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Flashcards in MIDTERM #1 Deck (561):
1

What was Ares' Roman name?

Mars

2

What happened to Anchises after he told people about the affair (Aphrodite told him not to tell anyone)?

he was stricken and lost the use of his legs

3

What was the Sumerian name for the "sky-god"?

An/Anu

4

Why does Hera borrow Aphrodite's girdle?

Hera borrows Aphrodite's girdle to appear very attractive to Zeus, in order to distract him from her scheme. She wants the Greeks to win the Trojan War whereas Zeus is impartial. She wants to get her way.

5

Minoan double-axes are often called _______

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labrys

6

A _________ is a story whose characters are ordinary people or animals

folktale

7

____________ was the god of medicine

Asclepius

8

What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?

Ea

9

Who was the first king of Athens?

Erichthonius

10

Name the 6 members of the first generation of the Olympians

  1. Hestia
  2. Demeter
  3. Hera
  4. Hades
  5. Poseidon
  6. Zeus

11

What was Hermes' Roman name?

Mercury

12

Hades is immortal, but why is he not considered to be an Olympian?

he doesn't live up on Mt. Olympus

13

Who heard Persephone's cries as she was being abducted?

Hecate and Helius

14

How did Rhea trick Cronus into not realizing Zeus was still alive?

she gave Cronus a stone wrapped in a blanket in Zeus' place

15

How did the Curetes (young men) protect Zeus in the cave?

they rattled their spears against their shields to drown out the noise of Zeus crying

16

Who was Uranos' mother?

Gaea

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17

What does the Latin term legenda mean?

something that must be read

18

Who were the 3 male Titans who were not banished to Tartaros after the Titanomachy?

Epimetheus, Prometheus and Atlas

19

Who was known as the "Receiver of Many"?

Hades

20

What years are associated with the Myceneans?

c. 1600 BC - 1150 BC

21

What was the name of the goat and the name of the bee that gave Zeus food?

goat = Amalthea

bee = Melissa

22

What happened with Argus and Io after Hermes decapitated Argus?

Hera took Argus' 100 eyes and set them in the tail of the peacock. Hera also sets a biting fly on Io. Io roams the Earth trying to get rid of the fly.

23

What was Hera's Roman name?

Juno

24

What happened to the members of the first generation of the Olympians?

Cronus swallowed the first 5 children whole

25

Where did Rhea hide her youngest son, Zeus?

on the island of Crete in a cave

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26

There was a prophecy that the Giants would be defeated only is a mortal helped the Olympians. Who helped the Olympians in the Gigantomachy?

Heracles (the son of a mortal mother)

27

____________ was an offspring of Posedion who was a cannibalistic cyclopes

Polyphemus

28

One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was named Daphne. Explain what happened with Apollo and Daphne

Daphne ran away from Apollo and prayed to be turned into a tree to avoid him.

29

What is the name of the city that was an important religious center that was credited with the first ideas of salvation and having a better view of the afterlife?

Eleusis

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30

One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was Sibyl at Cumae (a Pythia). Explain what happened with Apollo and Sibyl at Cumae

She was given immortality, but refused to have sex with Apollo. He made it so she had immortality, but she didn't have eternal youth.

31

Describe Pan's appearance

legs of a goat, shaggy beard

32

What are the 2 poems about the Trojan War called?

The Iliad and The Odyssey

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33

Euhemerism says that the gods are historical figures who were _______ kings long ago who were eventually transformed by story into _______

human

gods

34

Who is known as the "Mistress of Animals"?

Artemis

35

When did Euhemerus come up with euhemerism?

Q image thumb

c. 300 BC

36

Explain the myth involving Apollo and the crow

Coronis, Apollo's lover, left him and had an affair. A white crow told Apollo about this. Apollo was so angry that he killed Coronis and burned the crow. The crow that was once white was then black.

37

What year is associated with the volcanic eruption at Thera that caused significant damage to the Minoan city of Knossos?

Q image thumb

c. 1630 BC

38

What was the Greek name for the "goddess of death"?

the Greeks gave this responsibility to a male

Hades = god of the underworld and death

39

What years are associated with the Hellenistic Period?

323-31 BC

40

Explain "aegis-bearing Zeus"

Zeus had a shield made of goat skin with snake-headed tassels - represented his power

41

What was the Greek name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?

the Greeks took inspiration from the "god of water, wisdom, magic" and changed it slightly

Hermes = god of wisdom, intelligence, trickery

42

What is a maenad?

female worshipper of Dionysus

43

Who was Sarpedon's father?

Zeus

44

TRUE OR FALSE - Pan was strictly heterosexual

FALSE - Pan approached a sheppard boy with sexual intent

45

Cronus and Rhea had 6 children, which were the first generation of the Olympians. Who was born first, the 3 males or the 3 females?

3 females born first

Hestia, Demeter, Hera then Hades, Poseidon, Zeus

46

Explain the 2 versions of the story of how Hephaestus was expelled from Olympus

  1. Zeus threw him off for taking Hera's side in an argument. Hephaestus landed on Lemnos.
  2. Hera threw Hephaestus from Olympus in disgust

47

What period of Greek history is associated with "myth making"?

Early/Middle Bronze Age (3000-1600 BC)

48

Because Prometheus created humans, he was a ________________

culture hero

49

Explain the myth associated with Erichthonius

Hephaestus wanted to seduce Athena and he chased her. He ejaculated on Athena's leg, which she wiped off with a piece of wool and threw it on the ground. This was how Erichthonius was born. He was born from the Earth, so he had snake-like lower quarters.

50

What was associated with Metis?

cleverness, personification of human intelligence

51

How was the Minoan civilization destroyed in c. 1450 BC?

palaces were burned (warfare)

52

Who was emphasized as being less Greek than the other gods? Why?

Dionysus

what he represents (losing oneself) was somewhat problematic in society

53

Who fought in the Gigantomachy?

Giants vs. Olympians

54

What was Apollo's weapon?

arrow

55

__________ represented a young, aristocratic man reaching adulthood

Apollo

56

What time period is associated with Ovid?

43 BC - 17 AD

57

After Prometheus steals fire from Olympus, how does Zeus punish Prometheus?

he chains Prometheus to a rock

58

Explain the customs associated with a newly married couple on their wedding night

The bride would be given a pomegranate (associated with menstrual blood). The older women of the family would also stand near the door to the bedroom and sing songs.

59

What is the possible explanation for why later Greeks thought cyclopes were real and that they built the walls of Mycenae?

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At some point, there was a group of blacksmiths who had tattoos of an eye on their foreheads. Through time, these human people became monsters in the retelling of stories.

60

What does Zeus do when he sees Hera in Aphrodite's girdle?

Zeus is overcome with desire. He tells Hera she's better than all his other lovers. They lie down on the side of a mountain, which later explodes with life.

61

Prometheus tells his brother, ___________, not to accept any gifts from Zeus

Epimetheus

62

What is the name of the German businessman who funded excavations at Troy and at Mycenae?

