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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (182):
1

How many standard deviations from the mean is considered abnormal on the bell curve

2 standard deviations

2

2 out of 5 characteristics of behaviour can make a behaviour considered to be abnormal. What are these characteristics

Statistical infrequency (2 std), violation of norms (this is culturally relative), Personal distress, Disability or dysfunction (maladaptive to day to day life), unexpectedness

3

What is the difference between psychosis and neurosis

People who experience psychosis have a departure from reality. People experiencing a neurosis are aware of their distress.

4

What are the 4 basic categories of abnormal behaviour

Harmful to self or others, poor contact to reality, emotional reactions unsuitable to the situation and erratic unpredictable behaviour

5

What was abnormality attributed to during the stone age

Deviance and supernatural

6

What were the treatments for abnormal behaviours in the stone age?

Exorcism or trephination.

7

Does trephination kill you

no unless you break through the meninges

8

What was the cause of abnormal behaviour in ancient china

imbalance of positive and negative life forces in the body

9

What was the treatment of mental illness in ancient china

An orderly and harmonious lifestyle.

10

What were two major causes of mental illness in ancient egypt

Moving around (animal like) uterus and the specific place of the uterus caused different issues. The second theory was that women who didn't have sex would have a semen build up and that would become venomous

11

What was the treatment for single women experiencing blindness, paralysis, and mood swings (hysteria) in ancient egypt

Strong smells.

12

What was the treatment for hysteria when it was caused by semen build up in ancient Egypt

a vibrator

13

What is the definition of hysteria

Being blind from the mind or psychological states

14

What are the four fluids according to hippocrates humour theory

black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm.

15

What was the result of having too much phlegm according the hippocrates humour theory

sluggish

16

What was the result of having too much blood according to hippocrates humour theory

mood swings

17

What was the result of having too much black bile according to hippocrates humour theory

Melancholic

18

What was the result of having too much yellow bile according to hippocrates humour theory

irritability/ aggressive. Choleric.

19

What was the perspective on science during the middle ages and renaissance

It was bad and religion was the dominant rule.

20

What was to blame for abnormal behaviour or mental illnesses in the middle ages

Supernatural forces/ animal bites

21

What was the treatment for mental illness in the middle ages/renaissance

whipping and starving

22

In what period did witch hunts happen

Middle ages/ renaissance

23

What is an example of an immoral treatment conducted in mental asylums

Prefrontal lobotomies

24

What did a prefrontal lobotomy do

made people like zombies so they wouldn't be aggressive or have outbursts

25

Why was deinstitutionalization problematic

People had no treatment at all and would often find themselves in jail or homeless

26

Whats the term for severing part of the head with an ice pick

Freeman/watz ice pick lobotomy

27

What is the story of Dr. Cameron

He put up a front saying he wanted to help people with depression forget their horrible pasts but it was run by him and the CIA to learn about brainwashing and mind control

28

Around what time were lobotomies banned from psychiatric hospitals

1980's

29

Who can be traced back to the first form of modern psychology

wundt

30

What is the importance of Kraft-ebing/Kraeplin and biogenic theory

It was the first study of abnormal psychology and looked at the idea of a syndrome (something being physically wrong leads to psychological abnormalities)

31

What finding was considered to be the first major finding of biogenic theory

That people who had syphillis could not get paresis again

32

What does somatogenesis mean

body origin

33

who was one of the earliest proponents of somatogensis

hippocrates

34

Mental illness can be attributed to somatogenesis or psychogenesis

psychogenesis

35

Where does the nancy school come from and who founded it

a place in france where Anton Franz mesmer started doing hypnotism

36

The idea of hypnosis inspired which two prominent scholars and what did they do

Freud and Breuer, psychoanalysis and free association

37

What are the five different perspectives on abnormal behaviour

Psychodynamic, Cognitive, interpersonal, sociocultural and neuroscience

38

What do chromosomes consist of

DNA

39

What is DNA

Protein made up of nucleotide bases

40

What are the four nucelotide bases

Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine

41

Where do genes lie

on chromosomes

42

What are codons

Pairs or sets of nucleotide bases

43

What effects how likely a gene is to be expressed

the more codons or amino acids that rest on a chromosome

44

What is the gene for huntington's disease

chromosome 4

45

Excess of what type of codon on the chromosome 4 leads to huntington's disease

cag

46

What does the amount of gene replication effect and why

severity of gene expression and age of onset of gene expression and it does this because replication isn't perfect gets continuously more imperfect and unstable each time

