Flashcards in Mid Term Deck (74):
Which of the following is NOT a descriptive research method?
A case study is a(n)____in which ___ is/are studied in depth, over along period of time.
descriptive research method; one or a few individuals
In survey research a ______ should be used to help to avoid a biased sample.
Lorna, a sports psychologist,devised a new therapy technique aimed at helping basketball players make a higher percentage of their free throws. To test out her technique, she had 50 male basketball players participate in the study.She followed the rules for the experimental method to a tee. Lorna was delighted to see that the group who learned the therapy technique showed a largeincrease in free throw percentage,whie the other group showed no change. Loma concluded that based on her research,the new therapy technique would increase free throw percentages for all basketball players. What error did Lorna just make?
She used a biased sample.
What two pieces of information can be gathered from looking at the correlation coefficient?
The direction and the strength of the relationship betweenthe two variables
When examining the correlation coefficient in correlational research,which of the following indicates the strength of the relationship?
In correlational research,sometimes the variables are strongly related.How is this relationship expressed by the correlation coefficient?
The correlation coefficient will be closer to 1.
In correlational research,sometimes research shows the variables are not related. How is this expressed by the correlation coefficient?
The correlation coefficient will be a close to 0
Which of the following would likely have a negative correlation?
use of sunscreen and sunburn
Which of the following correlation coefficients is most likely to reflect the relationship between low calorie intake and overallweight loss?
In which of the following research methods can researchers establish the cause of a particular behavior?
Why is the experimental method considered the gold standard in research?
It allows researchers to infer cause and effect.
In the experimental method, the _____ is sometimes referred to as the treatment.
The variable that the experimenter changes,or manipulates, in an experimental method is referred to as the ______.
The variable that is measured in the end of an experimental method is referred to as the ____.
In the experimental method, participants who experience the independent variable are a part of the _____ group.
A confounding variable is ____.
a variable that can creep up Into the study and potentially throw off the results.
When a researcher somehow influences participants' responses and/or behaviors, even though the researcher may not consciously aware of it,______has occurred.
Travis has spent most of his career studying treatments for depression. When he finally gets a chance to test out the new treatment he has spent the last five years creating, his colleague suggests he use a double-blind technique. Travis should
thank his colleague for helping him to avoid experimenter bias.
Motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
A complex ,unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)
A need refers to
A physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.
Fora thirsty person,drinking water serves to reduce _____
Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as
the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
Which of the following is clearly NOT an example of an incentive?
On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star ontheir helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of
The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of
The most basic orlowest-levelneedin Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
Food and water
Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as
According to Maslow,our need for must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ____.
adequate clothing; self-esteem
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.
DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to
Facilitate the reliability of a diagnosis
A generalized anxiety disorderis characterized by
a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.
In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder,panic disorderis characterized by periods of distress that are
more intense and less prolonged.
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
Sadie is so fearfulof being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and gettinglostIn a crowd terrifies her,so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear,she earns her living as a freelance writer,working at home. Sadie's behavior is most characteristic of
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
Compulsive hand washing often increases in frequency because it relieves feelings of anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ____ on compulsive behaviors.
Being highly imaginative Is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
People are especially likely to demonstrate an Increase in ___during their twenties.
Unlike country,pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical,jazz. blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the Interactive influences of our traits and our
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism Involves multidirectional influences among
behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work, the studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
an external locus of control
In thelong run,people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks develope
Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is
biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.
Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the
mechanism known as
Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow,are LEAST likely to be highly
According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own feelings are demonstrating
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward
unconditional positive regard.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet
lost interest in sex and social activities.
The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most aduIts over long periods of time.
Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by psychological as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms
made no neurological sense.
Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be
Psychoanalysis refersto the personality theory and therapeutic practices developed by
Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ____ principle.
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
Compulsive hand washing relieves anxiety. This best illustrates the impact of ____ on compulsive behaviors.
Obsessive thoughts typically ____ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically____anxiety.
A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a
The prominent feature of mood disorders Is the experience of
A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
feelings of personal worthlessness.
In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder,individuals are most likely to be _____.
Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?