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Flashcards in Mid Term Deck (97):
1

Diseases are often categorized into what 2 categories according to the causes?

infectious and non-infectious

2

What kind of diseases are caused by non-living agents?

non-infectious

3

What kind of diseases are caused by living agents?

infectious

4

What is a microorganism?

living organisms that are microscopic in size

5

Can microorganisms be unicellular or multicellular?

they can be both

6

Microbes have the capacity to reproduce at a rapid rate under what kind of conditions?

favorable

7

What are the 2 broad groups of microbes?

saprophytes and pathogens

8

Saprophytes are the ______

good guys

9

Pathogens are the _______

bad guys

10

Saprophytes are what?

important for survival

11

Pathogens do what?

cause disease

12

Saprophyte organisms aide all higher forms of life in what?

utilization

13

Pathogens are what?

parasitic

14

What is the first line of defense against pathogens?

the skin

15

What is the second defense against pathogens?

antibodies and/or phagocytes

16

What are phagocytes?

the cells that ingest microorganisms or other cells

17

What happens when the defenders fail?

invading organisms overpower the body

18

Who provides habitat and food for the parasite?

the host

19

Who always does some degree of damage?

the parasite

20

What are the most successful groups of parasites today?

protozoa, helminths, and arthropods

21

Control of parasitism should begin before what?

obvious clinical signs appear

22

How may animals appear when parasitism occurs?

unthrifty, poor haircoat, poor appetite, dehydration, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness, pale mucus membranes

23

how do endoparasites damage their hosts?

absorb food intended for the host, sucking blood and lymph from host, damaging tissues which may lead to internal bleeding, creating mechanical obstructions, produces toxic substances, providing entry for infectious organisms, altering RBC shape and function

24

How do ectoparasites adversely affect their hosts?

by damaging and irritating the skin, sucking blood, creating excitement, restlessness and nervousness by their presence, transmitting infectious organisms

25

What is a direct life cycle?

only one definitive host and may have a free-living stage

26

What is a indirect life cycle?

with one definitive host and one or more intermediate hosts. They may also have a free-living stage

27

What kind of life cycle does a protozoa have?

both direct and indirect

28

What kind of life cycle do cestodes have?

Indirect. Nearly always have one or more intermediate hosts

29

What kind of life cycle do nematodes have?

have both types of life cycles and usually four molts to become adults

30

What are incidental parasites?

individuals of a species that wander to unusual places in the normal host

31

What are the main groups of endoparasites?

nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, protozoa

32

What are nematodes?

roundworm or helminths

33

What are cestodes?

tapeworm

34

What are trematodes?

flukes

35

What are the two main groups of arthropods?

arachnids and insects

36

What are some intestinal nematodes?

large roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms

37

What is the scientific name for whipworm?

Trichuris vulpis

38

What animals does Trichuris vulpis affect?

canine and feline

39

What life cycle does Trichuris vulpis have?

direct

40

Where are Trichuris vulpis found?

large intestine and caecum

41

What do Trichuris vulpis do to the host?

consume blood

42

How long is Trichuris vulpis prepatent?

6 weeks to 3 months

43

How are "colic" situations created in horses?

internal parasites

44

What is Parascaris equorum?

horse roundworm

45

Where do Parascaris equorum inhabit?

small intestine

46

What kind of life cycle does Parascaris equorum have?

direct

47

What are some clinical signs of Parascaris equorum in foals?

decreased growth and debilitation, sometimes death

48

What can adult horse roundworms cause?

intestinal obstruction or rupture

49

What do foals exhibit when they have roundworms?

rough hair-coat and "pot belly"

50

How can you control Parascaris equorum?

de-worm pregnant mares, manure disposal, do not overcrowd

51

What are some nematodes (the strongyles) of the Equine?

Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus, Strongylus edentatus

52

Where do "Strongyles" inhabit?

the cecum and small intestine

53

Why are strongyles sometimes called bloodworms?

they ingest blood creating dark colored adult worms

54

What kind of life cycle do strongyles have?

direct

55

When do strongyle larva develop?

to infective third stage on pasture

56

What is critical for strongyle larva survival?

moisture and warmth

57

How are strongyles transmitted?

through ingestion of the third stage larval while grazing

58

Which strongyle is the most pathogenic of the group?

Strongylus vulgaris

59

What are trichostrongyles?

stomach worms

60

What is Haemonchus contortus?

twisted stomach worm, wire worm, barber pole worm

61

What does Haemonchus contortus inhabit?

abomasum and consumes blood

62

what kind of life cycle do Haemonchus contortus have?

direct

63

What are some clinical signs of Haemonchus contortus?

unthrifty, weight loss, "bottle jaw"

64

What is Nematodirus spp?

"thread-necked" worm

65

What does Nematodirus spp inhabit?

small intestine of ruminant

66

What are some clinical signs of Nematodirus spp?

decreased appetite and decreased weight gain, diarrhea and dehydration, death in lambs

67

What is Ctenocephalides felis?

Flea

68

What happens in stage 1 of Ctenocephalides felis?

1/3 of population in owners home and female lays eggs daily

69

What happens in stage 2 of Ctenocephalides felis?

57% of population are larval, caterpillar-like, grazing on "flea dirt", stage at which pick up tapeworm eggs

70

What happens in stage 3 of Ctenocephalides felis?

most young fleas have been killed off, only 8% make it to this stage

71

What happens in the final stage of Ctenocephalides felis?

they wait until they detect a nearby host

72

How do fleas detect a host?

vibrations, carbon dioxide, sound, light and heat

73

How long can fleas live unfed?

months

74

How long can fleas live without a host?

a few weeks

75

When do female fleas begin to produce eggs?

within 24-28 hours

76

What is FAD?

Flea Allergy Dermatitis

77

What should you do before FAD can be cured?

eliminate fleas

78

What is Dipylidium caninium?

tapeworm

79

What is Otedectes cynotis?

mites

80

Are mites arachnids or insects?

arachnids

81

Where do mites live?

on surface of the ear canal skin

82

What animals are mites found?

cats, dogs and rabbits

83

What are some symptoms of mites?

dark waxy deposits and exudate in the ear canal, irritation, inflammation

84

What may result from mites?

secondary bacterial infections

85

How long after mite eggs are laid do they hatch?

4 days

86

What are some concerns with ear mites?

hematoma, partial hearing loss, self-trauma and disfigurement

87

The time between invasion by a parasite and the recovery from the host of some new stage in the development of the parasite. The presence of the parasite within the host is difficult or impossible to detect

Prepatent period

88

The time during which the presence of the parasite in the host can be detected by laboratory methods

Patent period

89

The propensity of a parasite to infect only one given species of host. The parasite can exist in only one specific species

Host Specificity

90

-osis

a word termination denoting a process, especially of a disease

91

-iasis

a process of the condition resulting therefrom, especially of a disease

92

-asis

denoting a state or condition

93

-esis

denoting a state or condition

94

-sis

signifying a state or condition

95

The organism that harbors the sexual (adult) stage of the parasite

definitive host

96

An organism that alternates with the vertebrate host and harbors the asexual (immature) stages of the parasite

intermediate host

97

No development of the parasite occurs in this host

transport host