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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (110):
1

what are the unifying themes

1. Laws of Chemistry and Physics
2. Relationship between genotype and phenotype 3. Physiology is matched to its environment
4. Relationships between structure and function
5. Homestasis- feedback and control

2

What is Kroghs principle

For every biological system, there is an organism on which is can be studied.
ex. drosphila, squid giant axon

3

Function of all living things

1. Respond to environmental changes
2. Adaptability
3. Growth and reproduction
4. capable of some degree of movement
5. life functions require energy

4

What are the two Chemisty laws

Thermodynamic and Kinetics

5

What is Adaptation

Process of evolution through natural selection over many generations of altering allelic frequencies leading to better characteristic which match the environment

6

What is Homeostasis and how is it controlled

Maintaining internal conditions while external conditions change.
Positive and negative feedback loops

7

What is a positive feedback loop?

Initial stimulus changes response to enhance change in original condition. ex. blood clotting

8

what is Negative feedback loop?

Maintaining things like temperature, pH, hormones

9

Four tissue types of tissue

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and Nerve

10

What are the types of epithelial tissue

apical v.s basil (attach to membrane)
mesenchymal ( irregular shape that is not anchored)
striated
squamous

11

What is connective tissue

lower proportion of cells but lots of ECM

12

What is muscle tissue used for and what are the types

Movement, locamotion, internal temperature
1. skeletal ( striated, voluntary control)
2.Cardiac (striated, non-voluntary)
3. Smooth (Non-striated, non-voluntary)

13

What are the nine abdominal regions

L-R Hypochondriac, Epigastric, R-L lumbar, Umbilical, L-R Inguinal, Hypogastric

14

What are the 11 organ systems

Cardiovascular/circulatory, Digestive/excretory, Endocrine, Integumentary, Lymphatic/ immune, Muscular, Nervous, Renal/urinary, Reproductive, Respiratory, Skeletal

15

Nervous System

Receives incoming information (senses). Sends messages to the body about how to react.

16

Skeletal System

Provides Shape and structure to the body. Allows for movement. Protects vital organs. Produces blood cells.

17

Integumentary System

Protects the body from invaders by providing a tough protective layer. Warms the body. Cools the body.

18

Muscular System

Allows for movement of the body. Keeps head in position. Provides heat.

19

Endocrine System

Controls body functions using chemicals messengers called hormones.

20

Circulatory System

Transports oxygen, waste, nutrients, hormones, heat, etc... around the body

21

Respiratory System

Brings oxygen into the body. Gets rid of carbon dioxide.

22

Urinary System

Cleanses the blood. Rids the body of wastes. Maintains salt and water balance.

23

Immune System

Fights disease.

24

Digestive System

Breaks down food into smaller molecules. Absorbs these nutrients into the body.

25

Reproductive System

Produces sex cells (sperm and eggs). Produces sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen). Nurtures the unborn baby (fetus).

26

What does the Autonomic nervous system control

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands and adipose tissue

27

4 functional zones of neurons

Signal reception, signal integration, signal propegation, and signal transmission

28

What is signal reception

Resting potential, occurs on dendrites, changes in membrane potential allow for ions to move

29

what is signal integration

Graded potential. Very localized. Vary in magnitude. Use decrement (electrotonic spread)

30

What is signal propagation

Action potential. Long distance signals

31

What is signal transmission

Synaptic activity. release of neurotransmitters

32

What is needed to create voltage differences

Concentration gradient of ions and permeable membranes

33

What is a chemical gradient

concentration gradient of ions

34

What is electrical gradient

attraction or repulsion of charges

35

what is equilibrium potential

When both chemical and electrical are occuring resulting in no net movement of ions

36

Na and Cl are higher in...

