Flashcards in Midterm #2 Deck (38):
Where is Bacilius Cereus commonly found?
Which of the following are NOT traits of Mycobacterium?
ii) Can grow rapidly on artificial media
iii) Gram-positive cocci
ii) and iii)
Which of the following statements about syphilis is false?
a) Syphilis is caused by spirochete bacterium
b) A positive VDRL test must be confirmed by a specific treponemal antibody tests
c) It can be seen microscopically used acid-fast stain
d) A non-specific test involves cardiolipin
e) It can be transmitted to a fetus
Which is not a parasitic disease? Ameobiasis, Trichnomoniasis, Giardiasis, Toxoplasmosis, or Histoplasmosis
Which is not caused by bacterial exotoxin?
- Enteric fever
Enteric fever (caused by Gram negative Salmonellae, which only produce endotoxins)
Which is not a part of the metazoa family?
Giardia Lamblia is the most common parasite
A positive TBT is...
10mm+ in diameter
Malaria is caused by what?
A plasmodium species (part of parasite family)
Bacillus Anthracis Toxin ....
Is made out of three separate proteins encoded by pXO1 (while pXO2 encodes the plasmid); makes exotoxins
Cats are the definitive hosts for ...
Taenia is fungi
Ascaris is most common metazoa
Cyclospora cayetanensis is parasite most common for severe and prolonged diarrhea
Giardia Lamblia is the most frequent parasitic infection
Symptom of tetanus?
Severe muscle spasms such as lockjaw; tetanus is part of gram +ve Clostridium
Wax-like material in its cell wall is characteristic of
Mycobacterium such as tuberculosis/abnormal tuberculosis and leprae
The most common route of infection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is through
Inhalation of contaminated aerosols
Which is not a spore former?
Bordetella pertussis since it isn't a gram positive spore forming bacillus (Bacillus and clostridium) - non spore forming gram positive bacilli are listeria monocytogenes and corynebacterium diphtheriae; Bordetella is a gram -ve Alcaligenaceae
i) is able to cross all three protective barriers
ii) is a non-sporeformer, Gram -ve bacillus
iii) Tolerates cold temperatures
No (is a non spore forming gram +ve bacillus)
Endotoxins are found in ...
Acid fast bacteria like mycobacterium
In protozoan parasites
In gram -ve
In parasitic organisms
Caused by an acid fast bacterium
Common in NA
Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Caused by Mycoplasma leprae
Is caused by untreated fungal infection
Acid fast bacterium (mycobacterium leprae)
Acute gastroenteritis caused by salmonellae... (T or F)
Is caused by salmonella typhi
Is caused by non-lactose spore former
Should not be treated w/ antibiotics
Have animals as reservoirs
Is manifested in acute diarrhea
What is correct about legionella pneumonia?
i) Is gram -ve opportunistic
ii) Transmitted via aerosols from person to person
iii) Grows in water and found in air cooling tanks
ii) and iii)
- Can be prevented w/ vaccination
- Is caused by gram-positive
- Is caused by gram-negative
- Is characterized by spiking fever
Spiking fever and chills (plasmodium species from parasite)
Overuse of broad spectrum antibiotics destroying normal GI flora can lead to
Which gram negative rod is linked to bloody stool
A common opportunistic infection associated w/ AIDS in
Most common route of exposure for tetanus is
Skin trauma or puncture wound by an object
Gas gangrene is caused by
Powdered infant formula is associated w/
Enterobacter sakazkii (cronobacter)
Ulcers are commonly a result of
Infected Helicobacter pylori
The camplylobacter species are
Gram negative bacilli that are microaerophilic
EMB and MacConkey are both
Selective and differential growth media that only allow gram negative to grow
Organism that causes giardiasis is a
Protozoa (parasite that's unicellular) - Giardia lamblia
Give an example of a parasite that gains entry into the human host via the following modes of transmission:
- Skin penetration
- Sexual contact
- Giardia lamblia
- Plasmodium (Malaria)
- Trichonomas vaginalis
Four stages of Syphilis
Primary syphilis, secondary, late, latent
Chlamydia's 2 distinct forms during its life cycle
Elementary body: inactive where no growth or replication occurs
Replication body: after sexual contact becomes metabolically active for replication and growth
List 4 gram negative bacilli that are classed as enterics but don't cause illness in the GI tract
- Bordetella pertussis
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Pseudomonas cepacia
List two differences and two similarities b/w Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani
Same: a) both are gram-positive bacilli, b) both are spore forming rods; Different: a) botulinum can cause Botulism which can occur from eating improper canning of vegetables, b) Tetani causes tetanus, to prevent this you can vaccinate and receive a booster every ten years
What are the two toxins made by Clostridium difficile and what are their effects on the infected host?
Toxin A = diarrhea
Toxin B = cytotoxic to colonic cells
List four main types of fungal infections from least to most serious
Superficial fungal infection, cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic