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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (34):
1

_______ is the ubiquitous driver of biodiversity

Facilitation

2

linkage density =

= actual # links / # species

3

Associational defences

palatable species benefit from association with non-palatable species

4

When might we expect predation to be a key driver in community structure?

when predators select competitively dominant species

5

Murdoch Alternate Green World Hypothesis

the plants do it, they are prickly and taste bad

6

Obligate mutualists

partners require the association to reproduce or survive

7

Coevolution

a reciprocal evolutionary interaction between two or more species, trait of one species evolves in response to trait of another species

8

When might we expect predators to have little impact?

when prey is not limited by competition

9

Daniel Janzen

Ants and Acacia, facultative mutualists mostly, sometimes obligate

10

resource pulse

infrequent, large-magnitude, short duration events of increased resource availability

11

Neighbourhood habitat amelioration

other species are going to reduce "harmful" abiotic stressors-- make more hospitable

12

Dynamic stability hypothesis

Elton, more disturbance, lower food chain length

13

Pyramid of Numbers, who?

Charles Elton

14

connectance =

= actual # of links / total possible links

15

Yucca and yucca moths are an example of _______ mutualists

obligate

16

umbrella species

grizzly bears, protecting them protects others too

17

Fascilitation

positive interactions between species of the same trophic guild

18

Trophic cascade

a change in abundance that propagates at least three trophic levels

19

Liana Zanette

experimentally removed predation but kept the fear to demonstrate powerful non-consumptive effects

20

assimilation efficiency is the proportion of ...

proportion of primary production ingested that goes into the bloodstream

21

Trait Mediated Indirect Effects

induced defences; non-consumptive effects of predators

22

Susan Simand

UBC studied mycorrhizal networks, potential competitors helps each other

23

Bertness and Callaway

made conceptual models of the stress gradient hypothesis

24

Hairston, Smit and Slobodkin Hypothesis

strong top-down control of terrestrial herbivores by predators allow plants to flourish, green world

25

Ecological efficiency =

= energy at one trophic level / energy at trophic level right below it

26

Jane Lubchance

Snails and algae, reaffirmed keystone species

27

consumption efficiency is the proportion of...

proportion of energy ingested

28

Are stressful or peaceful environments more likely to have mutual associations

Stressful

29

Pyramid of Numbers, what?

lowest trophic levels have the highest number of individuals/biomass/size

30

Facultative mutualists

partners benefit, but not all require the association

31

Three categories of mutualists

by necessity, by physical association, by currencies

32

What is the stress gradient hypothesis?

with increasing abiotic stress, positive interspecific interactions become more frequent and important, and competition interactions become less frequent and important

33

production efficiency is the proportion of ...

proportion of energy in bloodstream that goes into new biomass

34

Robert Paine

Pisaster, coined Keystone Species; trophic cascades