What was Ares' Roman name?
What happened to Anchises after he told people about the affair (Aphrodite told him not to tell anyone)?
he was stricken and lost the use of his legs
What was the Sumerian name for the "sky-god"?
Why does Hera borrow Aphrodite's girdle?
Hera borrows Aphrodite's girdle to appear very attractive to Zeus, in order to distract him from her scheme. She wants the Greeks to win the Trojan War whereas Zeus is impartial. She wants to get her way.
Minoan double-axes are often called _______
A _________ is a story whose characters are ordinary people or animals
____________ was the god of medicine
What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?
Who was the first king of Athens?
Name the 6 members of the first generation of the Olympians
What was Hermes' Roman name?
Hades is immortal, but why is he not considered to be an Olympian?
he doesn't live up on Mt. Olympus
Who heard Persephone's cries as she was being abducted?
Hecate and Helius
How did Rhea trick Cronus into not realizing Zeus was still alive?
she gave Cronus a stone wrapped in a blanket in Zeus' place
How did the Curetes (young men) protect Zeus in the cave?
they rattled their spears against their shields to drown out the noise of Zeus crying
Who was Uranos' mother?
What does the Latin term legenda mean?
something that must be read
Who were the 3 male Titans who were not banished to Tartaros after the Titanomachy?
Epimetheus, Prometheus and Atlas
Who was known as the "Receiver of Many"?
What years are associated with the Myceneans?
c. 1600 BC - 1150 BC
What was the name of the goat and the name of the bee that gave Zeus food?
goat = Amalthea
bee = Melissa
What happened with Argus and Io after Hermes decapitated Argus?
Hera took Argus' 100 eyes and set them in the tail of the peacock. Hera also sets a biting fly on Io. Io roams the Earth trying to get rid of the fly.
What was Hera's Roman name?
What happened to the members of the first generation of the Olympians?
Cronus swallowed the first 5 children whole
Where did Rhea hide her youngest son, Zeus?
on the island of Crete in a cave
There was a prophecy that the Giants would be defeated only is a mortal helped the Olympians. Who helped the Olympians in the Gigantomachy?
Heracles (the son of a mortal mother)
____________ was an offspring of Posedion who was a cannibalistic cyclopes
One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was named Daphne. Explain what happened with Apollo and Daphne
Daphne ran away from Apollo and prayed to be turned into a tree to avoid him.
What is the name of the city that was an important religious center that was credited with the first ideas of salvation and having a better view of the afterlife?
One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was Sibyl at Cumae (a Pythia). Explain what happened with Apollo and Sibyl at Cumae
She was given immortality, but refused to have sex with Apollo. He made it so she had immortality, but she didn't have eternal youth.
Describe Pan's appearance
legs of a goat, shaggy beard
What are the 2 poems about the Trojan War called?
The Iliad and The Odyssey
Euhemerism says that the gods are historical figures who were _______ kings long ago who were eventually transformed by story into _______
Who is known as the "Mistress of Animals"?
When did Euhemerus come up with euhemerism?
c. 300 BC
Explain the myth involving Apollo and the crow
Coronis, Apollo's lover, left him and had an affair. A white crow told Apollo about this. Apollo was so angry that he killed Coronis and burned the crow. The crow that was once white was then black.
What year is associated with the volcanic eruption at Thera that caused significant damage to the Minoan city of Knossos?
c. 1630 BC
What was the Greek name for the "goddess of death"?
the Greeks gave this responsibility to a male
Hades = god of the underworld and death
What years are associated with the Hellenistic Period?
Explain "aegis-bearing Zeus"
Zeus had a shield made of goat skin with snake-headed tassels - represented his power
What was the Greek name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?
the Greeks took inspiration from the "god of water, wisdom, magic" and changed it slightly
Hermes = god of wisdom, intelligence, trickery
What is a maenad?
female worshipper of Dionysus
Who was Sarpedon's father?
TRUE OR FALSE - Pan was strictly heterosexual
FALSE - Pan approached a sheppard boy with sexual intent
Cronus and Rhea had 6 children, which were the first generation of the Olympians. Who was born first, the 3 males or the 3 females?
3 females born first
Hestia, Demeter, Hera then Hades, Poseidon, Zeus
Explain the 2 versions of the story of how Hephaestus was expelled from Olympus
- Zeus threw him off for taking Hera's side in an argument. Hephaestus landed on Lemnos.
- Hera threw Hephaestus from Olympus in disgust
What period of Greek history is associated with "myth making"?
Early/Middle Bronze Age (3000-1600 BC)
Because Prometheus created humans, he was a ________________
Explain the myth associated with Erichthonius
Hephaestus wanted to seduce Athena and he chased her. He ejaculated on Athena's leg, which she wiped off with a piece of wool and threw it on the ground. This was how Erichthonius was born. He was born from the Earth, so he had snake-like lower quarters.
What was associated with Metis?
cleverness, personification of human intelligence
How was the Minoan civilization destroyed in c. 1450 BC?
palaces were burned (warfare)
Who was emphasized as being less Greek than the other gods? Why?
what he represents (losing oneself) was somewhat problematic in society
Who fought in the Gigantomachy?
Giants vs. Olympians
What was Apollo's weapon?
__________ represented a young, aristocratic man reaching adulthood
What time period is associated with Ovid?
43 BC - 17 AD
After Prometheus steals fire from Olympus, how does Zeus punish Prometheus?
he chains Prometheus to a rock
Explain the customs associated with a newly married couple on their wedding night
The bride would be given a pomegranate (associated with menstrual blood). The older women of the family would also stand near the door to the bedroom and sing songs.
What is the possible explanation for why later Greeks thought cyclopes were real and that they built the walls of Mycenae?
At some point, there was a group of blacksmiths who had tattoos of an eye on their foreheads. Through time, these human people became monsters in the retelling of stories.
What does Zeus do when he sees Hera in Aphrodite's girdle?
Zeus is overcome with desire. He tells Hera she's better than all his other lovers. They lie down on the side of a mountain, which later explodes with life.
Prometheus tells his brother, ___________, not to accept any gifts from Zeus
What is the name of the German businessman who funded excavations at Troy and at Mycenae?
