Flashcards in Midterm 1: ch 5-8 Deck (24):
Giving birth to live young.
Active only during the day
Members of the same species
Differences between sexually mature males and females in body size or morphology.
Any member of the group containing lemurs and lorises
Any member of the group containing tarsiers and anthropoid primates
The number of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars in the upper and lower jaws.
The taxonomic level between order and superfamily. An order may contain several infraorders, and an infraorder may contain several superfamilies.
A sticky carbohydrate produced by some trees in response to physical damage. Gum is an important food for many primates.
A mating system in which a single female forms a stable pair-bond with two different males at the same time. Polyandry is generally rare among mammals, but it is thought to occur in some species of marmosets and tamarins.
A mating system in which a single male mates with many females. Polygyny is the most common mating system among primate species.
A form of natural selection that results from differential mating success in one gender. In mammals, sexual selection usually occurs in males and may be due to male–male competition.
A form of sexual selection in which males compete with other males for access to females. The result is that traits making males more successful in such competition, like large body size or large canines, are selected for.
A form of sexual selection in which females choose who they mate with. The result is that traits making males more attractive to females are selected for.
Behavior that reduces the fitness of the individual performing the behavior (the actor) but increases the fitness of the individual affected by the behavior (the recipient)
A theory stating that altruistic acts will be favored by selection if the product of the benefit to the recipient and the degree of relatedness (r) between the actor and recipient exceeds the cost to the actor.
A rule predicting that altruistic behavior among relatives will be favored by natural selection if rb > c. r=coefficient of relatedness. b=benefits to receiver. c=cost to actor.
A mechanism for kin recognition in which animals assess similarities between themselves and others.
A combination of more than one genetic lineage within a single individual.
A theory that altruism can evolve if pairs of individuals take turns giving and receiving altruism over the course of many encounters.
social intelligence hypothesis
The hypothesis that the relatively sophisticated cognitive abilities of higher primates are the outcome of selective pressures that favored intelligence as a means to gain advantages in social groups.
Part of the cerebral cortex; generally thought to be most closely associated with problem solving and behavioral flexibility
Relationships among other individuals. For example, monkeys and apes are believed to understand something about the nature of kinship relationships among other group members.