Flashcards in Mid Term #3 Review Deck (56):
What was the approximate population of the world in 1000 AD?
What was the capital of Spain in 1000 AD?
Leif Eriksen and what group were very proficient at sailing to far away lands and colonizing them?
The Norse (Vikings)
The first princes of Russia were what?
Where did Mongols generally come from and when did they emerge?
Modern-day Mongolia (just above China), around the 12th/13th centuries
What animals were very important and highly used (especially for transportation of goods and messages) among the Mongols?
What was the #1 cause of death among Mongol leaders?
Cirrhosis of the liver
How did Mongols instill fear in their enemies?
Use of ugly physical appearance, lack of cleanliness, inverted mullet hairstyle.
What important tool/weapon did Mongols develop?
A composite crossbow made of horn and sinew that was accurate up to 500 yards.
What was Genghis Khan's method of invading and ruling cities?
Try to kill as many people as he could, use psychological warfare, capture a city, loot it, and then leave.
Kublai Khan focused on developing what qualities in Mongolia?
religious tolerance, artistic freedom, better infrastructure
What factors determined life expectancy in ancient times?
Gender, class, etc.
How was the Pneumonic Plague spread?
airborne: through coughing/breathing// it was a respiratory illness
What was the main/quickest way the Pneumonic Plague was stopped from spreading?
Through quarantining people.
How much of the population died from the Pneumonic Plague?
What were some of the outcomes/improvements made in the aftermath of the plague?
New Ordinances and New Statutes calling for better pay and better labor conditions.
What is the significance of the Lewis Chessmen (Scotland, 1150-1200 AD)?
Highlights the culture of the area, depicts the gender roles of the time with women having less power.
What is the significance of the Jade Dragon Cup (Samarkand, 1417-1449)?
On it is inscribed a saying that highlights that the ruler is related to Genghis Khan. Shows a combination of different cultures.
What is the significance of the David Vases (China, 1351 AD)?
Exemplifies the popularity of the Chinese pottery in Europe and Asia. Europeans interpreted it as "typical Chinese pottery." First serious spread of porcelain pottery.
What is the significance of the Codex Map (Mexico, 1550-1600 AD)?
The Spanish essentially replace the top elite indigenous people in the area, the natives are creating a map of their experiences.
What is the significance of the Tughra of Suleiman (Turkey, 1520-1566 AD)?
Depicts Turkish culture of the time.
What is the significance of Hoa Hakaanai'a (Rapa Nui, 1000-1200 AD)?
This was the last area of the world to be settled. The Polynesians were able to island hop to the Island.
What is the significance of the Bucksin Map (North America, 1774-1775)
How different indigenous, native peoples understood themselves and their relations with foreigners and each other.
What is the significance of the Inca Llama (Peru, 1400-1550)?
Symbolized the desire to get all the silver and g old out of the land. Depicted the importance of Llamas to the Incas; they sacrificed these animals, they used them for transport, they helped to contribute to the success of the empire.
What is the significance of the Feather Helmet (Hawaii, 1700-1800)?
Hawaii had a very elite social structure including religious and political leaders that made for a very effective rule. Settlers realized that Hawaii had similar social structure and organization to the rest of the world.
What is the 1349 Ordinance?
Refers to the "Black Death" and the Plague; a reaction in England against the dramatic drop in population. There was no work population; created new laws that put a baseline on what type of payments, hours per week, and types of labor that was allowed. First sort of protection laws for workers.
What are Flagellants?
The Flagellants existed prior to the Black Death, but really ballooned in population during the Black death. They were people that travelled in groups and tried to float themselves into God's favor and prevent future outbreaks of the plague.
What is Angkor?
A powerful, central city in Southeast Asia.
What is the Black Death?
A disease that arrived from Central Asia that traveled by boat to Sicily and Genoa, thenw within a year essentially travels clockwise across Europe.
What is Cahokia?
A civilization that still exists today outside St Louis; a North American example of an indigenous society being very elaborate and having a very advanced civilization with somewhat large population. Exemplifies how Spanish settlers brought disease that decimated the Native American population.
What is Chinampa?
Area around lakes built near Mexico city; very fertile.
What is Chinese Exceptionalism?
A theory that historians use to promote Europe as the center of world history. The suggestion that Europe was ahead of all places at all times, but the Chinese are an exception to that. China didn't take advantage of the ideas and technology and lead that it had early on; this promotes the idea that Europe was way out in front.
What is Devsirme?
Ottoman empire; also known as levy. The government would go out and tax local communities in recruiting the best and brightest males they could find, they would be brought in and educated in the best schools in the empire's capital, this is how the Ottoman Empire staffed their bureaucracy and their soldiers.
What is Great Divergence?
The theory that around 1500 that Europe began to modernize and jump ahead of the rest of the world, diverging from other civilizations and taking the lead in technology and other ideas. Eurocentric idea that Europe is surpassing the rest of the world.
What are the Incan roads?
Highlights the success of the Incan Empire. Inca was an impressive South American kingdom. These roads linked the civilization from North to South, a sign of success.
Who was James Cook?
The leader of the Age of Exploration; the first European to arrive in Hawaii, New Zealand, and several other civilizations.
What is Janissary?
From the Ottoman Empire; an elite fighting force. Uses the recruits from the Devsirme. These tactics weren't based on standard military organization.
What is Kamikaze?
The Japanese words meaning Divine Wind; in this instance refers to soldiers of Kublai Khan mounting ships and having the bad luck of running into typhoons.
What is Khmer?
Khmer is the major city in Angkor. Part of a large empire in Southeast Asia.
What is Kumiss?
Fermented Mare's Milk, a favorite Drink of the Mongols.
What is Kurlitai?
The meeting that is held when the Mongols select a new leader.
Who is Mehmet II?
One of the earlier Ottoman sultans; the guy who finally conquered Constantinople and made it the capital of the ottoman empire.
Who is Mimar Sinan?
The master Architect under Suleiman. Was behind many public works, most famous for the Suleimani Mosque that was supposed to eclipse the Hagia Sophia.
What is the Ming Dynasty?
Chinese dynasty founded in 1366; the first dynasty that followed the Mongols.
Who were the Norse?
Vikings around the year 1000.
What is Pestis Puerorum?
Meant "the childhoods disease" because so many children died from the Black Plague.
What is the Pristine Myth?
One of the ideas that holds up the notion of European dominance in the age of exploration; suggests that North America was this pristine area awaiting European exploration. The area was pristine because of the disease the Spanish brought that killed natives before the rest of Europe arrived.
Who is Kublai Khan?
The grandson of Genghis Khan; conquered southern China.
What is Shangdu?
The Mongol capital. More of a tent city because the Mongols weren't' big on "big" cities. the city that Marco Polo traveled to and visited.
Who is Suleiman?
Given many different titles; ruler at the high point of the Ottoman Empire.
What is Tenochtitlan?
The capital of the Aztec empire; modern day Mexico city.
What is the Treasure Ship?
The largest vessels during the Ming Dynasty that were sent out on expeditions.
What is Tumen?
From the Mongol Empire; the largest unit of 10,000 men in the Mongol Army.
What is Tupaia?
A Tahitian navigator; traveled with James Cook but died as a result of contracting an Old World Disease. Used Polynesian navigating techniques.
What is Wayfinding?
Essentially a synonym for Pacific Islander navigation techniques.