Name 2 examples of Greek myths that show the influence of the Near East (those shown in the powerpoint slide on Near-Eastern influence)
- myth of the origin of the present world-order
- universal flood
What significant event marked the end of the Classical Period in 323 BC?
the death of Alexander the Great
Name 2 important Minoan symbols
Zeus' aegis is an example of an ___________ item, because it turns away danger
What was associated with Zeus?
he was the god of the sky
Hesiod's ___________ was an exception to humanity's general decline
Age of Heroes
What does Prometheus' name mean?
How did Athena come out of Zeus' head wound?
she came out fully armoured, and yelling a war cry
Who was Asclepius' mother?
An alternative perspective on the story of Actaeon was that he wasn't torn apart by his dogs, but torn apart financially because ___________________________________
he spent all his money on hunting dogs
Writing re-emerged during the Archaic Period (800-480 BC) with the invention of the _______________
What was the name of the young prince that Demeter tried to make immortal?
Who were Apollo's parents?
Zeus and Leto
What is the name of the script associated with the Myceneans?
What time is associated with Hesoid's writings?
c. 700 BC
The Myceneans are said to have lasted until 1150 BC, but experts say that the specific year was _____
Who fought in the Titanomachy?
Titans vs. Olympians
Zeus was a father to many gods and heroes. Some estimate up to _____
Name an example of how Piety was slain during Ovid's Iron Age
children cared less for their parents in old age and weren't as concerned about burying them properly
Ancient Greeks thought they were the best and the most _________. They were an "education to the rest of the world".
How does Zeus react when his son, Sarpedon, dies?
he cries tears of blood
What is the Sanskrit word for "mother"?
What Zeus' name Greek?
no, it was derived from Indo-European "di-", Germanic "Tiu" and Indic "Dyaus Pitar"
Describe Apollo's appearance
no beard and longer hair which was tied up
What was the name of Celeus' wife?
Explain the story of how Hermes ends up giving his half-brother, Apollo, the lyre
Hermes cooks the other gods dinner by stealing Apollo's cattle (Hermes invents sausage). To avoid detection, he drives the cattle backwards to lead people the wrong way (Hermes invents sandals). Apollo confronts baby Hermes about the stolen cattle. Zeus, their father, intervenes and makes the half-brothers patch things up. Hermes gives Apollo the lyre.
Is Dionysus a fertility god?
yes - he is a god of wet fertility (wine, blood, semen)
Zeus was mad after he was tricked by Prometheus. How does he punish the humans?
he witholds fire
What type of myth has supernatural beings (gods or personified aspects of nature) as main characters?
Ovid and Julia were exiled to an island. Who later let Julia starve?
What was associated with Hestia?
she represents the fireplace
Poseidon was known as the "Dark-Haired Lord of the Deep". What was another name for Poseidon?
(the Greeks thought earthquakes came from the sea)
Explain the myth associated with Niobe
Niobe had either 12 or 14 children, and she boasted that she was the goddess of fertility and she put Leto to shame because she only had 2 children. Leto tells her children to get revenge. Apollo and Artemis kill all of Niobe's children with their arrows.
One of Pan's lovers ran away and prayed to be changed into a tree. They were turned into a bundle of reids. How did Pan react to this?
Pan cut the reids and invented the pan pipe
Who was the first person to use allegory to interpret myth?
Why did Demeter's withdrawal of agriculture from earth anger the gods?
the humans had no food, so they couldn't sacrifice to the gods
What were the Fates?
3 sisters who decided the destiny of human life
What was the Greek name for the "sun-god"?
the Greeks switched the responsibilities for this example
Helios was the original personification of the sun, but Apollo became the more important god of the light and sun
The preistess who gave oracles at Apollo's Oracle in Delphi was called a __________
What was Athena's Roman name?
The rock that Prometheus was chained to was loacted in the __________ Mountains
After Zeus swallowed the pregnant Metis, he had a bad headache. Who did he ask to split his head open with an axe?
What does ainos mean?
What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "sky-god"?
Who wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey?
Upon Nyx and Erebus' union (night and darkness coming together), who was born?
Aether (radiance) and Hemera (day)
Explain the myth of Apollo's birth
Hera learned that Leto, one of Zeus' mistresses was pregnant. Hera curses Leto and makes it so she can't give birth on solid ground. This is why Leto gives birth on Delos, which is a floating island.
___________ and ____________ are often called "the two Demeters" or "the two goddesses"
What is the Russian word for "mother"?
What was the name given to the stone? Where was it placed?
Hebe was a daughter of Zeus and Hera, she represented ________
Which primordial deity was the personification of the sky?
How did Hades make himself invisible?
Heinrich Schliemann lived from _____ to _____
The _________ had no defensive structures, which suggests they were potentially masters of the sea
The surviving litterary evidence of Linear B was mainly _________________
The ________ were warlike people
What is the reason that Hesiod's Golden Age ended?
the arrival of Pandora/Woman
What is Silenus?
part horse and part man, but not half and half
What is the name of the city that was an important religious center that had the Temple of Apollo, where people could go and receive "fortune telling" from Apollo through his priest and priestess?
In what was did Zeus deal with the pattern of the succession myth differently than before?
he swallowed his pregnant wife, Metis, rather than just the child
little angel cherub with a bow and arrow
People used to trade sexual acts in exchange for donations to Aphrodite. What 2 places are associated with this?
Corinth and Cythera
Who watches Cronus and the other Titans once they are banished to Tartaros by Zeus after they lost the Titanomachy?
How did Hades trick Persephone into forever being tied to the underworld?
He told her that he'd let her go after 1 last meal. Persephone ate 3 or 4 pomegranate seeds. If you share a meal in the underworld, you become linked to it forever. She was trapped in the underworld for 1 month of the year, the time when things don't grow.
The Age of Heroes doesn't exist according to Ovid, due to Rome being tired of people claiming connections to heroes. For example, Augustus had claimed he was connected to ___________ and Mark Antony had claimed he was connected to ____________
Who is the primordial deity of sexual desire?
According to Ovid's ______ Age, there is a lot of trickery and fraternal discord
Ovid only accounts for 4 ages, whereas Hesiod accounts for 5. Which of Hesiod's ages does not exist in Ovid's ages?
the Age of Heroes
What was the Greek name for the "sky-god"?
