglostIn a crowd terrifies her,so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear,she earns her living as a freelance writer,working at home. Sadie's behavior is most characteristic of

agoraphobia

36

The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of

OCD

37

Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ____ on compulsive behaviors.

Reinforcement

38

Being highly imaginative Is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of

openness.

39

People are especially likely to demonstrate an Increase in ___during their twenties.

conscientiousness

40

Unlike country,pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical,jazz. blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as

openness.

41

The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the Interactive influences of our traits and our

situations.

42

According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism Involves multidirectional influences among

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events

43

Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work, the studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates

an external locus of control

44

In thelong run,people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in

self-control.

45

Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks develope

learned helplessness

46

Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is

biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.

47

Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the
mechanism known as

Denial

48

Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term

inferiority complex.

49

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of

self-determination.

50

Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for

self-actualization

51

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow,are LEAST likely to be highly

Conforming

52

According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own feelings are demonstrating

genuineness.

53

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward

unconditional positive regard.

54

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of

Conscientiousness

55

Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of

neuroticism.

56

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet

lost interest in sex and social activities.

57

The set point is

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most aduIts over long periods of time.

58

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by psychological as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term

Settling point

59

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her

Personality

60

Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms

made no neurological sense.

61

Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be

preconscious.

62

Psychoanalysis refersto the personality theory and therapeutic practices developed by

Sigmund Freud

63

Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ____ principle.

pleasure

64

According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the

superego.

65

Compulsive hand washing relieves anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ____ on compulsive behaviors.

reinforcement

66

Obsessive thoughts typically ____ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically____anxiety.

increase; decrease

67

A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a

somatoform disorder.

68

The prominent feature of mood disorders Is the experience of

emotional extremes.

69

A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by

feelings of personal worthlessness.

70

In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?

Bipolar

71

During the manic phase of bipolar disorder,individuals are most likely to be _____.

overactive

72

Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?

social-cognitive

73

The term psychopath has been used to refer to an individual with

antisocial personality disorder.