Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (43):
The condition of having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs
A condition under which it is assumed that resources (ex. Money) will never be plentiful enough for people to obtain all the goods or services they desire
Social positions people may attain later in life, often as the result of their own (or other people's) effort.
Related through marriage.
Social positions people are assigned at birth.
A pattern of descent in which a descent group is formed based on connections of relatedness made through BOTH a mother AND a father.
A family created when previously divorced or widowed people marry, bringing with them children from their previous marriages.
The transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride, representing compensation to the wife's lineage for the loss of her labour and for child-bearing capacities.
A descent group formed by members who beleive they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical links.
A family based on marriage; at minimum, a spousal pair and their children.
The transfer of wealth from parents to their child (usually a daughter) at the time of the child's marriage
Marriage within a defined social group
Marriage outside a defined social group
A family pattern made up of three generations living together: parents, married children, and grandchildren
At minimum, a woman or a man and her or his dependent children.
A family pattern made up of brothers and their wives (or sisters and their husbands) along with their children and sometimes their parents living together.
Social relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experience of mating, birth, and nurturance.
A descent group composed of blood relatives who believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors.
An institution that prototypically 1. Involves a man and a woman, 2. Transforms the status of the participants, 3. Carries implications about sexual access, 4. Gives offspring a position in society, and 5. Establishes connections between the kin of a husband and the kin of a wife.
A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one person at a time.
A woman (or, less commonly, a man) and her (or his) children without a second parent.
A family made up of two generations: parents and their unmarried children.
A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one person at a time. Polygamy is called polygyny when it involves multiple wives; when it involves multiple husbands, it is called polyandry.
The socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of ways.
A pattern of descent in which a descent group is formed based on connections of relatedness made through either a father (patrilineal descent) or a mother (matrilineal descent).
A ranked group within a socially stratified society that is closed, prohibiting individuals from one caste into another
A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, and/or access to power.
Social groups that are distinguished from one another on the basis of ethnicity
A social classification based on a common cultural heritage and selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress. Ethnicity emerges from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality
A localized, named, endogamous group. A jāti provides ascribed identity
A group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even physical substance.
A broad human population category that allegedly corresponds to distinct, heritable sets of biological attributes and often conflates geographic ancestry and physical type
Belief in the existence of biologically distinct races.
The systematic oppression of members of one or more socially defined "races" by members of another socially defined "race" that is justified within the ruling society by the rulers' faulty belief in their own biological superiority
The use of essentialist rhetoric as a conscious political strategy to create a temporary solidarity to facilitate a specific social action.
Traditional social ranks that divide Indian society into four functional subdivisions: priests, nobility (rulers and warriors), commoners (farmers and merchants), and labourers or servants.
The freedom of self-contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance
The art of governing appropriate to promoting the welfare of populations within a state
Social power held by a group that is in a position to affect the lives of many people
Transformative capacity; the ability to transform a given situation
The power to refuse being forced against one's will to conform to someone else's wishes