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Heinrich Schliemann

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63

Name 2 examples of Greek myths that show the influence of the Near East (those shown in the powerpoint slide on Near-Eastern influence)

  • myth of the origin of the present world-order
  • universal flood

64

What significant event marked the end of the Classical Period in 323 BC?

the death of Alexander the Great

65

Name 2 important Minoan symbols

  • bull
  • double-axe

66

Zeus' aegis is an example of an ___________ item, because it turns away danger

apotropaic

67

What was associated with Zeus?

he was the god of the sky

68

Hesiod's ___________ was an exception to humanity's general decline

Age of Heroes

69

What does Prometheus' name mean?

forethought

70

How did Athena come out of Zeus' head wound?

she came out fully armoured, and yelling a war cry

71

Who was Asclepius' mother?

Coronis

72

An alternative perspective on the story of Actaeon was that he wasn't torn apart by his dogs, but torn apart financially because ___________________________________

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he spent all his money on hunting dogs

73

Writing re-emerged during the Archaic Period (800-480 BC) with the invention of the _______________

Greek alphabet

74

What was the name of the young prince that Demeter tried to make immortal?

Demophoon

75

Who were Apollo's parents?

Zeus and Leto

76

What is the name of the script associated with the Myceneans?

Linear B

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77

What time is associated with Hesoid's writings?

c. 700 BC

78

The Myceneans are said to have lasted until 1150 BC, but experts say that the specific year was _____

1177 BC

79

Who fought in the Titanomachy?

Titans vs. Olympians

80

Zeus was a father to many gods and heroes. Some estimate up to _____

115

81

Name an example of how Piety was slain during Ovid's Iron Age

children cared less for their parents in old age and weren't as concerned about burying them properly

82

Ancient Greeks thought they were the best and the most _________. They were an "education to the rest of the world".

rational

83

How does Zeus react when his son, Sarpedon, dies?

he cries tears of blood

84

What is the Sanskrit word for "mother"?

mata

85

What Zeus' name Greek?

no, it was derived from Indo-European "di-", Germanic "Tiu" and Indic "Dyaus Pitar"

86

Describe Apollo's appearance

no beard and longer hair which was tied up

87

What was the name of Celeus' wife?

Metaneira

88

Explain the story of how Hermes ends up giving his half-brother, Apollo, the lyre

Hermes cooks the other gods dinner by stealing Apollo's cattle (Hermes invents sausage). To avoid detection, he drives the cattle backwards to lead people the wrong way (Hermes invents sandals). Apollo confronts baby Hermes about the stolen cattle. Zeus, their father, intervenes and makes the half-brothers patch things up. Hermes gives Apollo the lyre.

89

Is Dionysus a fertility god?

yes - he is a god of wet fertility (wine, blood, semen)

90

Zeus was mad after he was tricked by Prometheus. How does he punish the humans?

he witholds fire

91

What type of myth has supernatural beings (gods or personified aspects of nature) as main characters?

divine myth

92

Ovid and Julia were exiled to an island. Who later let Julia starve?

her stepmother

93

What was associated with Hestia?

she represents the fireplace

94

Poseidon was known as the "Dark-Haired Lord of the Deep". What was another name for Poseidon?

"The Earthshaker"

(the Greeks thought earthquakes came from the sea)

95

Explain the myth associated with Niobe

Niobe had either 12 or 14 children, and she boasted that she was the goddess of fertility and she put Leto to shame because she only had 2 children. Leto tells her children to get revenge. Apollo and Artemis kill all of Niobe's children with their arrows.

96

One of Pan's lovers ran away and prayed to be changed into a tree. They were turned into a bundle of reids. How did Pan react to this?

Pan cut the reids and invented the pan pipe

97

Who was the first person to use allegory to interpret myth?

Theagenes

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98

Why did Demeter's withdrawal of agriculture from earth anger the gods?

the humans had no food, so they couldn't sacrifice to the gods

99

What were the Fates?

3 sisters who decided the destiny of human life

100

What was the Greek name for the "sun-god"?

the Greeks switched the responsibilities for this example

Helios was the original personification of the sun, but Apollo became the more important god of the light and sun

101

The preistess who gave oracles at Apollo's Oracle in Delphi was called a __________

Pythia

102

What was Athena's Roman name?

Minerva

103

The rock that Prometheus was chained to was loacted in the __________ Mountains

Caucasus

104

After Zeus swallowed the pregnant Metis, he had a bad headache. Who did he ask to split his head open with an axe?

Hephaestus

105

What does ainos mean?

moral fable

106

What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "sky-god"?

Anu

107

Who wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey?

Homer

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108

Upon Nyx and Erebus' union (night and darkness coming together), who was born?

Aether (radiance) and Hemera (day)

109

Explain the myth of Apollo's birth

Hera learned that Leto, one of Zeus' mistresses was pregnant. Hera curses Leto and makes it so she can't give birth on solid ground. This is why Leto gives birth on Delos, which is a floating island.

110

___________ and ____________ are often called "the two Demeters" or "the two goddesses"

Demeter

Persephone

111

What is the Russian word for "mother"?

mat'

112

What was the name given to the stone? Where was it placed?

omphalos

Delphi

113

Hebe was a daughter of Zeus and Hera, she represented ________

youth

114

Which primordial deity was the personification of the sky?

Uranos

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115

How did Hades make himself invisible?

magic hat

116

Heinrich Schliemann lived from _____ to _____

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1822-1890

117

The _________ had no defensive structures, which suggests they were potentially masters of the sea

Minoans

118

The surviving litterary evidence of Linear B was mainly _________________

inventory lists

119

The ________ were warlike people

Myceneans

120

What is the reason that Hesiod's Golden Age ended?

the arrival of Pandora/Woman

121

What is Silenus?

part horse and part man, but not half and half

122

What is the name of the city that was an important religious center that had the Temple of Apollo, where people could go and receive "fortune telling" from Apollo through his priest and priestess?

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Delphi

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123

In what was did Zeus deal with the pattern of the succession myth differently than before?

he swallowed his pregnant wife, Metis, rather than just the child

124

Describe Eros

little angel cherub with a bow and arrow

125

People used to trade sexual acts in exchange for donations to Aphrodite. What 2 places are associated with this?

Corinth and Cythera

126

Who watches Cronus and the other Titans once they are banished to Tartaros by Zeus after they lost the Titanomachy?

the Hecatoncheires

127

How did Hades trick Persephone into forever being tied to the underworld?

He told her that he'd let her go after 1 last meal. Persephone ate 3 or 4 pomegranate seeds. If you share a meal in the underworld, you become linked to it forever. She was trapped in the underworld for 1 month of the year, the time when things don't grow.

128

The Age of Heroes doesn't exist according to Ovid, due to Rome being tired of people claiming connections to heroes. For example, Augustus had claimed he was connected to ___________ and Mark Antony had claimed he was connected to ____________

Aphrodite

Herakles

129

Who is the primordial deity of sexual desire?

Eros

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130

According to Ovid's ______ Age, there is a lot of trickery and fraternal discord

Iron

131

Ovid only accounts for 4 ages, whereas Hesiod accounts for 5. Which of Hesiod's ages does not exist in Ovid's ages?

the Age of Heroes

132

What was the Greek name for the "sky-god"?

Zeus

133

Which of Homer's 2 poems was about the actual battle of the Trojan War?