ECF

37

Cytosol has lots of

K, and negative charged proteins

38

When is Goldman equation used

When multiple ions contribute to resting membrane potential.
Based on concentrations and permeability of ions or the sum of equilibrium potentials

39

What is equilibrium potential

Each ions own equilibrium based on its concentration gradient.
Is the same as Vm
Calculated using nernst equation

40

What is electromotive force

Seperation of charge that drives ions to move.
positive means going out of the cell
negative means going into the cell

41

What is a neuron?

generating a signal, morphological specialization and polarity

42

What are the 4 types of Neurons

Anaxonic, Bipolar, Unipolar, Multipolar

43

What is an anaxonic neuron

no axon, non-spiking interneuron that works through graded potential, not action potential

44

What is a bipolar neuron

Found in special sensory organs like retina. quick signals that don't need more than 2-3mm to travel to cell body

45

What is a unipolar neuron

Single process that splits from cell body, dendrites and axon terminal are continuous, action potential occurs at dendrites

46

What is a multipolar neuron

Most common one to look at, one axon with multiple dendrites, very long

47

What are the three neuron functional types and decribe them

Sensory- 10 billion, unipolar, afferent
Interneurons- 20 billion, all in spinal cord, mostly multipolar
Motor neuron- 0.5 million, efferent, muscles

48

What are the 4 types of neuroglia in the CNS

Ependymal, Microglia, Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes

49

What are ependymal glia

Line the ventricles and have cilia-like structure. CFS (chroid plexus)

50

what are microglia

Originate outside the CSF, act as mobile phagocyte and target cell waste, cause inflammation in the brain, comes from the blood making it similar to monocytes and macrophages

51

what are astrocytes

help maintain the BBB due to tight junctions, regulate ions, nutrients, and gases in contact with neurons, Calcium waves get through junctions and release glutamate and ATP

52

What are the two types of astrocytes

Fibrous (white matter) and Protoplasmic (grey matter)

53

What are oligodendrocytes

act as insulation (increasing transmission) and structural roles/stability of axon, 40% water, layer of protein and two layers of membrane.

54

What are the types of neuroglia in PNS

Schwann cells and satellite cells. Both can act as neurolemma

55

what are schwann cells

myelinate axon (1 schwann=1 cell) or multiple unmyelinated axons can be bundled up together in 1 schwann cell

56

satellite cells

multiple cells around glial cell body, regulate intercellular environment, can allow for chronic pain to stay

57

What is Gullian barre syndrome

autoimmune attack on the myelin, without myelin axon cant conduct

58

What are the three types of gated channels

Chemically gated channels, Voltage-gated channels, Mechanically gated channels

59

Depolarization occurs when

sodium ions rush out of cell

60

repolarization occurs when

when Na stops or K rushes into cell

61

What is the time constant

T=RC, it is the time it takes to reach Vmax.

62

1/e=

0.37, which is the point of decay which we compare to other neurons

63

What are the characteristic of graded potential

Small (0.5-1mV), very localized, spread by electrocurrent spread (ions repelling eachother)

64

What are the two types of post synaptic potentials

EPSP, IPSP

65

What is EPSP

Excitatory post synaptic potential, increases the probability a cell will fire, Vm moves towards zero, depolarization

66

What is IPSP

Inhibitory post-synaptic potential, decreases likelyhood of firing, hyperpolarization

67

What is summation

The combination of EPSP and IPSP
Can be spatial (same time in same area) and temporal (repeated firing builds on each other)

68

What is the axon hillock

a site where neurons integrate the excitatory and inhibitory stimuli

69

What are the 4 steps of action potential

1. graded potential brings it to threshold
2. Voltage-gated ion channels for sodium begin to open causing more to open
3. Sodium starts to close and K+ start to open causing an efflux stronger than influx.
4. K+ channels taken a while to open resulting in hyperpolarization.

70

What are the two types of action potential propagation

Continuous propagation: 1 m/s, short distances
Saltatory propagation: big jumps in action potential, myelin gaps

71

What is the Hodgkin-Hoxel cycle

where action potentials keep firing down the axon

72

What is length constant

How far an electrotonic current can spread and still fire an action potential. is highest when resistance of cell membrane in high and resistance of extracellular and intracellular fluid is low

73

What three things affect length constant

Resistance of cell membrane, Resistance of intracellular fluid, Resistance of extracellular fluid

74

How does myelin affect propagation

It increases propagation because it prevents current loss and decreases current velocity

75

What are the 3 steps of the refractory period

1. Channel closed ( activation gate is closed but inactivation gate is open)
2. Channel open (Both are open and current goes through)
3. Channel inactivation (AG stays open but IG closes and NA+ influx stops)

76

Which channels determine firing frequency and refractory period?