47

What is a reason that people are genetically diverse

Differences in the way the DNA from the sister chromatid rubs off on the neighbouring chromosome during chromosome replication and crossover

48

How many daughter cells come from meiosis

4

49

How many genetic mutations do humans have

5

50

What are the two types of genes we have

structural and regulator

51

Does anything happen if too many chromosomes attach to one daughter cell

only if it is that one daughter cell that gets fertilized

52

What are the three different ways to look at inheritance

Family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies

53

How are genetic polymorphisms formed

differences in DNA sequences because of abnormalities in the division and repetition process

54

What is linkage analysis

method in molecular genetics that studies people using genetic markers to see where certain genes lie

55

What is the concordance rate for schizophrenia in identical twins? in fraternal twins?

85% and 17%

56

What makes adoption studies so revealing

it takes out the effect of shared environments

57

Which part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for cooling you (your stress) down

parasympathetic nervous system

58

Which part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for making you aroused and stressed

sympathetic nervous system

59

What is the corpus callosum and what is it responsible for

it is a tract of fibres and it allows for communication between the left and right hemispheres

60

What is the primary role of the thalamus

It is a relay system, particularly for sensory information

61

Which brain structure is considered the master gland and produces hormones

hypothalamus

62

what are the pons, medulla, and cerebellum all associated with

basic vital functions

63

Where is the majority of your brains grey matter

cerebral cortex

64

What are the smallest types of neurotransmitters and why

GABA and Glutamate. They are amino acids and only consist of three nucleotide bases

65

Three examples of "feel good neurotransmitters" other than dopamine

enkephalins, endorphines, and opiates

66

Which neurotransmitter is associated with muscular flexing and is inhibited when people get botox

acetycholine

67

What are three things that acetylcholine associated with

learning, attention, and sleep

68

This population of people would have low levels of acetylcholine....

those with alzheimers

69

Where is dopamine produced

the substantia nigra

70

What two disorders are associated with irregularities in dopamine

parkinsons and schizophrenia

71

What is norepinephrine associated with

panic

72

What is serotonin associated with

Sleep and depression

73

Are levels of neurotransmitter metabolites predictive of levels of neurotransmitter levels in the brain

no

74

What are two things the parietal lobe is associated with

knowing where you are in space and the sense of touch

75

What is the temporal lobe associated with

auditory information

76

In what lobe is the hippocampus in

temporal

77

What are three benefits for combining neuroscience and psychological perspectives?

allows for a greater understanding of psychopathology, allows for further understanding of the development of psychopathology, promising avenues of future research

78

What is a problem with using neuroscience to understand psychopathology

reductionistic

79

Why is functionalism better than reductionism when looking at psychopathology

it looks more at the person as a whole including their life than reducing something down to something so small

80

What does the behavioural perspective argue

that the environment is enough to understand someone's behaviour

81

What does S-R psychology stand for

stimulus response psychology

82

Which psychological perspective is considered to be SR psychology

behavioural perspective

83

According to operant conditioning, besides the environment more generally, all behaviours are a result of...

reward and punishment

84

Who was Albert

A toddler that was made to fear rats. His fears then generalized to other white things

85

What is a major difference between the behaviours that result from classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Operant conditioning involves voluntary action

86

What is reinforcement

the process by which events in the environment increase the probability of the behaviour that precedes it

87

What is punishment

the process by which events in the environment decreases the probability of the behaviour that precede it

88

What are two ways to get rid of phobias in respondent conditioning and extinction methods

Systematic desensitization and exposure therapy

89

What are two ways to get rid of phobia according to operant conditioning

Contingency management and token environments

90

What are the four assumptions of behavioural psychology

The task of psychology is the study of behaviour
The goal of psychology is prediction and control
Behaviour can and must be observable and measurable
The real causes of behaviour may be found outside rather than inside the organism