The Iliad

134

How many ages of man were there according to Ovid's Metamorphoses?

4 ages

135

What significant event marked the end of the Hellenistic Period in 31 BC?

the death of Cleopatra

136

Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, is often known as _________

Kore

137

Who were the Titans who helped Zeus and the Olympians?

Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires

138

Stories of Greek heroes (such as Achilles in the Trojan War) fall under which category of myth?

legend

139

What was Zeus' final resting place?

Mt. Luktas on Crete

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140

During Demeter's search for Persephone, she refused to eat _________ or drink _________ and she didn't bathe

ambrosia

nectar

141

Hades was known as the "Receiver of Many". What are 2 other names commonly used for Hades?

Ploutos

"the wealthy one"

142

What does xenia mean? Who established xenia?

formal guest friendship

Zeus

143

Were Hesiod's writings likely completely original?

no - he likely compiled and wrote down aspects of already existing oral traditions

144

TRUE OR FALSE - the popularity of a god is not correlated to how many temples they have

TRUE

145

As opposed to physical allegory, euhemerism says myth tells us _______ truths, not philosophical truths

historical

146

What specifically did the Cyclopes do for Zeus which helped him and the Olympians in the Titanomachy?

they fashioned Zeus' thunderbolts

147

___________ is sometimes thought of as being version 2 of Gaea

Demeter

148

How does Zeus punish the loser Titans after the Titanomachy?

he banishes Cronus and the other Titans to Tartaros

149

Has the Minoan script, Linear A, been deciphered?

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no

150

How did Prometheus go about tricking Zeus?

he covered the "bad" pile with fat and he covered the "good" pile with bad things

151

Who was known as the "Dark-Haired Lord of the Deep"?

Poseidon

152

What does cronos mean?

time

153

Prometheus is the son of _________

Iapetus

154

Eurynome was the personification of _________

order

155

What is the Sanskrit word for "mouse"?

mus

156

What was characteristic of those born semi-spontaneously from the Earth?

snake-like lower quarters

157

What was the name of the youngest son of Tartaros and Gaea?

Typhoeus

158

What was associated with Demeter?

she was a goddess of fertility of the land (took over responsibility of Earth from Gaea)

159

What does argeiphontes mean?

Argus slayer

160

Why did Heinrich Schliemann fund excavations at Troy and at Mycenae?

Q image thumb

he wanted to prove the Trojan War actually did happen

161

Aristocrats thought if commoners ruled, it would be a ____________

cacocracy

162

Explain the story of "The Hanging Marsyas"

Marsyas challenged Apollo to a music competition. Marsyas did very well, which angered Apollo. Apollo hung him up and skinned him.

163

What time period is associated with Ovid's Golden Age?

the Early Roman Republic

164

What was the Sumerian name for the "storm-god"?

Enlil

165

What years are associated with the Classical Period?

480-323 BC

166

_________ was the home of the original olympian games and was also considered a sacred place

Olympia

167

Who is said to be the "Father of Gods and Men"?

Zeus

168

What are the animals that are associated with Hera?

cow and peacock

169

Who is Priam?

the king of Troy during the Trojan War

170

What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "storm-god"?

Enlil/Marduk

171

Name 2 of Ovid's works.

Art of Love

Metamorphoses

172

By connecting "Cronus" with "cronos" via false etymology, the Greeks said that when Cronus eats his children, it means ____________________

time devours everything

173

What does parthogenesis mean?

virgin birth

174

There was a sacred palm tree on the island of Delos. What was special about this tree?

it was clutched by Leto during the pain of childbirth, when she birthed Artemis and Apollo

175

What is another term often used by the Greeks for the Near East?

Asia Minor

176

Who was originally associated with the sun before Apollo took on this role?

Helius

177

Myths are easily understood by the human mind because we do well with _________. We see things in black and white. It is said that myths fill in the gray area.

opposites

178

What type of myth generally explains why the world is the way it is?

divine myth

179

What does Pandora mean?

all-gifted

180

Who was the child of Poseidon and Medusa?

Pegasus

181

Explain the myth associated with Orion

Orion was a hunter who tried to rape Artemis. She set a scorpion on his head which stung him to death. Orion was set in the sky as a constellation most notable for its belt (hunter belt). Artemis arranged it so that Orion would always be fleeing the scorpion (another constellation Scorpio, which was on the other side of the sky).

182

Apollo is a god of prophecy. He killed _________ to establish his Oracle at Delphi

Python

183

Zeus was a sky god, but was also known as a god of law and justice: ______, which comes from the root "to point out"

Dike

184

____________: something that can be interpreted a different way, which reveals a hidden meaning

Allegory

185

Were the people of Mesopotamia Indo-European?

no, they were a different cultural and linguistic group than the Greeks

186

TRUE OR FALSE - Apollo is associated with the sun and the light

TRUE

187

Explain the myth associated with Hades and Persephone

Hades abducts his niece, Persephone, who becomes the queen of the dead for part of the year.

188

Explain the myth involving Hephaestus trapping Hera, and his subsequent return to Olympus

Hephaestus built a golden throne of revenge for Hera which trapped her. Hephaestus is retrieved from Earth and brought to Oluympus to free Hera. Hephaestus was influenced with alcohol (Dionysus was involved). Hephaestus gets a donkey to return to Olympus.

189

After Zeus witholds fire from humans, what does Prometheus do?

steals fire from Olympus and brings it to Earth in a fennel stalk

190

Who were the parents of the Muses?

Zeus and Mnemosyne

191

According to Hesiod's Age of Heroes, most of them killed each other, but Zeus sent some of the to _________________

the Isles of the Blessed

192

Explain the myth associated with Dionysus and the pirates

Pirates didn't believe Dionysus was divine, they decided to kidnap him. Dionysus warns them. He turns rope to vine, changes form multiple times and fills the boat with wine and grapes. The pirates jump overboard. In a moment of compassion, Dionysus turns the pirates into dolphins.

193

How many ages of man were there according to Hesiod's Works and Days?

5 ages

194

What does nyx mean?

night

195

______ is the god of fertility of wild spaces and the sexuality of wild animals

Pan

196

Hecate, one of two people who heard Persephone's cries, represents the ________ phase of a woman's life

gyne

197

The Sacred Way led to a great temple called __________, which was the center of the Eleusinian Mysteries

Telesterion

198

What is the Latin word for "mouse"?

mus

199

Eileithyia was the daughter of Zeus and Hera. She represented _____________

childbirth

200

Cronus threw Uranos' genitals into the sea. What happened then?

the sea foamed, and Aphrodite is born from the foam

201

Who created Hesiod's Bronze Age?

Zeus (alone - from ash trees)

202

What is the name of the script associated with the Minoans?

Linear A

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203

What does Hades' name mean?

invisible

204

Name the 3 Hecatoncheires

  1. Cottus
  2. Briareus
  3. Gyges

205

What was the Greek name for the "goddess of love and war"?

the Greeks split these responsibilities between 2 individuals

Ares = god of war

Aphrodite = goddess of love

206

The ________ were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primodial deities and preceding the Olympians

Titans

207

What does "Zeus kataibates" mean?