Which of Homer's 2 poems was about the actual battle of the Trojan War?
How many ages of man were there according to Ovid's Metamorphoses?
What significant event marked the end of the Hellenistic Period in 31 BC?
the death of Cleopatra
Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, is often known as _________
Who were the Titans who helped Zeus and the Olympians?
Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires
Stories of Greek heroes (such as Achilles in the Trojan War) fall under which category of myth?
What was Zeus' final resting place?
Mt. Luktas on Crete
During Demeter's search for Persephone, she refused to eat _________ or drink _________ and she didn't bathe
Hades was known as the "Receiver of Many". What are 2 other names commonly used for Hades?
"the wealthy one"
What does xenia mean? Who established xenia?
formal guest friendship
Were Hesiod's writings likely completely original?
no - he likely compiled and wrote down aspects of already existing oral traditions
TRUE OR FALSE - the popularity of a god is not correlated to how many temples they have
As opposed to physical allegory, euhemerism says myth tells us _______ truths, not philosophical truths
What specifically did the Cyclopes do for Zeus which helped him and the Olympians in the Titanomachy?
they fashioned Zeus' thunderbolts
___________ is sometimes thought of as being version 2 of Gaea
How does Zeus punish the loser Titans after the Titanomachy?
he banishes Cronus and the other Titans to Tartaros
Has the Minoan script, Linear A, been deciphered?
How did Prometheus go about tricking Zeus?
he covered the "bad" pile with fat and he covered the "good" pile with bad things
Who was known as the "Dark-Haired Lord of the Deep"?
What does cronos mean?
Prometheus is the son of _________
Eurynome was the personification of _________
What is the Sanskrit word for "mouse"?
What was characteristic of those born semi-spontaneously from the Earth?
snake-like lower quarters
What was the name of the youngest son of Tartaros and Gaea?
What was associated with Demeter?
she was a goddess of fertility of the land (took over responsibility of Earth from Gaea)
What does argeiphontes mean?
Why did Heinrich Schliemann fund excavations at Troy and at Mycenae?
he wanted to prove the Trojan War actually did happen
Aristocrats thought if commoners ruled, it would be a ____________
Explain the story of "The Hanging Marsyas"
Marsyas challenged Apollo to a music competition. Marsyas did very well, which angered Apollo. Apollo hung him up and skinned him.
What time period is associated with Ovid's Golden Age?
the Early Roman Republic
What was the Sumerian name for the "storm-god"?
What years are associated with the Classical Period?
_________ was the home of the original olympian games and was also considered a sacred place
Who is said to be the "Father of Gods and Men"?
What are the animals that are associated with Hera?
cow and peacock
Who is Priam?
the king of Troy during the Trojan War
What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "storm-god"?
Name 2 of Ovid's works.
Art of Love
By connecting "Cronus" with "cronos" via false etymology, the Greeks said that when Cronus eats his children, it means ____________________
time devours everything
What does parthogenesis mean?
There was a sacred palm tree on the island of Delos. What was special about this tree?
it was clutched by Leto during the pain of childbirth, when she birthed Artemis and Apollo
What is another term often used by the Greeks for the Near East?
Who was originally associated with the sun before Apollo took on this role?
Myths are easily understood by the human mind because we do well with _________. We see things in black and white. It is said that myths fill in the gray area.
What type of myth generally explains why the world is the way it is?
What does Pandora mean?
Who was the child of Poseidon and Medusa?
Explain the myth associated with Orion
Orion was a hunter who tried to rape Artemis. She set a scorpion on his head which stung him to death. Orion was set in the sky as a constellation most notable for its belt (hunter belt). Artemis arranged it so that Orion would always be fleeing the scorpion (another constellation Scorpio, which was on the other side of the sky).
Apollo is a god of prophecy. He killed _________ to establish his Oracle at Delphi
Zeus was a sky god, but was also known as a god of law and justice: ______, which comes from the root "to point out"
____________: something that can be interpreted a different way, which reveals a hidden meaning
Were the people of Mesopotamia Indo-European?
no, they were a different cultural and linguistic group than the Greeks
TRUE OR FALSE - Apollo is associated with the sun and the light
Explain the myth associated with Hades and Persephone
Hades abducts his niece, Persephone, who becomes the queen of the dead for part of the year.
Explain the myth involving Hephaestus trapping Hera, and his subsequent return to Olympus
Hephaestus built a golden throne of revenge for Hera which trapped her. Hephaestus is retrieved from Earth and brought to Oluympus to free Hera. Hephaestus was influenced with alcohol (Dionysus was involved). Hephaestus gets a donkey to return to Olympus.
After Zeus witholds fire from humans, what does Prometheus do?
steals fire from Olympus and brings it to Earth in a fennel stalk
Who were the parents of the Muses?
Zeus and Mnemosyne
According to Hesiod's Age of Heroes, most of them killed each other, but Zeus sent some of the to _________________
the Isles of the Blessed
Explain the myth associated with Dionysus and the pirates
Pirates didn't believe Dionysus was divine, they decided to kidnap him. Dionysus warns them. He turns rope to vine, changes form multiple times and fills the boat with wine and grapes. The pirates jump overboard. In a moment of compassion, Dionysus turns the pirates into dolphins.
How many ages of man were there according to Hesiod's Works and Days?
What does nyx mean?
______ is the god of fertility of wild spaces and the sexuality of wild animals
Hecate, one of two people who heard Persephone's cries, represents the ________ phase of a woman's life
The Sacred Way led to a great temple called __________, which was the center of the Eleusinian Mysteries
What is the Latin word for "mouse"?
Eileithyia was the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She represented _____________
Cronus threw Uranos' genitals into the sea. What happened then?
the sea foamed, and Aphrodite is born from the foam
Who created Hesiod's Bronze Age?
Zeus (alone - from ash trees)
What is the name of the script associated with the Minoans?
What does Hades' name mean?
Name the 3 Hecatoncheires
What was the Greek name for the "goddess of love and war"?
the Greeks split these responsibilities between 2 individuals
Ares = god of war
Aphrodite = goddess of love
The ________ were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primodial deities and preceding the Olympians
What does "Zeus kataibates" mean?
