Midterm 1: ch 5-8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm 1: ch 5-8 Deck (24):
1

viviparity

Giving birth to live young.

2

dinural

Active only during the day

3

conspecifics

Members of the same species

4

sexual dimophism

Differences between sexually mature males and females in body size or morphology.

5

strepsirrhine

Any member of the group containing lemurs and lorises

6

haplorrhine

Any member of the group containing tarsiers and anthropoid primates

7

dental formula

The number of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars in the upper and lower jaws.

8

infraorder

The taxonomic level between order and superfamily. An order may contain several infraorders, and an infraorder may contain several superfamilies.

9

gum

A sticky carbohydrate produced by some trees in response to physical damage. Gum is an important food for many primates.

10

polyandry

A mating system in which a single female forms a stable pair-bond with two different males at the same time. Polyandry is generally rare among mammals, but it is thought to occur in some species of marmosets and tamarins.

11

polygyny

A mating system in which a single male mates with many females. Polygyny is the most common mating system among primate species.

12

sexual selection

A form of natural selection that results from differential mating success in one gender. In mammals, sexual selection usually occurs in males and may be due to male–male competition.

13

intrasexual selection

A form of sexual selection in which males compete with other males for access to females. The result is that traits making males more successful in such competition, like large body size or large canines, are selected for.

14

intersexual selection

A form of sexual selection in which females choose who they mate with. The result is that traits making males more attractive to females are selected for.

15

altruistic behaviors

Behavior that reduces the fitness of the individual performing the behavior (the actor) but increases the fitness of the individual affected by the behavior (the recipient)

16

kin selection

A theory stating that altruistic acts will be favored by selection if the product of the benefit to the recipient and the degree of relatedness (r) between the actor and recipient exceeds the cost to the actor.

17

Hamilton's rule

A rule predicting that altruistic behavior among relatives will be favored by natural selection if rb > c. r=coefficient of relatedness. b=benefits to receiver. c=cost to actor.

18

phenotypic matching

A mechanism for kin recognition in which animals assess similarities between themselves and others.

19

chimeras

A combination of more than one genetic lineage within a single individual.

20

reciprocal altruism

A theory that altruism can evolve if pairs of individuals take turns giving and receiving altruism over the course of many encounters.

21

social intelligence hypothesis

The hypothesis that the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities of higher primates are the outcome of selective pressures that favored intelligence as a means to gain advantages in social groups.

22

neocortex

Part of the cerebral cortex; generally thought to be most closely associated with problem solving and behavioral flexibility

23

third-party relationships

Relationships among other individuals. For example, monkeys and apes are believed to understand something about the nature of kinship relationships among other group members.

24

theory of mind

The capacity to be aware of the thoughts, knowledge, or perceptions of other individuals. A theory of mind may be a prerequisite for deception, imitation, teaching, and empathy