Zeus who descends

208

Ovid was a _________ poet

Roman

209

What was the Greek explanation as to why the Egyptians worshipped animals?

Typhoeus was so terrifying that the Olympian gods fled to Egypt and disguised themselves as animals

210

What language is said to be the root of all Indo-European languages?

Sanskrit

211

Name a few common motifs used in ancient Greek myths

  • doubles (twins, doppelgangers)
  • dragons
  • siblings fighting
  • knight slaying dragon and getting the princess as his prize

212

Describe Artemis' attire

hunting gear: boots, sportswear, bow and arrow, hunting dog

213

_________ narrate the events of the human past through a blend of actual history and myth

Legends

214

We know that Priapus' mother is Aphrodite but there is some uncertainty about Priapus' father. Who are the 2 god that it might be?

Dionysus or Hermes

215

What was Ovid's Art of Love about?

it was a love manual

216

What was Hesiod's Works and Days about?

the fall of a man from a golden age to one of iron

217

Nyx and Erebus came together and produced their _________

opposites

218

During which period of Greek history did the Trojan War occur as well as the first evidence of writing?

Mycenean Age (Late Bronze Age) (1600-1200 BC)

219

Dionysus carried a pinecone-tipped staff. What was this called?

thrysus

220

In what year was Ovid exiled by the Roman emperor, Augustus?

8 AD

221

Apollo was the god of opposites. For example, he was both the god of ________ and _________

illness

healing

222

Who did Night give rise to solo?

Fates and Mountains

223

Name the 2 animals that are associated with Zeus

bull

eagle

224

In the Gigantomachy, who urged the Giants to attack Olympus?

Gaea

225

What does Aphrodite use to slap Pan when he is trying to approach her in a loving way?

a sandal

226

How did the Seasons contribute to Pandora's creation?

they gave her a crown

227

How did Hermes contribute to the creation of Pandora?

he gave her a difficult character and a cheating heart

228

What is the Russian word for "salt"?

sol'

229

An _________ myth offers an explanation as to why things are the way they are

etiological

230

Where did Prometheus trick Zeus into giving humans the good parts of a sacrifice?

Mekone

231

What did the Erinyes (Furies) consider to be the worse crime of all? Why?

patricide or matricide - killing one's own parents

the Erinyes (Furies) were born from a similar crime

232

Who is associated with the phrase: "of the Golden Laughter"?

Aphrodite

233

What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of love and war"?

Inanna

234

Personification (abstract concepts given human characteristics) is called _______________

anthropomorphism

235

Who led the Titans in the Titanomachy?

Cronus

236

What is the theory as to why so many places each developped their own version of a myth telling the story of a universal flood?

they tell the story of what happened after the last ice age

237

Who protected Zeus in the cave?

Corybantes (whirlers) and Curetes (young men)

238

What is etymology?

the study of the origin of words

239

Explain the myth involving Hermes, Io and Argus

Zeus spots a girl, Io, and disguises himself as a cloud. Hera is suspicious. Zeus covers his tracks by turning Io into a cow. Hera ties the cow to a tree and gives the cow a watchman, Argus. Argus has 100 eyes and always had a least 1 eye open. Zeus gets his son Hermes to play Argus a lullaby on the lyre, which puts Argus completely to sleep. Hermes decapitates Argus.

240

What were the names of the Fates?

Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos

241

What is the Sanskrit word for "salt"?

sal-ila

242

Who was Zeus' first wife?

Metis

243

What is another name for the Roman sky god Jupiter? What is the Greek name for this same god?

Jove

Zeus

244

Themis was one of Zeus' many lovers. How was Themis related to Zeus?

Themis was Zeus' aunt

245

What does the phrase "struck by the arrows of Artemis" mean?

a woman had died during childbirth

246

Explain the myth of Actaeon

Actaeon was hunting with his dogs when he came across Artemis bathing. She was angered by this and turned Actaeon into a stag who was torn apart by his dogs.

247

Gaea was the mother to Uranos, Pontus and _________

mountains

248

Statues of Artemis often had ball-like things hanging off her clothes. What was suggested that these were?

bull testicles - symbolize fertility

249

The name Athena is not originally Greek. Name the 2 other names associated with this figure

Cypris and Cytherea

250

What years are associated with the Dark Age?

1200-800 BC

251

What were the 3 phases of a woman's life?

  1. Parthenos (virgin)
  2. Nymphe (at sexual age)
  3. Gyne (has given birth)

252

In Hesiod's Silver Age, why does Zeus destroy people?

they don't worship the gods

253

In mythology, the feminine principle is connected with ______, _______ and _________

life

death

rebirth

254

A huge horde of gold and jewels was found during Heinrich Schliemann's excavations. What did he call it?

"Priam's treasure"

255

Mesopotamia was the "land between rivers". Name these rivers.

Tigris and Euphrates

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256

Who is Hemera?

personified day

257

Explain how the vandalism of Hermes' statues broke the Athenian power and had a major impact

Athenians were set to attack an Italian city-state that was associated with Sparta. The night before it was set to leave, all the penises were knocked of the Hermes statues. The rumour was that it was Alcibiades, the Athenian military leader. His ship had already left, so Athens sent a fast ship to retrieve Alcibiades and bring him back for trial. Alcibiades jumped ship and joined the Spartans. The Athenians went on to majorly lose on their expedition.

258

TRUE OR FALSE: Zeus was not seen as a fertility figure

FALSE - he was seen as a fertility figure, the rain was thought to be his semen

259

Who is associated with "Potnia Theron"?

Artemis

260

Who was known as "psychopompus"?

Hermes

261

Who was known as "she who sits on a golden throne"?

Hera

262

What years are associated with the Minoans?

c. 2200 BC - c. 1450 BC

263

What is the Greek word for "mouse"?

mus

264

Who did Prometheus trick into giving the good parts of a sacrifice to humans?

Zeus

265

The Gigantomachy was not mentionned by _________

Hesiod

266

Hesiod's Works and Days was essentially a user's manual for his __________ to survive, but also contained mythological aspects

brother

267

What is something important to note about Cronus and his children?

often ate his own children

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268

What did Egyptian texts suggest was the cause of the collapse of the Mycenean civilization in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?

invasions by Sea Peoples

269

What was the last thing Cronus threw up after being given an emetic by Metis?

the stone

270

Who ruled during Ovid's Silver Age?

Jupiter

271

What does hemera mean?

day

272

What is the Greek word for "mother"?

mater

273

What did Pegasus look like?

the body of a horse and the wings of a bird

274

Explain how Hermes invented the lyre

Hermes, as a baby, explored the world as his mother slept. He came across a tortoise, killed it, and kept its shell. He uses the shell to make a musical instrument, which he called the lyre.

275

Were the Minoans Indo-Europeans?

no, their language is not a part of the Indo-European language family

276

According to Hesiod's Silver Age, people take ____ years to mature

100

277

What was the Sumerian name for the "god of water, wisdom, magic"?

Enki

278

What heroes are associated with Hesiod's Age of Heroes?

the heroes that fought at Troy

279

Hesiod doesn't tell us where man comes from. Who does?