Zeus who descends
Ovid was a _________ poet
What was the Greek explanation as to why the Egyptians worshipped animals?
Typhoeus was so terrifying that the Olympian gods fled to Egypt and disguised themselves as animals
What language is said to be the root of all Indo-European languages?
Name a few common motifs used in ancient Greek myths
- doubles (twins, doppelgangers)
- siblings fighting
- knight slaying dragon and getting the princess as his prize
Describe Artemis' attire
hunting gear: boots, sportswear, bow and arrow, hunting dog
_________ narrate the events of the human past through a blend of actual history and myth
We know that Priapus' mother is Aphrodite but there is some uncertainty about Priapus' father. Who are the 2 god that it might be?
Dionysus or Hermes
What was Ovid's Art of Love about?
it was a love manual
What was Hesiod's Works and Days about?
the fall of a man from a golden age to one of iron
Nyx and Erebus came together and produced their _________
During which period of Greek history did the Trojan War occur as well as the first evidence of writing?
Mycenean Age (Late Bronze Age) (1600-1200 BC)
Dionysus carried a pinecone-tipped staff. What was this called?
In what year was Ovid exiled by the Roman emperor, Augustus?
Apollo was the god of opposites. For example, he was both the god of ________ and _________
Who did Night give rise to solo?
Fates and Mountains
Name the 2 animals that are associated with Zeus
In the Gigantomachy, who urged the Giants to attack Olympus?
What does Aphrodite use to slap Pan when he is trying to approach her in a loving way?
How did the Seasons contribute to Pandora's creation?
they gave her a crown
How did Hermes contribute to the creation of Pandora?
he gave her a difficult character and a cheating heart
What is the Russian word for "salt"?
An _________ myth offers an explanation as to why things are the way they are
Where did Prometheus trick Zeus into giving humans the good parts of a sacrifice?
What did the Erinyes (Furies) consider to be the worse crime of all? Why?
patricide or matricide - killing one's own parents
the Erinyes (Furies) were born from a similar crime
Who is associated with the phrase: "of the Golden Laughter"?
What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of love and war"?
Personification (abstract concepts given human characteristics) is called _______________
Who led the Titans in the Titanomachy?
What is the theory as to why so many places each developped their own version of a myth telling the story of a universal flood?
they tell the story of what happened after the last ice age
Who protected Zeus in the cave?
Corybantes (whirlers) and Curetes (young men)
What is etymology?
the study of the origin of words
Explain the myth involving Hermes, Io and Argus
Zeus spots a girl, Io, and disguises himself as a cloud. Hera is suspicious. Zeus covers his tracks by turning Io into a cow. Hera ties the cow to a tree and gives the cow a watchman, Argus. Argus has 100 eyes and always had a least 1 eye open. Zeus gets his son Hermes to play Argus a lullaby on the lyre, which puts Argus completely to sleep. Hermes decapitates Argus.
What were the names of the Fates?
Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos
What is the Sanskrit word for "salt"?
Who was Zeus' first wife?
What is another name for the Roman sky god Jupiter? What is the Greek name for this same god?
Themis was one of Zeus' many lovers. How was Themis related to Zeus?
Themis was Zeus' aunt
What does the phrase "struck by the arrows of Artemis" mean?
a woman had died during childbirth
Explain the myth of Actaeon
Actaeon was hunting with his dogs when he came across Artemis bathing. She was angered by this and turned Actaeon into a stag who was torn apart by his dogs.
Gaea was the mother to Uranos, Pontus and _________
Statues of Artemis often had ball-like things hanging off her clothes. What was suggested that these were?
bull testicles - symbolize fertility
The name Athena is not originally Greek. Name the 2 other names associated with this figure
Cypris and Cytherea
What years are associated with the Dark Age?
What were the 3 phases of a woman's life?
- Parthenos (virgin)
- Nymphe (at sexual age)
- Gyne (has given birth)
In Hesiod's Silver Age, why does Zeus destroy people?
they don't worship the gods
In mythology, the feminine principle is connected with ______, _______ and _________
A huge horde of gold and jewels was found during Heinrich Schliemann's excavations. What did he call it?
Mesopotamia was the "land between rivers". Name these rivers.
Tigris and Euphrates
Who is Hemera?
Explain how the vandalism of Hermes' statues broke the Athenian power and had a major impact
Athenians were set to attack an Italian city-state that was associated with Sparta. The night before it was set to leave, all the penises were knocked of the Hermes statues. The rumour was that it was Alcibiades, the Athenian military leader. His ship had already left, so Athens sent a fast ship to retrieve Alcibiades and bring him back for trial. Alcibiades jumped ship and joined the Spartans. The Athenians went on to majorly lose on their expedition.
TRUE OR FALSE: Zeus was not seen as a fertility figure
FALSE - he was seen as a fertility figure, the rain was thought to be his semen
Who is associated with "Potnia Theron"?
Who was known as "psychopompus"?
Who was known as "she who sits on a golden throne"?
What years are associated with the Minoans?
c. 2200 BC - c. 1450 BC
What is the Greek word for "mouse"?
Who did Prometheus trick into giving the good parts of a sacrifice to humans?
The Gigantomachy was not mentionned by _________
Hesiod's Works and Days was essentially a user's manual for his __________ to survive, but also contained mythological aspects
What is something important to note about Cronus and his children?
often ate his own children
What did Egyptian texts suggest was the cause of the collapse of the Mycenean civilization in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?
invasions by Sea Peoples
What was the last thing Cronus threw up after being given an emetic by Metis?
Who ruled during Ovid's Silver Age?
What does hemera mean?
What is the Greek word for "mother"?
What did Pegasus look like?
the body of a horse and the wings of a bird
Explain how Hermes invented the lyre
Hermes, as a baby, explored the world as his mother slept. He came across a tortoise, killed it, and kept its shell. He uses the shell to make a musical instrument, which he called the lyre.
Were the Minoans Indo-Europeans?
no, their language is not a part of the Indo-European language family
According to Hesiod's Silver Age, people take ____ years to mature
What was the Sumerian name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?