91

What is cognitive psychology also called

S-O-R psychology

92

What does s-o-r psychology stand for

Stimulus organism response psychology

93

When did cognitive psychology become popular

1960's

94

What is cognition

the mental processing of stimuli

95

According to the cognitive perspective abnormal behaviour is a result of what?

negative or irrational thought processes

96

Describe Albert Ellis's ABC

Activating experiences, belief, and consequences

97

What are the three parts of Aaron Beck's negative triad

Negative thoughts about the self, negative thoughts about the world and negative thoughts about the future

98

What are the three types of attributions made in the negative attributional style

Internal, stable, and global

99

What happens to attributions when something good happens to someone with a negative attributional styles

external, dynamics and specific

100

Behaving in ways that support the self concept is called

self-reinforcement

101

What are two cognitive restructuring methods (particularly for pessimists)

Self instructional training and rational emotive therapy

102

What is self instructional training

A method for cognitive restructuring that involves self talk before, during and after an event

103

What happens in rational emotive therapy

Patients will talk about their irrational beliefs until they realize they are irrational

104

What are three strategies a therapist would use to help the patient realize and change irrational thoughts

Hypothesis testing, decatastrophing, and Socratic questioning

105

What does it mean to say that the therapist will engage in hypothesis testing

He/she will ask for evidence to prove or disprove what the client is saying

106

What is decatastrophizing

Process whereby a therapist will ask a client to imagine the worst possible outcome of a situation so the client can see that they are blowing things out of proportion

107

What is Socratic questioning

Process a therapist will take where they ask objective questions to challenge a patients irrational belief or thoughts. What is the evidence for this belief? Are there benefits for you thinking this way? Are there other ways to think about this?

108

Of the ID, ego, and superego which are unconscious

ID and superego

109

What is the role of defence mechanisms

Protect the ID and superego

110

Name 8 defence mechanisms

Intellectualization, projection, displacement, denial, repression, regression, sublimation, and isolation

111

Describe the defence mechanism of intellectualization

Becoming an expert on something that makes you feel bad

112

Describe the defence mechanism of sublimation

Channeling negative emotions into something more productive (often art)

113

Describe the defense mechanism of regression

People will go back to a state or time when they felt more secure or happier

114

Describe the defense mechanism of projection

Projecting your own baggage onto someone or something else (ex. You feel guilty for cheating so you accuse your spouse)

115

Describe the defence mechanism of displacement

Taking your emotions out on someone else

116

Describe the defense mechanism of isolation

You isolate your emotions from an event. One will describe an emotional event very neutrally as if they were reading it out of a book

117

What is the defense mechanism of denial

Pretending something didn’t happen

118

Describe the defense mechanism of repression

Completely blocking something out of ones memory

119

What is analysis of resistance

“The client is resistant to talk about a certain time in their life”

120

What is analysis of transference

“Every time I do a certain thing the client transfers his/her feelings towards a family member into the therapist

121

What are the 4 criticisms of psychodynamic theory

Based on inferences, non representative sample and cultural bias, lack of experimental support, to reductionistic and pessimistic

122

What is psychological assessment

The process of collecting, organizing, and interpreting information about a person and his/her situation

123

What are two reasons we do assessments

Descriptions and predictions

124

Another word for diagnosing

Pigeonholing

125

What are 4 criticisms of diagnosis

Categorical classification, labeling/stigmatizing/stereotyping, obscures individual differences (people with the same illness are not the same), illusion of explanation

126

What are four advantages to classification

Bridges gap between research and treatment, allows communication between clinicians, valuable for statistical purposes, contributes to planning of treatment and facilities

127

What are two disadvantages to classification

Labelling can result in stigma, diagnostic categories are imperfect

128

What is incidence

Number of new reported cases that occurred from a certain time

129

What is prevalence

Percent of the population that has a disorder at a given time

130

What is duration

Average length of a disorder

131

What does construct validity question

Does the construct even exist

132

What are two types of assessment interviews

Structured versus standard

133

What does the standard interview entail

Face to face conversation between the client and examiner which is examined qualitatively.