Ovid

280

Name the 5 ages in order.

  1. The Golden Age
  2. The Silver Age
  3. The Bronze Age
  4. The Age of Heroes
  5. The Iron Age

281

Name the 3 Cyclopes

  1. Brontos
  2. Steropes
  3. Arges

282

Who came out of Zeus' head wound after being split with an axe?

Athena

283

Who was born from the affair between Anchises and Aphrodite?

Aeneas

284

Theagenes based his interpretations on myths on __________

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opposites

285

Why was Ovid exiled from Rome in 8 AD?

he was involved in a sex-scandal with Augustus' daughter, Julia

286

Explain the myth involving Hermaphroditus and the Nymph Salmacis

Hermaphroditus was having a bath and the Nymph Salmacis saw him and fell in love with him. She jumped on his back and held so tightly and for so long that they fused and became one. Hermaphroditus became both male and female.

287

What was the name of the volcanic island that was sacred to Hephaestus?

Lemnos

288

How many Hecatoncheires were there?

3

289

In what order did Cronus throw up the 5 children?

first in last out - reverse order of their births

290

What years are associated with the Archaic Period?

800-480 BC

291

Who were the parents of the Graces?

Zeus and Eurynome

292

Why was Dionysus dressed as a girl when he was young?

to hide him from Hera

293

What years are associated with the Paleolithic ('Old Stone' Age)?

before 6000 BC

294

Explain the Brauronia ritual and the Arktoi

Young girls would worship Artemis by dressing as bears, they were called arktoi ("little bears"). They would run around and try to scare people.

295

TRUE OR FALSE - Athens took its name from Athena

FALSE - Athena takes her name from the city of Athens

296

According to Ovid's ______ Age, men ask too much from Earth

Iron

297

TRUE OR FALSE - Zeus and Hera had a happy marriage

FALSE - they fought constantly

298

What was Zeus' signature weapon?

lightning-bolt

299

Who were the 3 people who were immune to Aphrodite's powers? Why were these 3 immune?

Athena, Artemis and Hestia

they were virgin goddesses

300

What is the Russian word for "night"?

noch'

301

Who didn't fight in the Titanomachy?

females

302

How many children did Cronus and Rhea have?

6

303

____________ was the goddess of the hunt and wild spaces

Artemis

304

Hermes was very comparable to the Near Eastern gods: ______ and _______

Enki

Loki

305

Which period of Greek history is often referred to as the "peak period" due to massive Greek success?

Classical Period (480-323 BC)

306

Who ended up freeing Prometheus from being chained to the rock?

Heracles

307

According to Ovid's Bronze Age, people weren't entirely evil. How so?

they still worshipped the gods

308

Explain what "succession myth" means

the idea of fearing being put by the wayside by the younger generation

309

The origin of the Apollo is unknown. The name is thought to be maybe be associated with Lacia or to have a Nordic origin. What did Apollo do that suggests an association with the Nordic Hyperboreans?

he left Greece and spent 3 months in the far north each year

310

What does anthropos mean?

man, human, mankind

311

There's a well that people believe was the Well of the Maiden. It is called the Kallichoron Well. Why?

kallichoron means beautiful dancing, and the princesses were said to have danced around the well in order to cheer up Demeter

312

Describe Athena's attire

helmet, shield, spear, aegis around her shoulders

313

What was associated with Poseidon?

he was the god of the ocean

314

In what year did Michael Ventris decipher the Mycenean script, Linear B?

Q image thumb

1952

315

Creation myths of the ancient Greeks would be considered what type of myth?

divine myth

316

Who was Asclepius' father?

Apollo

317

Greeks often presented things in a way that made it seem like they had come up with certain ideas independently. Is this truthful?

no, the Greeks had plenty of Near Eastern influence

318

Theagenes said that myths about the battles between gods really represented conflict among ______________

natural forces

319

What was the Greek name for the "goddess of the earth"?

the Greeks changed the responsibility to be less *Greek misogyny*

Demeter = goddess of fertility of the land

320

How was the Mycenean civilization destroyed in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?

palaces were burned (warfare)

321

__________ was also known as Argeiphontes

Hermes

322

Name both of Hesoid's works that survived intact

  • The Theogony
  • Works and Days

323

Did the Minoans speak Greek?

no

324

Athena was the goddess of war as well as domestic crafts. What domestic craft was considered to be the gift of Athena?

weaving

325

How was Priapus represented as having exaggerated sexuality? This aspect made him an apotropaic figure.

giant penis

326

Ovid's Golden Age was during the time of Saturn. How does this compare to Hesiod's Golden Age?

Hesiod's Golden Age took place during the reign of Cronus, who is the same person as Saturn, just 2 different names

327

Who were the Erinyes (Furies)?

3 sisters who punished those who committed terrible crimes

328

What was the name of the Trojan prince who had an affair with Aphrodite?

Anchises

329

What is the Greek word for "salt"?

hals

330

Who occupied the Minoan palace of Knossos after their downfall?

the Myceneans

331

How many Cyclopes were there?

3

332

What was the name of the island north of Crete, known today as Santorini?

Thera

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333

One of Apollo's unhappy lovers was named Cassandra. Explain what happened with Apollo and Cassandra

The two made a deal, if Cassandra slept with Apollo, he'd give her the power to see the future. She didn't keep her end of the deal, so Apollo made it so nobody ever believed Cassandra when she told them about the future, even though she was telling the truth.

334

_______________ was a working man's god who was disabled and given very little respect on Olympus

Hephaestus

335

Who is Agamemnon?

king of Mycenae

336

Name the 6 female Titans.

  1. Theia
  2. Rhea
  3. Themis
    Mnemosyne
  4. Phoebe
  5. Tethys

337

Apollo had a twin sister named _________

Artemis

338

What is another term for a legend?

saga

339

Which of Homer's 2 poems was about the 10 year struggle of a hero returning home after the Trojan War?

The Odyssey

340

What was the Greek name for the "storm-god"?

the Greeks combined the responsibilites of "sky-god" (Anu) and "storm-god" (Enlil) and gave them to 1 individual

Zeus = god of the sky and thunder

341

What does psychopompus mean?

soul guide

342

_________ was the god of travel, commerce, boundaries, theft and trickery

Hermes

343

What was Hesoid's Theogony about?

the origin of the universe and the ascension of Zeus to "King of the gods"

344

Was the volcanic eruption at Thera in c. 1630 BC the end for the Minoans?

no, the Minoans lasted another 200 years until c. 1450 BC, but the volcanic eruption at Thera was the beginning of the end

345

What are false etymologies?

connecting concepts through words even though the actual words aren't linked

346

What is the Latin word for "salt"?

sal

347

Explain the myth associated with Iphigenia

Agamemnon struggles to sail to Troy and consults a priest to see why the winds are always blowing the wrong way. The priest tells him that he once boasted that he threw a spear farther than even Artemis and this angered her. The only way to make it right was to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia. Iphigenia was taken to an alter to be sacrificed, she was tricked and she thought she was going to marry Achilles.

348

What animal was associated with Poseidon? Why?

horse

Poseidon was chasing Demeter when she changed herself into a horse, so Poseidon did as well. There was also a religious sacrifice of horses to Poseidon.