What heroes are associated with Hesiod's Age of Heroes?
the heroes that fought at Troy
Hesiod doesn't tell us where man comes from. Who does?
Name the 5 ages in order.
- The Golden Age
- The Silver Age
- The Bronze Age
- The Age of Heroes
- The Iron Age
Name the 3 Cyclopes
Who came out of Zeus' head wound after being split with an axe?
Who was born from the affair between Anchises and Aphrodite?
Theagenes based his interpretations on myths on __________
Why was Ovid exiled from Rome in 8 AD?
he was involved in a sex-scandal with Augustus' daughter, Julia
Explain the myth involving Hermaphroditus and the Nymph Salmacis
Hermaphroditus was having a bath and the Nymph Salmacis saw him and fell in love with him. She jumped on his back and held so tightly and for so long that they fused and became one. Hermaphroditus became both male and female.
What was the name of the volcanic island that was sacred to Hephaestus?
How many Hecatoncheires were there?
In what order did Cronus throw up the 5 children?
first in last out - reverse order of their births
What years are associated with the Archaic Period?
Who were the parents of the Graces?
Zeus and Eurynome
Why was Dionysus dressed as a girl when he was young?
to hide him from Hera
What years are associated with the Paleolithic ('Old Stone' Age)?
before 6000 BC
Explain the Brauronia ritual and the Arktoi
Young girls would worship Artemis by dressing as bears, they were called arktoi ("little bears"). They would run around and try to scare people.
TRUE OR FALSE - Athens took its name from Athena
FALSE - Athena takes her name from the city of Athens
According to Ovid's ______ Age, men ask too much from Earth
TRUE OR FALSE - Zeus and Hera had a happy marriage
FALSE - they fought constantly
What was Zeus' signature weapon?
Who were the 3 people who were immune to Aphrodite's powers? Why were these 3 immune?
Athena, Artemis and Hestia
they were virgin goddesses
What is the Russian word for "night"?
Who didn't fight in the Titanomachy?
How many children did Cronus and Rhea have?
____________ was the goddess of the hunt and wild spaces
Hermes was very comparable to the Near Eastern gods: ______ and _______
Which period of Greek history is often referred to as the "peak period" due to massive Greek success?
Classical Period (480-323 BC)
Who ended up freeing Prometheus from being chained to the rock?
According to Ovid's Bronze Age, people weren't entirely evil. How so?
they still worshipped the gods
Explain what "succession myth" means
the idea of fearing being put by the wayside by the younger generation
The origin of the Apollo is unknown. The name is thought to be maybe be associated with Lacia or to have a Nordic origin. What did Apollo do that suggests an association with the Nordic Hyperboreans?
he left Greece and spent 3 months in the far north each year
What does anthropos mean?
man, human, mankind
There's a well that people believe was the Well of the Maiden. It is called the Kallichoron Well. Why?
kallichoron means beautiful dancing, and the princesses were said to have danced around the well in order to cheer up Demeter
Describe Athena's attire
helmet, shield, spear, aegis around her shoulders
What was associated with Poseidon?
he was the god of the ocean
In what year did Michael Ventris decipher the Mycenean script, Linear B?
Creation myths of the ancient Greeks would be considered what type of myth?
Who was Asclepius' father?
Greeks often presented things in a way that made it seem like they had come up with certain ideas independently. Is this truthful?
no, the Greeks had plenty of Near Eastern influence
Theagenes said that myths about the battles between gods really represented conflict among ______________
What was the Greek name for the "goddess of the earth"?
the Greeks changed the responsibility to be less *Greek misogyny*
Demeter = goddess of fertility of the land
How was the Mycenean civilization destroyed in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?
palaces were burned (warfare)
__________ was also known as Argeiphontes
Name both of Hesoid's works that survived intact
- The Theogony
- Works and Days
Did the Minoans speak Greek?
Athena was the goddess of war as well as domestic crafts. What domestic craft was considered to be the gift of Athena?
How was Priapus represented as having exaggerated sexuality? This aspect made him an apotropaic figure.
Ovid's Golden Age was during the time of Saturn. How does this compare to Hesiod's Golden Age?
Hesiod's Golden Age took place during the reign of Cronus, who is the same person as Saturn, just 2 different names
Who were the Erinyes (Furies)?
3 sisters who punished those who committed terrible crimes
What was the name of the Trojan prince who had an affair with Aphrodite?
What is the Greek word for "salt"?
Who occupied the Minoan palace of Knossos after their downfall?
How many Cyclopes were there?
What was the name of the island north of Crete, known today as Santorini?
One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was named Cassandra. Explain what happened with Apollo and Cassandra
The two made a deal, if Cassandra slept with Apollo, he'd give her the power to see the future. She didn't keep her end of the deal, so Apollo made it so nobody ever believed Cassandra when she told them about the future, even though she was telling the truth.
_______________ was a working man's god who was disabled and given very little respect on Olympus
Who is Agamemnon?
king of Mycenae
Name the 6 female Titans.
Apollo had a twin sister named _________
What is another term for a legend?
Which of Homer's 2 poems was about the 10 year struggle of a hero returning home after the Trojan War?
What was the Greek name for the "storm-god"?
the Greeks combined the responsibilites of "sky-god" (Anu) and "storm-god" (Enlil) and gave them to 1 individual
Zeus = god of the sky and thunder
What does psychopompus mean?
_________ was the god of travel, commerce, boundaries, theft and trickery
What was Hesoid's Theogony about?
the origin of the universe and the ascension of Zeus to "King of the gods"
Was the volcanic eruption at Thera in c. 1630 BC the end for the Minoans?
no, the Minoans lasted another 200 years until c. 1450 BC, but the volcanic eruption at Thera was the beginning of the end
What are false etymologies?
connecting concepts through words even though the actual words aren't linked
What is the Latin word for "salt"?
Explain the myth associated with Iphigenia
Agamemnon struggles to sail to Troy and consults a priest to see why the winds are always blowing the wrong way. The priest tells him that he once boasted that he threw a spear farther than even Artemis and this angered her. The only way to make it right was to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia. Iphigenia was taken to an alter to be sacrificed, she was tricked and she thought she was going to marry Achilles.