Voltage-gated Na+

77

What is absolute refractory period

No signals can be fired

78

what is relative refractory period

when membrane can respond to only large stimuli (when subpopulation starts)

79

Refractory period prevents...

action potential from going both ways

80

What is synaptic activity

Electrical signal is transmitted directly as electrical signal or after is turns into chemical signal

81

Vesicle movement and activity can be effected by

Calcium influx

82

What are synaptotagmin

Result in the release of calcium, opening channels and causing fusion of membrane so the neurotransmitters can get released.
Can act as both zipper mechanism and fusion

83

What are SNARES

family of proteins on vesicles which include synaptobrevin (VAMP)

84

What are the two types of T-SNARES

SNAP25 and Syntaxin, which both bring vesicles in contact with presynaptic membrane

85

What is the zipper mechanism

proteins pulling vesicle towards the membrane. these include SNAP25, Syntaxin, and Synaptobrevin (VAMP)

86

What is the kiss and run hypothesis

vesicles dont fully fuse, just open channel to release neurotransmitters.
very fast method

87

What is the current theory for vesicles

Both kiss and run, and endocytosis occur

88

does K have AG and IG

no

89

Exocytosis is mediated by what

SNARE, VAMP, syntaxin, SNAR25

90

What is the concept of full fusion

clathrin cluster together, which is very slow
bulk endocytosis which has lots of vesicles fusing at the same time

91

What are the 5 types of neurotransmitters and examples of them

1. Acetylcholine (primarily direct, bind to ion channels)
2. Biogenic (dopamine)
3. Amino acids (GABA)
4. Neuropeptides (CART, somatostatin)
5.the rest (ATP, Nitric oxide)

92

What Are the criteria for neurotransmitters

1. Produced in neurons
2. Released upon depolarization
3. bind to receptor on postsynaptic, influence neuron and needs to be turned off

93

what are the three fates of neurotransmitters

1. Reuptake
2. Diffusion in post synaptic neuron
3. Degradation

94

What is neurotransmitter reuptake

non-specific reuptake where neurotransmitter gets pulled in
Amines have specific transporters (Dopamine has dopamine A transporter which repackages dopamine)

95

Is diffusion of neurotransmitter quick?

No, the synpase is very thick

96

how does neurotransmitter degradation occur

post synaptic neuron produce proteins

97

what is synpatic fatigue

when a constant stimulus is occuring and uptake and synthesis of neurotransmitters is too slow

98

What is quantal release

Each vesicle has the same amount of neurotransmitter but different amount of vesicles are released

99

what is myasthenia gravis

muscle weakening, when there are either too many degradation enzymes or not enough postsynaptic receptors

100

What neurotransmitter are associated with depression and OCD

reduction of serotonin and 5HT

101

What are junctional folds

increased surface area and only occur in neuromuscular junctions

102

what are the two types of receptors

Ionotropic receptor (nAChR)
Metabotropic (mAChR)

103

How do ionotropic receptors work

nicotinic, direct affect on ion channels making it very fast

104

How do metabotropic receptors work

muscarine, they regulate a 2nd messenger which then affect ion channels making them slow and indirect

105

What is an example of metabotropic receptor

Gprotein coupled receptors (GPCR) which use cAMP as 2nd messenger
The amplifier enzyme turns ATP in cAMP

106

What are the dopamine receptors

D1 type: D1 and D5, which boost production of cAMP
D2 type: D2, D3, and D4, which inhibit production of cAMP

107

GABA is an...

inhibitory transmitter, binds to KCC2

108

what are the characteristics of an electrical synapse

no gradient, connexins lock and anchor together.
GAP junctions, no synaptic cleft (cytoplasm is continuous) ions flow through without delay

109

How do you test for electrical synapse

1. Dye coupling: if the dyne continuous into next neuron
2. no synaptic delay, electrical signal can go in both directions or in a single direction
3. calcium free saline. electrical will keep going where chemical will stop

110

what factors impact if a signal is transmitted

1. action potential frequency
2. synaptic strength
3. location of synapse