349

Hesoid's Theogony is associated with _________ myths

creation

350

Legends originally referred to ________ stories about the lives of _______

Christian

saints

351

According to Ovid's Iron Age, Piety is slain and Astraea flees from the Earth. What do Piety and Astraea represent?

Piety = dutiful reponsibility

Astraea = justice

352

Those who travelled would seek the protection of Hermes. Apotropaic symbols of Hermes would be placed at crossroads. What were these symbols?

Hermes with an erection

(certain apes had erections when threatened)

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353

In Ovid's Silver Age, what was introduced which means that people now have to work the land to survive?

seasons

354

Who was Zeus' proper wife?

Hera

355

What was Hades' Roman name?

Pluto

356

Who is Erebus?

personified darkness

357

Who raised Zeus in the cave?

nymphs

358

What was the Sumerian name for the "sun-god"?

Utu

359

Who was Pontus' mother?

Gaea

360

TRUE OR FALSE - Artemis is said to have helped birth her twin brother, Apollo

TRUE

361

Gaea and her Son, Uranos, gave rise to the Cyclopes. Describe them.

giant craftsmen (builders, blacksmiths, etc.) with one eye in the center of their foreheads

362

Explain what happened with Croesus and the oracle

Croesus, a king, goes to the oracle to ask if he should be worried about the rising Persians. The oracle tells him: "If Croesus goes to war, a great empire will fall". It ended up being Croesus' empire that fell, he was captured by Cyrus the Great.

363

How many Graces are there? What are they associated with?

3

the attraction and allure of females

364

According to Hesiod's Golden Age, there was no such thing as old age or hardship. How did death work?

death comes as sleep

365

Explain what happened in Bacchae

Dionysus returns to his hometown, Thebes. His cousin, Pentheus, is the king. Pentheus complains of the women worshipping Dionysus. Pentheus is told to dress as a woman and go up to the hill. Dionysus makes it so the women see Pentheus for who he is. Agave, Pentheus' mother, tears Pentheus apart thinking he is a lion.

366

Apollo was the "lord of mice". How does this relate to him being the god of illness?

it was thought that mice brought illness

367

Aphrodite wasn't the only one born from the violent episode of Uranos' castration. Who else sprang from his spilled blood?

Giants

Erinyes (Furies)

Melian ash-tree Nymphs

 

368

How does Athena contribute to Pandora's creation?

she gives her domestic skills

369

What is the Latin word for "night"?

nox

370

Why was Delphi chosen as the place where the stone would be placed?

Delphi was considered to be the center of the Earth

(2 eagles flew towards each other from opposite ends of the Earth, met at Delphi)

371

What did the Greeks think was the reason for the collapse of the Mycenean civilization in 1150 BC (1177 BC)?

Dorian Invasion

372

What does erebus mean?

darkness

373

Explain what happened with Apollo and Python

Apollo shoots a snake, Python, who is guarding the water. Apollo leaves the snake there to rot.

374

Which period of Greek history is associated with the reboot of old myths?

Classical Period (480-323 BC)

375

Euhemerism is a ________ allegory

historical

376

What years are associated with Roman Rule?

31 BC - 476 AD

377

Explain the myth associated with Arachne

Arachne had a weaving competition with Athena, in which she made a blanket showing all the affairs of the gods. Athena was angered by this and disfigured Arachne. Arachne hung herself. Athena felt bad for the girl so she turned her into a living spider.

378

What is Cronus' Roman name?

Saturn

379

TRUE OR FALSE - Persephone was abducted by Hades, who had Zeus' permission to do so

TRUE

380

What is Prometheus forced to undergo as he is chained to the rock by Zeus?

Zeus' eagle pecks at Prometheus' liver every day, but his liver gorws back every night

381

Were the Myceneans Indo-Europeans?

yes, they spoke an early form of Greek

382

Aphrodite was born from a violent episode. What is she the goddess of?

love, beauty, sexual desire

383

Explain the myth of Ares and Alkippe

Ares killed Hallirhothios because he raped his daughter, Alkippe. Ares was the first to be tried on a charge of murder, but was acquitted. There was a court at Athens names Areopagus, which was named after Ares and became where the murder trials were held.

384

What are primordial deities?

first gods and godesses born from the void of Chaos (exist before the Olympians)

385

Zeus is known for his ________, which he uses to maintain his power over all beings

strength

386

Apollo was a god of music. What was the name of the instrument that he played?

lyre

387

What motif is associated with the battle between Typhoeus and Zeus?

dragon combat motif

388

What is the Russian word for "mouse"?

mysh'

389

Describe Ares' appearance

depicted as the perfect male, in hoplite armour

390

Each of the 3 sisters of the Fates had a responsibility. Name the responsibilites in order.

Clotho - spins the thread of life

Lachesis - measures the thread of life

Atropos - cuts the thread of life

391

What years are associated with the Early/Middle Bronze Age?

3000-1600 BC

392

Pan's name likely came from an Indo-European root meaning ________

"to feed"

393

What does Epimetheus' name mean?

afterthought

394

What animal is associated with Apollo?

crow

395

Who was known as the "Mistress of the City"?

Athena

396

What was associated with Hera?

she was the goddess of marriage and childbirth

397

Who were the parents of the first generation of Olympian gods? How were they related?

Cronus and Rhea (both Titans)

they were siblings

398

_________: the regular appearance of certain identifiable narrative patterns in a story

motif

399

Gaea and her son, Uranos, give rise to 3 groups. Name them.

Titans

Cyclopes

Hecatoncheires

400

What was Artemis' Roman name?

Diana

401

How does Hephaestus contribute to Pandora's creation?

he fashions her from the Earth

402

What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of earth"?

Ninhursag/Ki

403

Who were Dionysus' parents?

Zeus and Semele

404

Explain the myth associated with Dionysus' birth

Zeus impregnated a Theban princess, Semele. Hera took her anger out on Semele and used her insecurities to her advantage. She says things like "Do you really think anyone will believe that you got pregnant by Zeus?". Hera tells Semele that the only way to prove Zeus is the father is for him to reveal himself in his true form. Semele asks Zeus to do so, and he burns Semele. She becomes a pile of ashes. Zeus takes the fetus from the pile and sews it into his thigh.

405

Why was it difficult for the Olympians to defeat the Giants in the Gigantomachy?

when the Giants came in contact with the Earth, their wounds healed. They needed to be killed in mid-air.

406

Name the all encompassing female fertility figure associated with Austria

Venus of Willendorf

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407

Hesoid's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale dealt with what question?

Does might make right?

408

How did the Greeks measure time?

olympian games

409

Has the Mycenean script, Linear B, been deciphered?

yes

410

Who gave Cronus an emetic which made him throw up the 5 children which he had swallowed?

Metis (or Zeus?)

411

Demeter was the goddess of ___________________

grain and harvest

412

As females were terribly curious, Pandora opened the jar. All evil things fell to Earth and all good things flew up to heaven. What was the one thing that got caught on the rim of the jar?

hope

413

Explain the myth involving Hephaestus, Aphrodite and Ares

Aphrodite had affairs, so Hephaestus built a bed that would trap her and any of her lovers. Hephaestus caught Ares and Aphrodite together in bed. Nobody on Olympus felt bad for Hephaestus. Hermes said to Apollo: "I can think of worse things than being trapped in bed with the goddess of love".

