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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (97):
1

autonomic nervous system

controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands
part of the PNS

2

sympathetic

arousing autonomic system

3

parasympathetic

calming autonomic system

4

somatic nervous system

controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles
part of the PNS

5

cranial nerves

nerves emerging from the base of the brain
part of the PNS

6

cell body

cell's life-supporting center

7

dendrites

receive messages from other cells

8

axon

passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

9

neural impulse

electrical signal traveling down the axon

10

myelin sheath

covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

11

terminal branches of axons

form junctions with other cells

12

synapses

the point of contact between two neurons where info is passed form one neuron to another

13

axon hillock

cell body-axon junction

14

motor neuron

a neuron that sends messages from the spinal cord to a muscle

15

ligand

anything that binds to a receptor

16

action potential

the discharge of electricity that moves down the axon at a very fast rate

17

threshold of excitation

value of potential at the axon hillock that must be reached to generate an action potential

18

graded potential

sub-threshold changes in the membrane potential, the magnitude of which is related to the strength of the stimuli

19

depolarization

a change in the electrical charge in the positive direction from the resting state

20

hyperpolarization

a change in the electrical charge in the negative direction from the resting state

21

G protein coupled receptors

other proteins become subunits on the inside of the cell
usually used to cause protein synthesis or change in the internal environment of the cell
indirect, slow, long acting

22

agonists

molecules that bind to the receptor and mimic the ligand

23

antagonists

molecules that block the ligand

24

hippocampus

structure in the medial temporal lobe involved in memory consolidation

25

hormone

a chemical substance produced by the body and transported in the blood stream to a target organ

26

hypothalamus

controls motivated behavior (four Fs)

27

dopamine

neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention and emotion

28

serotonin

neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal

29

norepinephrine

neurotransmitter involved in alertness and arousal

30

GABA

major inhibitory neurotransmitter implicated in eating and sleep disorders

31

acetylcholine (AcH)

neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions, learning and memory

32

endorphins

natural opiate-like neurotransmitter

33

neocortex

elaboration of sensory and motor functions, cognition, and language

34

forebrain

high human level functioning

35

midbrain

where most neurotransmitters are produced and receive sensory info

36

hindbrain

autonomic actions

37

medulla

controls vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate, vomiting, sneezing, etc.

38

pons

contains nuclei or some of the cranial nerves
the level at which left/right mapping of the body switches

39

cerebellum

fine motor control and coordination

40

white matter

myelinated axons

41

gray matter

cell bodies and axons without myelin

42

reticular formation

descending portion controls certain motor functions in the spinal cord
ascending portion sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention in one brain area or another

43

limbic system

memory and emotion

44

cerebrum

the portion of the brain that sits on the brain stem

45

cerebral cortex

the layer of neural tissue covering the cerebral hemispheres of humans and other mammals

46

fissure/sulcus

grooves in the brain

47

gyrus

convolution or folds in the brain

48

corpus callosum

part of the brain that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres

49

association areas

where we integrate and decide

50

Broca's aphasia

failure to produce language

51

Wernicke's aphasia

speaking fluid nonsense

52

alpha

resting frequency in the brain

53

replicative senescence

aging out of cell division
starts kicking in around age 30 in some tissues

54

antagonistic plieotropy

mechanism helpful at one point in life and hurtful at another

55

fovea

cone dense area of the eye

56

presbyopia

as the lens loses elasticity with age, it becomes more difficult to focus on near objects

57

cataracts

blurred vision

58

macular degeneration

destroys central vision
leading cause of blindness in the US

59

glaucoma

loss of peripheral vision

60

outer ear

pinna, auditory canal, external ear structure

61

middle ear

eardrum/tympanic membrane, ossicles, alleus/incus/stapes

62

inner ear

cochlea

63

presbycusis

a structural breakdown in the cochlea

64

tinnitus

ringing in the ears

65

atherosclerosis

vessel wall of lumen thickening due to cholesterol and inflammation

66

arteriosclerosis

hardening of medium and large arteries, fibrosis and calcification

67

arrhythmia

natural pacemakers in the heart are out of sync

68

macrophages

scavenger receptors to capture LDL and ingest them

69

endocrine system

cells and tissues that produce a variety of hormone

70

menopause

age related change in the endocrine system and results in a reduced production of estrogen and progesterone

71

osteoporosis

dramatic loss of bone density

72

osteopenia

significant loss in calcium and reduced bone density but without the risk of fractures
pre-osteoporosis

73

memory

persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of info

74

working memory

conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info and of info retrieved from long-term memory

75

explicit/declarative memories

conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing

76

implicit/non-declarative memories

form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track

77

semantic memory

memory for facts

78

episodic memory

memory for events

79

amygdala

emotion-related memory formation

80

long-term potentiation (LTP)

increasing a synapse's firing potential

81

priming

unconscious activation of particular associations in memory

82

misinformation effect

when a memory has been corrupted by misleading info

83

imagination effect

when repeatedly imagining fake actions and events can create false memories

84

source amnesia/misattribution

faulty memory for how, when, or where info was learned or imagined

85

dementia

a memory problem that is a symptom of several diseases

86

delirium

confusion

87

sundowning

short term delirium in relation to circadian rhythm

88

compression of morbidity

pushing problems off until your deathbed unlike spending decades suffering

89

plaques

amyloid beta formation out of APP

90

tangles (tau)

the protein that makes up microtubules

91

oligomers

little accumulations of small proteins that combine into plaques

92

insulin

beta eyelet cells in the pancrease

93

apnea

cessation of breathing while sleeping

94

REM

rapid eye movement

95

circadian rhythm

the individual's cycle of sleeping and waking within a 24 hour period

96

glial cells

supportive cells that assist in neural communication

97

sacropenia

slow inevitable decline of muscle mass