What animal was associated with Poseidon? Why?
Poseidon was chasing Demeter when she changed herself into a horse, so Poseidon did as well. There was also a religious sacrifice of horses to Poseidon.
Hesoid's Theogony is associated with _________ myths
Legends originally referred to ________ stories about the lives of _______
According to Ovid's Iron Age, Piety is slain and Astraea flees from the Earth. What do Piety and Astraea represent?
Piety = dutiful reponsibility
Astraea = justice
Those who travelled would seek the protection of Hermes. Apotropaic symbols of Hermes would be placed at crossroads. What were these symbols?
Hermes with an erection
(certain apes had erections when threatened)
In Ovid's Silver Age, what was introduced which means that people now have to work the land to survive?
Who was Zeus' proper wife?
What was Hades' Roman name?
Who is Erebus?
Who raised Zeus in the cave?
What was the Sumerian name for the "sun-god"?
Who was Pontus' mother?
TRUE OR FALSE - Artemis is said to have helped birth her twin brother, Apollo
Gaea and her Son, Uranos, gave rise to the Cyclopes. Describe them.
giant craftsmen (builders, blacksmiths, etc.) with one eye in the center of their foreheads
Explain what happened with Croesus and the oracle
Croesus, a king, goes to the oracle to ask if he should be worried about the rising Persians. The oracle tells him: "If Croesus goes to war, a great empire will fall". It ended up being Croesus' empire that fell, he was captured by Cyrus the Great.
How many Graces are there? What are they associated with?
the attraction and allure of females
According to Hesiod's Golden Age, there was no such thing as old age or hardship. How did death work?
death comes as sleep
Explain what happened in Bacchae
Dionysus returns to his hometown, Thebes. His cousin, Pentheus, is the king. Pentheus complains of the women worshipping Dionysus. Pentheus is told to dress as a woman and go up to the hill. Dionysus makes it so the women see Pentheus for who he is. Agave, Pentheus' mother, tears Pentheus apart thinking he is a lion.
Apollo was the "lord of mice". How does this relate to him being the god of illness?
it was thought that mice brought illness
Aphrodite wasn't the only one born from the violent episode of Uranos' castration. Who else sprang from his spilled blood?
Melian ash-tree Nymphs
How does Athena contribute to Pandora's creation?
she gives her domestic skills
What is the Latin word for "night"?
Why was Delphi chosen as the place where the stone would be placed?
Delphi was considered to be the center of the Earth
(2 eagles flew towards each other from opposite ends of the Earth, met at Delphi)
What did the Greeks think was the reason for the collapse of the Mycenean civilization in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?
What does erebus mean?
Explain what happened with Apollo and Python
Apollo shoots a snake, Python, who is guarding the water. Apollo leaves the snake there to rot.
Which period of Greek history is associated with the reboot of old myths?
Classical Period (480-323 BC)
Euhemerism is a ________ allegory
What years are associated with Roman Rule?
31 BC - 476 AD
Explain the myth associated with Arachne
Arachne had a weaving competition with Athena, in which she made a blanket showing all the affairs of the gods. Athena was angered by this and disfigured Arachne. Arachne hung herself. Athena felt bad for the girl so she turned her into a living spider.
What is Cronus' Roman name?
TRUE OR FALSE - Persephone was abducted by Hades, who had Zeus' permission to do so
What is Prometheus forced to undergo as he is chained to the rock by Zeus?
Zeus' eagle pecks at Prometheus' liver every day, but his liver gorws back every night
Were the Myceneans Indo-Europeans?
yes, they spoke an early form of Greek
Aphrodite was born from a violent episode. What is she the goddess of?
love, beauty, sexual desire
Explain the myth of Ares and Alkippe
Ares killed Hallirhothios because he raped his daughter, Alkippe. Ares was the first to be tried on a charge of murder, but was acquitted. There was a court at Athens names Areopagus, which was named after Ares and became where the murder trials were held.
What are primordial deities?
first gods and godesses born from the void of Chaos (exist before the Olympians)
Zeus is known for his ________, which he uses to maintain his power over all beings
Apollo was a god of music. What was the name of the instrument that he played?
What motif is associated with the battle between Typhoeus and Zeus?
dragon combat motif
What is the Russian word for "mouse"?
Describe Ares' appearance
depicted as the perfect male, in hoplite armour
Each of the 3 sisters of the Fates had a responsibility. Name the responsibilites in order.
Clotho - spins the thread of life
Lachesis - measures the thread of life
Atropos - cuts the thread of life
What years are associated with the Early/Middle Bronze Age?
Pan's name likely came from an Indo-European root meaning ________
What does Epimetheus' name mean?
What animal is associated with Apollo?
Who was known as the "Mistress of the City"?
What was associated with Hera?
she was the goddess of marriage and childbirth
Who were the parents of the first generation of Olympian gods? How were they related?
Cronus and Rhea (both Titans)
they were siblings
_________: the regular appearance of certain identifiable narrative patterns in a story
Gaea and her son, Uranos, give rise to 3 groups. Name them.
What was Artemis' Roman name?
How does Hephaestus contribute to Pandora's creation?
he fashions her from the Earth
What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of earth"?
Who were Dionysus' parents?
Zeus and Semele
Explain the myth associated with Dionysus' birth
Zeus impregnated a Theban princess, Semele. Hera took her anger out on Semele and used her insecurities to her advantage. She says things like "Do you really think anyone will believe that you got pregnant by Zeus?". Hera tells Semele that the only way to prove Zeus is the father is for him to reveal himself in his true form. Semele asks Zeus to do so, and he burns Semele. She becomes a pile of ashes. Zeus takes the fetus from the pile and sews it into his thigh.
Why was it difficult for the Olympians to defeat the Giants in the Gigantomachy?
when the Giants came in contact with the Earth, their wounds healed. They needed to be killed in mid-air.
Name the all encompassing female fertility figure associated with Austria
Venus of Willendorf
Hesoid's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale dealt with what question?
Does might make right?
How did the Greeks measure time?
Has the Mycenean script, Linear B, been deciphered?
Who gave Cronus an emetic which made him throw up the 5 children which he had swallowed?
Metis (or Zeus?)