414

How many Muses were there? What were they associated with?

9

different kinds of art

415

Who is Nyx?

personified night

416

How were Zeus and Hera related?

they were siblings

417

To avoid Hera, Dionysus was given to ________ and was also turned into a _______ at one point

Hermes

goat

418

What did Gaea do that associated her with the idea of "evil female power"?

encouraging her son, Cronus, to get revenge against his father, Uranos

419

How did Cronus help his mother and get revenge on his father?

he used a flint sickle (fashioned by Gaea - from herself) to castrate Uranos

420

The word "morph" comes from a Greek word meaning ______

shape

421

Who is said to be the creator of humans?

Prometheus

422

Who are Ares' parents?

Zeus and Hera

423

Who is Aether?

personified radiance

424

Name 5 important peoples that influenced Greek myth.

  • Sumerians
  • Semites
  • Akkadians
  • Hebrews
  • Hitties

425

What was believed to happen to people who weren't buried properly?

they lived between the land of the living and the land of the dead

426

Where was Apollo born?

Delos (floating island)

427

Who was the messenger of the gods?

Hermes

428

When did Theagenes first use allegory to interpret myth?

Q image thumb

6th c. BC

429

The Horae are some of Zeus' many offspring. What does Horae mean?

Seasons

430

At Mycenae's gate, there was rock sculptures of ______

lions

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431

When giving an oracle, the Pythia goes into a trance and speaks in tongues. Who translates this?

the priest

432

What was Zeus given to eat in the cave?

goat's milk and honey

433

TRUE OR FALSE - Dionysus is represented as being hyper-masculine

FALSE - he is represented as being less masculine, with no beard and less muscularity

434

What does aether mean?

radiance

435

Who finally told Demeter part of the story? Who filled in the rest?

Hecate

Helius

436

Divine myths are sometimes called _______ or ________

true myths

myth proper

437

For how long did Demeter wander the earth with torches in search of Persephone?

9 days

438

The Myceneans were ruled by powerful _______

kings

439

Who created the Silver Age according to Hesiod?

the Olympians

440

Who deciphered Linear B?

Michael Ventris

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441

Hesiod's Golden Age took place during the reign of ________

Cronus

442

How do the Graces and Persuasion contribute to Pandora's creation?

they give her necklaces

443

What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "goddess of love and war"?

Ishtar

444

Who is Pan's father?

Hermes

445

Where was the Temple of Zeus?

Olympia

446

What was Aphrodite's Roman name?

Venus

447

Who was known as the "God of Smiths"?

Hephaestus

448

Who won the Titanomachy?

Zeus and the Olympians

449

What animal is associated with Athena?

owl

450

Artemis is not a Greek name. It is associated with an earlier time, possibly as far back as the __________ period

Paleolithic

451

Who is credited with euhemerism?

Euhemerus

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452

Why was Cronus considered an important Titan?

he was the father of the Olympian gods

453

In which of Hesiod's 5 ages did he write?

the Iron Age

454

________ represents bloodlust and terror (the bad aspects of war)

Ares

455

Explain the myth of how Eleusis became a sacred place

Demeter disguised herself and came to Eleusis. She rested at the Well of the Maiden. The daughters of the local king approached her and treated her well. She became the nanny for their little brother. Iambe was one of the daughters, she told Demeter dirty jokes to cheer her up. Demeter repaid their kindness by making the young prince immortal. She would plunge him into a fire every night, burning away his immortality. The mother saw one night. Demeter revealed her true self and the king made it so Eleusis was a sacred place of worship to Demeter.

456

What does sparagmos mean?

the ritualistic tearing apart of animals

457

Explain how Ganymede became the cup-bearer to the gods

Zeus kidnapped the shepard boy to become his lover. Ganymede was honoured and lived in Olympus, working as a cup-bearer and serving nectar to the gods.

458

What did Epimetheus and Prometheus have in common?

they were both sons of Iapetus

459

Gaea is in pain due to Uranos stuffing their offspring back into her. Who does she encourage to get revenge?

Cronus

460

Darkness and Night came together to create their opposites: ________ and ________

Light

Day

461

What years are associated with the Neolithic ('New Stone' Age)?

6000-3000 BC

462

How did the Corybantes (whirlers) protect Zeus in the cave?

they spun so fast that their whirling noise drowned out the sound of Zeus crying

463

According to Hesiod, who is going to destroy us and end the Iron Age?

Zeus

464

Explain what happened with Themistocles and the oracle

The oracle said "Athenians should trust in their wooden walls" in response to being asked how they should respond to the Persians. Themistocles interpreted that as meaning that the Athenians should abandon Athens and retreat to their wooden ships, which ended up being a good strategy.

465

What was Ovid's Metamorphoses about?

mythology

466

What was the Akkadian/Babylonian name for the "sun-god"?

Shamash

467

What is the name of the city that was very important during the Classical Period (480-323 BC), and is known as the center of intellect?

Athens

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468

What was associated with Hades?

he was the god of the underworld

469

Heinrich Schliemann thought the corpse associated with the gold mask was _______________

Q image thumb

Agamemnon

470

Where was the battle between Typhoeus and Zeus?

Mt. Etna

471

What was the Sumerian name for the "goddess of death"?

Ereshkigal

472

How does Aphrodite contribute to Pandora's creation?

she gives her grace, beauty, desire and the ability to spark sexual longing

473

Who was Typhoeus' jailer in Mt. Etna?

Hephaestus

474

Epimetheus ignores the warning of his brother, Prometheus, and accepts a gift from Zeus. What was this gift?

Pandora

475

According to Hesiod's ______ Age, people weren't peaceful, ate no food and killed themselves off

Bronze

476

Hermes is often shown with wings, a hat, and carrying a staph with snakes. What is this staph called?

caduceus

477

Who led the Olympians in the Titanomachy?

Zeus

478

What was the name of the barley drink offered to Demeter while she was with the family in Eleusis?

kykeon

479

How is the word Aphrodite a false etymology?

aphros = foamy

480

Who served as inspiration for later representation of the devil?

Pan

481

What does parthenon mean?

temple of the virgin

482

After the Olympians won the Gigantomachy, which 3 Olympian gods divided the world among themselves?

Zeus, Poseidon and Hades

483

What did later Greeks call Mycenae's huge walls? What was their reasoning behind this?

Q image thumb

cyclopean masonry

the walls were so big that they had to have been built by monsters (cyclopes)

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484

What is worth noting about the Minoan's gods?

they worshipped only 1 god, a female fertility goddess

485

Who wrote Bacchae?

Euripides

486

Why was Rhea considered an important Titan?

she was the mother of the Olympian gods

487

How many of Hesoid's works survived intact?

2

488

What did Gaea symbolize?

the Earth - she was the mother of everything

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489

Hephaestus is an offspring of Hera. How is he different than her other offspring?

