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Flashcards in Midterm #2 Deck (38):
1

Where is Bacilius Cereus commonly found?

Rice

2

Which of the following are NOT traits of Mycobacterium?
i) Acid-fast
ii) Can grow rapidly on artificial media
iii) Gram-positive cocci

ii) and iii)

3

Which of the following statements about syphilis is false?
a) Syphilis is caused by spirochete bacterium
b) A positive VDRL test must be confirmed by a specific treponemal antibody tests
c) It can be seen microscopically used acid-fast stain
d) A non-specific test involves cardiolipin
e) It can be transmitted to a fetus

c)

4

Which is not a parasitic disease? Ameobiasis, Trichnomoniasis, Giardiasis, Toxoplasmosis, or Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis

5

Which is not caused by bacterial exotoxin?
- Botulism
- Enteric fever
- Anthrax
- Tetanus

Enteric fever (caused by Gram negative Salmonellae, which only produce endotoxins)

6

Which is not a part of the metazoa family?
Enterobius Vermicularis
Trichinella Spiralis
Anisakis Simplex
Schistosoma spp.
Giardia Lamblia

Giardia Lamblia is the most common parasite

7

A positive TBT is...

10mm+ in diameter

8

Malaria is caused by what?

A plasmodium species (part of parasite family)

9

Bacillus Anthracis Toxin ....

Is made out of three separate proteins encoded by pXO1 (while pXO2 encodes the plasmid); makes exotoxins

10

Cats are the definitive hosts for ...
Toxoplasma gondii
Taenia solium
Ascaris lumbrucoides
Cyclospora cayetanensis
Giardia Lamblia

Toxoplasma gondii

Taenia is fungi
Ascaris is most common metazoa
Cyclospora cayetanensis is parasite most common for severe and prolonged diarrhea
Giardia Lamblia is the most frequent parasitic infection

11

Symptom of tetanus?

Severe muscle spasms such as lockjaw; tetanus is part of gram +ve Clostridium

12

Wax-like material in its cell wall is characteristic of

Mycobacterium such as tuberculosis/abnormal tuberculosis and leprae

13

The most common route of infection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is through

Inhalation of contaminated aerosols

14

Which is not a spore former?
Clostridium tetani
Clostridium difficile
Bordetella pertussis
Bacillus anthracis

Bordetella pertussis since it isn't a gram positive spore forming bacillus (Bacillus and clostridium) - non spore forming gram positive bacilli are listeria monocytogenes and corynebacterium diphtheriae; Bordetella is a gram -ve Alcaligenaceae

15

Listeria monocytogenes:
i) is able to cross all three protective barriers
ii) is a non-sporeformer, Gram -ve bacillus
iii) Tolerates cold temperatures

Yes
No (is a non spore forming gram +ve bacillus)
Yes (psychrophile)

16

Endotoxins are found in ...
Gram +ve
Acid fast bacteria like mycobacterium
In protozoan parasites
In gram -ve
In parasitic organisms

Gram -ve

17

Leprosy is
Caused by an acid fast bacterium
Common in NA
Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Caused by Mycoplasma leprae
Is caused by untreated fungal infection

Acid fast bacterium (mycobacterium leprae)

18

Acute gastroenteritis caused by salmonellae... (T or F)
Is caused by salmonella typhi
Is caused by non-lactose spore former
Should not be treated w/ antibiotics
Have animals as reservoirs
Is manifested in acute diarrhea

F
T
T
T
T

19

What is correct about legionella pneumonia?
i) Is gram -ve opportunistic
ii) Transmitted via aerosols from person to person
iii) Grows in water and found in air cooling tanks

ii) and iii)

20

Malaria
- Can be prevented w/ vaccination
- Is caused by gram-positive
- Is caused by gram-negative
- Is characterized by spiking fever

Spiking fever and chills (plasmodium species from parasite)

21

Overuse of broad spectrum antibiotics destroying normal GI flora can lead to

Clostridium difficile

22

Which gram negative rod is linked to bloody stool

Shigella sonnei

23

A common opportunistic infection associated w/ AIDS in

Cryptococcus neoformans

24

Most common route of exposure for tetanus is

Skin trauma or puncture wound by an object

25

Gas gangrene is caused by

Clostridium perfringens

26

Powdered infant formula is associated w/

Enterobacter sakazkii (cronobacter)

27

Ulcers are commonly a result of

Infected Helicobacter pylori

28

The camplylobacter species are

Gram negative bacilli that are microaerophilic

29

EMB and MacConkey are both

Selective and differential growth media that only allow gram negative to grow

30

Organism that causes giardiasis is a

Protozoa (parasite that's unicellular) - Giardia lamblia

31

Give an example of a parasite that gains entry into the human host via the following modes of transmission:
- Waterborne
- Foodborne
- Skin penetration
- Sexual contact

- Giardia lamblia

- Cyclosporiasis

- Plasmodium (Malaria)

- Trichonomas vaginalis

32

Four stages of Syphilis

Primary syphilis, secondary, late, latent

33

Chlamydia's 2 distinct forms during its life cycle

Elementary body: inactive where no growth or replication occurs
Replication body: after sexual contact becomes metabolically active for replication and growth

34

List 4 gram negative bacilli that are classed as enterics but don't cause illness in the GI tract

- Bordetella pertussis
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Pseudomonas cepacia

35

List two differences and two similarities b/w Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani

Same: a) both are gram-positive bacilli, b) both are spore forming rods; Different: a) botulinum can cause Botulism which can occur from eating improper canning of vegetables, b) Tetani causes tetanus, to prevent this you can vaccinate and receive a booster every ten years

36

What are the two toxins made by Clostridium difficile and what are their effects on the infected host?

Toxin A = diarrhea
Toxin B = cytotoxic to colonic cells

37

List four main types of fungal infections from least to most serious

Superficial fungal infection, cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic

38

What are the 2 gram negative bacilli most commonly found in CF patients?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and pseudomonas cepacia (also known for being in burn victims and other immunocompromised people)