Demeter was the goddess of ___________________
grain and harvest
As females were terribly curious, Pandora opened the jar. All evil things fell to Earth and all good things flew up to heaven. What was the one thing that got caught on the rim of the jar?
Explain the myth involving Hephaestus, Aphrodite and Ares
Aphrodite had affairs, so Hephaestus built a bed that would trap her and any of her lovers. Hephaestus caught Ares and Aphrodite together in bed. Nobody on Olympus felt bad for Hephaestus. Hermes said to Apollo: "I can think of worse things than being trapped in bed with the goddess of love".
How many Muses were there? What were they associated with?
different kinds of art
Who is Nyx?
How were Zeus and Hera related?
they were siblings
To avoid Hera, Dionysus was given to ________ and was also turned into a _______ at one point
What did Gaea do that associated her with the idea of "evil female power"?
encouraging her son, Cronus, to get revenge against his father, Uranos
How did Cronus help his mother and get revenge on his father?
he used a flint sickle (fashioned by Gaea - from herself) to castrate Uranos
The word "morph" comes from a Greek word meaning ______
Who is said to be the creator of humans?
Who are Ares' parents?
Zeus and Hera
Who is Aether?
Name 5 important peoples that influenced Greek myth.
What was believed to happen to people who weren't buried properly?
they lived between the land of the living and the land of the dead
Where was Apollo born?
Delos (floating island)
Who was the messenger of the gods?
When did Theagenes first use allegory to interpret myth?
6th c. BC
The Horae are some of Zeus' many offspring. What does Horae mean?
At Mycenae's gate, there was rock sculptures of ______
When giving an oracle, the Pythia goes into a trance and speaks in tongues. Who translates this?
What was Zeus given to eat in the cave?
goat's milk and honey
TRUE OR FALSE - Dionysus is represented as being hyper-masculine
FALSE - he is represented as being less masculine, with no beard and less muscularity
What does aether mean?
Who finally told Demeter part of the story? Who filled in the rest?
Divine myths are sometimes called _______ or ________
For how long did Demeter wander the earth with torches in search of Persephone?
The Myceneans were ruled by powerful _______
Who created the Silver Age according to Hesiod?
Who deciphered Linear B?
Hesiod's Golden Age took place during the reign of ________
How do the Graces and Persuasion contribute to Pandora's creation?
they give her necklaces
What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "goddess of love and war"?
Who is Pan's father?
Where was the Temple of Zeus?
What was Aphrodite's Roman name?
Who was known as the "God of Smiths"?
Who won the Titanomachy?
Zeus and the Olympians
What animal is associated with Athena?
Artemis is not a Greek name. It is associated with an earlier time, possibly as far back as the __________ period
Who is credited with euhemerism?
Why was Cronus considered an important Titan?
he was the father of the Olympian gods
In which of Hesiod's 5 ages did he write?
the Iron Age
________ represents bloodlust and terror (the bad aspects of war)
Explain the myth of how Eleusis became a sacred place
Demeter disguised herself and came to Eleusis. She rested at the Well of the Maiden. The daughters of the local king approached her and treated her well. She became the nanny for their little brother. Iambe was one of the daughters, she told Demeter dirty jokes to cheer her up. Demeter repaid their kindness by making the young prince immortal. She would plunge him into a fire every night, burning away his immortality. The mother saw one night. Demeter revealed her true self and the king made it so Eleusis was a sacred place of worship to Demeter.
What does sparagmos mean?
the ritualistic tearing apart of animals
Explain how Ganymede became the cup-bearer to the gods
Zeus kidnapped the shepard boy to become his lover. Ganymede was honoured and lived in Olympus, working as a cup-bearer and serving nectar to the gods.
What did Epimetheus and Prometheus have in common?
they were both sons of Iapetus
Gaea is in pain due to Uranos stuffing their offspring back into her. Who does she encourage to get revenge?
Darkness and Night came together to create their opposites: ________ and ________
What years are associated with the Neolithic ('New Stone' Age)?
How did the Corybantes (whirlers) protect Zeus in the cave?
they spun so fast that their whirling noise drowned out the sound of Zeus crying
According to Hesiod, who is going to destroy us and end the Iron Age?
Explain what happened with Themistocles and the oracle
The oracle said "Athenians should trust in their wooden walls" in response to being asked how they should respond to the Persians. Themistocles interpreted that as meaning that the Athenians should abandon Athens and retreat to their wooden ships, which ended up being a good strategy.
What was Ovid's Metamorphoses about?
What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "sun-god"?
What is the name of the city that was very important during the Classical Period (480-323 BC), and is known as the center of intellect?
What was associated with Hades?
he was the god of the underworld
Heinrich Schliemann thought the corpse associated with the gold mask was _______________
Where was the battle between Typhoeus and Zeus?
What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of death"?
How does Aphrodite contribute to Pandora's creation?
she gives her grace, beauty, desire and the ability to spark sexual longing
Who was Typhoeus' jailer in Mt. Etna?
Epimetheus ignores the warning of his brother, Prometheus, and accepts a gift from Zeus. What was this gift?
According to Hesiod's ______ Age, people weren't peaceful, ate no food and killed themselves off
Hermes is often shown with wings, a hat, and carrying a staph with snakes. What is this staph called?
Who led the Olympians in the Titanomachy?
What was the name of the barley drink offered to Demeter while she was with the family in Eleusis?
How is the word Aphrodite a false etymology?
aphros = foamy
Who served as inspiration for later representation of the devil?
What does parthenon mean?
temple of the virgin
After the Olympians won the Gigantomachy, which 3 Olympian gods divided the world among themselves?
Zeus, Poseidon and Hades
What did later Greeks call Mycenae's huge walls? What was their reasoning behind this?
the walls were so big that they had to have been built by monsters (cyclopes)
What is worth noting about the Minoan's gods?
they worshipped only 1 god, a female fertility goddess
Who wrote Bacchae?
Why was Rhea considered an important Titan?
she was the mother of the Olympian gods
How many of Hesoid's works survived intact?
What did Gaea symbolize?
the Earth - she was the mother of everything
Hephaestus is an offspring of Hera. How is he different than her other offspring?