Hera created him without the use of a man

490

After the Mycenean civilization was destroyed in 1150 BC (1177 BC), Linear B and written language disappeared from Greece for 400 years until the Archaic Period (800-480 BC). What period of Greek history is associated with this lack of writen language?

Dark Age (1200-800 BC)

491

Due to Prometheus tricking Zeus, what parts of a sacrifice were given to the gods?

bones and fat

492

How many Titans were there? How many were male and how many were female?

12 Titans

6 males and 6 females

493

Name the 6 male Titans.

  1. Oceanus
  2. Coeus
  3. Crius
  4. Hyperion
  5. Iapetus
  6. Cronus

494

Which was considered to be more pure: the love between a male and a female or the love between 2 males?

the love between 2 males

495

Why is Dionysus often called "twice born"?

he was born when he was taken from the pile of Semele's ashes, and then born again from Zeus' thigh

496

According to Greek mythology, what was the first thing to exist?

Chaos - an empty void out of which everything was created

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497

Explain the myth associated with Poseidon and Athena

Athena and Poseidon compete to become the patron god of Athens. Whoever gives the best gift wins. Athena gives an olive tree and Poseidon gives a salty creek. Athena wins and becomes the patron god.

498

Why was Poseidon not very popular?

the Greeks were suspicious of the sea and they thought shipwrecks were due to Poseidon

499

What was considered to be the most powerful apparition of nature?

lightning

500

Who were Hermes' parents?

Maya and Zeus

501

What happened to the female Titans after the Titanomachy?

they were not banished to Tartaros because they were neutral

502

Who won the Gigantomachy?

the Olympians

503

What geographical location is associated with the Minoans?

the island of Crete

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504

Who defeated Typhoeus?

Zeus

505

What years are associated with the Mycenean Age (Late Bronze Age)?

1600-1200 BC

506

After Dionysus is born, he goes to the Near East and works his way back to Greece. Along the way, he tries to convince people that he is a divinity and the son of _______

Zeus

507

How was Cronus associated with the "succession myth" after the violent episode of Uranos' castration?

Cronus became the god of the sky, but reamined fearful of his Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires brothers, and didn't free them from Tartaros like he promised Gaea. She warned Cronus that a son of his would overpower him as he had overpowered Uranos.

508

How was Atlas punished after the Titanomachy?

he was forced to hold the sky up on his shoulders for the rest of eternity

509

What is something impressive about Mycenae that later Greeks couldn't explain?

huge walls

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510

What does Dionysus wear over his shoulder? How does this confirm his association with the Near East?

leopard skin

leopards weren't indigenous to Greece

511

Mnemosyne was the goddess of __________. How was she related to Zeus?

memory

she was Zeus' aunt

512

Explain why Pandora was all-gifted.

all of the gods contributed to her creation

513

What are the 2 purposes of folktales?

  • entertainment
  • justify customary patterns of behaviour

514

Artemis was a virgin goddess, but she was different from the other virgin goddesses. How so?

she was still alluring

515

 Chryselephantine statues were popular in Greece. What were these statues made of?

gold and ivory

516

The Minoans are known for their elaborate ________

palaces

517

________ saw a goddess bathing in the forest and was punished for this by being turned into a deer, which was then ripped apart by his hunting dogs

Actaeon

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518

Who is considered as the greatest Greek hero?

Achilles

519

What was the name of Eleusis' king?

Celeus

520

What does the word "mesopotamia" mean?

land between rivers

521

Who is the father of Zeus?

Cronus

522

Themis was the goddess of ___________

order and law

523

Why was Iapetus considered to be an important Titan?

his offspring invented man

524

What significant finding was found during Heinrich Schliemann's 2nd excavation (Mycenae)?

gold mask found over corpse

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525

According to Hesiod's ______ Age, there is a lot of exploitation and hard work, and family affections disappear

Iron

526

What is the example of a folktale we looked at in class?

Hesoid's tale of the Hawk and the Nightingale

527

What type of myth tells the story of a great deed of a human (or semi-divine) hero?

legend

528

What is the Sanskrit word for "night"?

nakt-

529

The myth involving Hades and Persephone is an etiological myth which explains why we have ___________

seasons

530

________ was both a primordial deity as well as a name to describe a region of the Underworld used as a dungeon

Tartaros

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531

What does Moerae mean?

Fates

532

What is the Greek word for "night"?

nuks

533

__________ were peaceful people

Minoans

534

What significant event marked the end of the Archaic Period in 480 BC?

Greeks won the Persian Wars

535

________ allegory assumes that the gods and other characters in myths actually refer to natural things and processes.

Physical

536

How are Gaea and Uranos associated with the "succession myth"?

Uranos hates his offspring. Each time one is about to be born, he stuffs them back into Gaea (personification of the womb).

537

Who was Aphrodite's husband?

Hephaestus

538

What motif is associated with Apollo killing Python?

dragon combat motif

539

What does omphalos mean?

belly button

540

Name 4 of Apollo's failed loves

  1. Daphne
  2. Cassandra
  3. Sibyl at Cumae
  4. Coronis

541

From the name Demeter, -meter means _________ and we don't know the meaning of De-

mother

542

Although the Greeks thought of themselves as highly rational people, their _______ weren't always rational and often had questionnable morals

myths

543

What is the Latin word for "mother"?

mater

544

After Prometheus steals fire from Olympus, how does Zeus punish the humans?

he sends Pandora to men

(female introduced into society is a punishment)

545

What are the 2 animals associated with Artemis?

deer

bear

546

What did the word "Iran" mean in ancient times? How did it change over time? What does this example show us?

Iran: area of the aryans

"aryan" took on a different meaning during WW2

this example shows us the movement of language (as well as culture and ideas)

547

Who were the Melian ash-tree Nymphs?

young women representing ponds, rivers, forests, etc.

548

Mesopotamia is the region that today we know as _____

Iraq

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549

What does Pandora carry? What is inside?

she carries a jar

all evil and good things are inside the jar

550

Chaos gave rise to _________ and _________

Darkness

Night

551

Comment on the offspring of Zeus vs. the offspring of Poseidon

Zeus' offspring = important

Poseidon's offspring = grotesque

552

The Greeks had a word that describes stories we can fit under folktale: _______

ainos

553

How did Zeus level the playing field between men and women?

he was able to give birth (Athena)

554

The Horae sisters are personifications of _________

seasons

555

Who always accompanies Aphrodite?

Eros, Himeros (desire), and the Graces (allure of a female)

556

Explain the myth involving Ares, Aphrodite and Adonis

Aphrodite fell in love with Adonis, which made Ares jealous. Ares turned himself into a wild boar and killed Adonis. His blood gave rise to a river, as well as red anemones (flowers).

557

For the example of false etymologies we looked at in class, the Greeks tried to related ______ with ______, even though the 2 words aren't etymologically related

Cronus (father of Zeus)

cronos (time)

558

Gaea and her son, Uranos, gave rise to the Hecatoncheires. Describe them.

giant creatures who had 100 hands and 50 heads

559

TRUE OR FALSE - Apollo was known for having great success with women

FALSE - he had trouble with women

560

Which primordial deity was the "sea god"?

Pontus

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561

What was the city of Troy known for?

having great walls

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