134

What does the structured interview entail

a branch of questions that the examiner follows depending on the clients response

135

What is SCID

Structured clinical interview diagnosis

136

What are two types of projective personality tests

Rorschach inkblot test and Thematic apperception test

137

What are three types of psychological tests

Projective personality tests, psychometric tests and neuropsychological tests

138

Personality tests or IQ tests fall under which type of psychological test?

Psychometric tests

139

What is the WAIS-R

A common intelligence test used in the clinical setting to assess cognitive functioning

140

What did Simon and Binet look at

mental age

141

What did Terman do with mental age

Made an equation with mental age over chronological age times 100 to score IQ.

142

Why was Terman's IQ score problematic

Doesn't work for certain ages (85 who thinks like a 25 year old has an IQ of 30?) and was used against immigrants

143

What are two types of Halstead-Reitan Battery tests

Tactile performance tests measured in time and tactile performance tests measured by memory

144

What does the Wisconsin card sort look at

Cognitive flexibility

145

What type of test is the Wisconsin card sort task

Categorical test

146

What does SORC stand for? Which two perspectives use this?

Stimuli, organism, (overt) response, consequences.
Behavioural and cognitive perspectives

147

Which part of SORC does the cognitive perspective most care for

The organism part- processing part

148

Which part of the SORC does the behavioural perspective care most for

The consequences and a little bit of the overt reactions

149

What does EMA stand for?

Ecological momentary assessment

150

What type of assessment is EMA

A behavioural cognitive assessment

151

What happens in an EMA assessment

Someone is buzzed at random times during the day and they have to write down what they are doing and thinking

152

Why is the EMA the best assessment tool

It doesn't require retrospection and occurs in immediate time

153

What are two examples of self report inventories

Personality tests and some depression and anxiety tests

154

What are two problems with self reports

Social desirability issues and honesty issues

155

What is ATSS

Articulated thoughts in stimulated situations

156

What happens in ATSS

The client will listen to a recording of something happening and have to write down their thoughts every 15 seconds

157

What is the issue with the ATSS?

How well does it generalize?

158

What is thought listening and when is it done

A client will write or say thoughts prior to or after a certain situation. It is done when the therapist doesn't know much about the client or their cognitive terrain

159

What happens in videotape recordings when used as an assessment tool

Participants watches the videotape of themselves and attempts to reconstruct thoughts and feelings of the time.

160

What is the problem with video tape recording assessments

they are retrospective

161

What does MMPI stand for

Minnesota multiphasic inventory test profile

162

What is the purpose of the MMPI

To identify individuals with mental issues

163

In the MMPI a score above what is considered to be in the clinically significant range

70

164

Why is the MMPI resisted

Validity issue

165

What is the bender gestalt organic screening test

It is a test for biological or organic brain damage in which client sees an image and then they have a new image to draw that is the first one rearranged

166

What three consequences of brain abnormalities are looked at in the bender gestalt organic screening test

Cognitive, sensorimotor and perceptual

167

What does an EEG measured

Global summation of action potential in certain parts of the brain

168

For what people is the EEG most often used for

People with sleep disorders or epilepsy

169

When looking at EEG results it is found that people who are really active in the left side of the brain are what? the right side?

Left: more positive and optimistic. Right: anxious and pessimistic

170

What 4 things does a polygraph measure

Heartbeat/Blood pressure, galvanic skin response, respiration, and electromyogram (muscles)

171

The polygraph is originally used as a lie detector but what else can it be used for

anxiety

172

Which biological assessment is most sensitive to tissue density

MRI

173

What percentage of difference in tissue density can CAT scans and MRI's pick up on

1%

174

What percentage of difference in tissue density can Xrays pick up on

10-15%

175

What can the MRI show that a CAT scan won't

Nerve function

176

What is a PET scan mostly used for

Research

177

How does a PET scan look at metabolic function

Radioactive isotope filled with glucose

178

What is shown on a CAT scan

Slices of computerized axial tomography

179

What is more dense water or CFS

cfs

180

Are more dense things white or black in a CAT scan

White

181

What are case studies

An in depth study of one or a few people

182

What is the problem with case studies

You can't generalize to the rest of the population