Hera created him without the use of a man
After the Mycenean civilization was destroyed in 1150 BC (1177 BC), Linear B and written language disappeared from Greece for 400 years until the Archaic Period (800-480 BC). What period of Greek history is associated with this lack of writen language?
Dark Age (1200-800 BC)
Due to Prometheus tricking Zeus, what parts of a sacrifice were given to the gods?
bones and fat
How many Titans were there? How many were male and how many were female?
6 males and 6 females
Name the 6 male Titans.
Which was considered to be more pure: the love between a male and a female or the love between 2 males?
the love between 2 males
Why is Dionysus often called "twice born"?
he was born when he was taken from the pile of Semele's ashes, and then born again from Zeus' thigh
According to Greek mythology, what was the first thing to exist?
Chaos - an empty void out of which everything was created
Explain the myth associated with Poseidon and Athena
Athena and Poseidon compete to become the patron god of Athens. Whoever gives the best gift wins. Athena gives an olive tree and Poseidon gives a salty creek. Athena wins and becomes the patron god.
Why was Poseidon not very popular?
the Greeks were suspicious of the sea and they thought shipwrecks were due to Poseidon
What was considered to be the most powerful apparition of nature?
Who were Hermes' parents?
Maya and Zeus
What happened to the female Titans after the Titanomachy?
they were not banished to Tartaros because they were neutral
Who won the Gigantomachy?
What geographical location is associated with the Minoans?
the island of Crete
Who defeated Typhoeus?
What years are associated with the Mycenean Age (Late Bronze Age)?
After Dionysus is born, he goes to the Near East and works his way back to Greece. Along the way, he tries to convince people that he is a divinity and the son of _______
How was Cronus associated with the "succession myth" after the violent episode of Uranos' castration?
Cronus became the god of the sky, but reamined fearful of his Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires brothers, and didn't free them from Tartaros like he promised Gaea. She warned Cronus that a son of his would overpower him as he had overpowered Uranos.
How was Atlas punished after the Titanomachy?
he was forced to hold the sky up on his shoulders for the rest of eternity
What is something impressive about Mycenae that later Greeks couldn't explain?
What does Dionysus wear over his shoulder? How does this confirm his association with the Near East?
leopards weren't indigenous to Greece
Mnemosyne was the goddess of __________. How was she related to Zeus?
she was Zeus' aunt
Explain why Pandora was all-gifted.
all of the gods contributed to her creation
What are the 2 purposes of folktales?
- justify customary patterns of behaviour
Artemis was a virgin goddess, but she was different from the other virgin goddesses. How so?
she was still alluring
Chryselephantine statues were popular in Greece. What were these statues made of?
gold and ivory
The Minoans are known for their elaborate ________
________ saw a goddess bathing in the forest and was punished for this by being turned into a deer, which was then ripped apart by his hunting dogs
Who is considered as the greatest Greek hero?
What was the name of Eleusis' king?
What does the word "mesopotamia" mean?
land between rivers
Who is the father of Zeus?
Themis was the goddess of ___________
order and law
Why was Iapetus considered to be an important Titan?
his offspring invented man
What significant finding was found during Heinrich Schliemann's 2nd excavation (Mycenae)?
gold mask found over corpse
According to Hesiod's ______ Age, there is a lot of exploitation and hard work, and family affections disappear
What is the example of a folktale we looked at in class?
Hesoid's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale
What type of myth tells the story of a great deed of a human (or semi-divine) hero?
What is the Sanskrit word for "night"?
The myth involving Hades and Persephone is an etiological myth which explains why we have ___________
________ was both a primordial deity as well as a name to describe a region of the Underworld used as a dungeon
What does Moerae mean?
What is the Greek word for "night"?
__________ were peaceful people
What significant event marked the end of the Archaic Period in 480 BC?
Greeks won the Persian Wars
________ allegory assumes that the gods and other characters in myths actually refer to natural things and processes.
How are Gaea and Uranos associated with the "succession myth"?
Uranos hates his offspring. Each time one is about to be born, he stuffs them back into Gaea (personification of the womb).
Who was Aphrodite's husband?
What motif is associated with Apollo killing Python?
dragon combat motif
What does omphalos mean?
Name 4 of Apollo's failed loves
- Sibyl at Cumae
From the name Demeter, -meter means _________ and we don't know the meaning of De-
Although the Greeks thought of themselves as highly rational people, their _______ weren't always rational and often had questionnable morals
What is the Latin word for "mother"?
After Prometheus steals fire from Olympus, how does Zeus punish the humans?
he sends Pandora to men
(female introduced into society is a punishment)
What are the 2 animals associated with Artemis?
What did the word "Iran" mean in ancient times? How did it change over time? What does this example show us?
Iran: area of the aryans
"aryan" took on a different meaning during WW2
this example shows us the movement of language (as well as culture and ideas)
Who were the Melian ash-tree Nymphs?
young women representing ponds, rivers, forests, etc.
Mesopotamia is the region that today we know as _____
What does Pandora carry? What is inside?
she carries a jar
all evil and good things are inside the jar
Chaos gave rise to _________ and _________
Comment on the offspring of Zeus vs. the offspring of Poseidon
Zeus' offspring = important
Poseidon's offspring = grotesque
The Greeks had a word that describes stories we can fit under folktale: _______
How did Zeus level the playing field between men and women?
he was able to give birth (Athena)
The Horae sisters are personifications of _________
Who always accompanies Aphrodite?
Eros, Himeros (desire), and the Graces (allure of a female)
Explain the myth involving Ares, Aphrodite and Adonis
Aphrodite fell in love with Adonis, which made Ares jealous. Ares turned himself into a wild boar and killed Adonis. His blood gave rise to a river, as well as red anemones (flowers).
For the example of false etymologies we looked at in class, the Greeks tried to related ______ with ______, even though the 2 words aren't etymologically related
Cronus (father of Zeus)
Gaea and her son, Uranos, gave rise to the Hecatoncheires. Describe them.
giant creatures who had 100 hands and 50 heads
TRUE OR FALSE - Apollo was known for having great success with women
FALSE - he had trouble with women
Which primordial deity was the "sea god"?
What was the city of Troy known for?
having great walls