Midterm 1: ch 14-15 Flashcards Preview

Anthropology > Midterm 1: ch 14-15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 1: ch 14-15 Deck (17):
1

transposable elements

Segments of DNA that move from one location to another within the genome of a single individual.

2

nonsynonymous substitutions

Substitution of one nucleotide for another in a DNA sequence that changes the amino acid coded for.

3

positively selected

Selection that favors novel genotypes and thus leads to genetic change.

4

negatively selected

Selection against novel mutants that preserves the existing genotype.

5

neotony

The retention of juvenile traits into later stages of life.

6

selection-mutation balance

An equilibrium that occurs when the rate at which selection removes a deleterious gene is balanced by the rate at which mutation introduces that gene.

7

balanced polymorphism

A steady state in which two or more alleles coexist in a population. This state occurs when heterozygotes have a higher fitness than any homozygote.

8

haplotype

A particular set of alleles at some number of genetic loci that are transmitted together on the same chromosome.

9

SNPs

(single nucleotide polymorphisms) Occurs when members of a population differ at a particular necleotide position in the genome.

10

founder effect

A form of genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new habitat and subsequently greatly increases in number.

11

heritability

The fraction of the phenotypic variation in the population that is the result of genetic variation.

12

environmental covariation

The effect on phenotypes that occurs when the environments of parents and offspring are similar.

13

environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA)

The past environment(s) in which currently observed adaptations were shaped.

14

minor marriges

A form of marriage, formerly widespread in China, in which children were betrothed in infancy and then raised together in the household of the prospective groom.

15

kibbutz

An agricultural settlement in Israel, usually organized according to collectivist principles.

16

bridewealth

The collection of valuable items that is transferred from the groom’s family to the bride’s family at the time of marriage.

17

menarche

First menstruation