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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (43):
1

Affluence

The condition of having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs

2

Scarcity

A condition under which it is assumed that resources (ex. Money) will never be plentiful enough for people to obtain all the goods or services they desire

3

Achieved statuses

Social positions people may attain later in life, often as the result of their own (or other people's) effort.

4

Affinal

Related through marriage.

5

Ascribed statuses

Social positions people are assigned at birth.

6

Bilateral descent

A pattern of descent in which a descent group is formed based on connections of relatedness made through BOTH a mother AND a father.

7

Blended family

A family created when previously divorced or widowed people marry, bringing with them children from their previous marriages.

8

Bridewealth

The transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride, representing compensation to the wife's lineage for the loss of her labour and for child-bearing capacities.

9

Clan

A descent group formed by members who beleive they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical links.

10

Conjugal family

A family based on marriage; at minimum, a spousal pair and their children.

11

Dowry

The transfer of wealth from parents to their child (usually a daughter) at the time of the child's marriage

12

Endogamy

Marriage within a defined social group

13

Exogamy

Marriage outside a defined social group

14

Extended family

A family pattern made up of three generations living together: parents, married children, and grandchildren

15

Family

At minimum, a woman or a man and her or his dependent children.

16

Joint family

A family pattern made up of brothers and their wives (or sisters and their husbands) along with their children and sometimes their parents living together.

17

Kinship

Social relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experience of mating, birth, and nurturance.

18

Lineage

A descent group composed of blood relatives who believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors.

19

Marriage

An institution that prototypically 1. Involves a man and a woman, 2. Transforms the status of the participants, 3. Carries implications about sexual access, 4. Gives offspring a position in society, and 5. Establishes connections between the kin of a husband and the kin of a wife.

20

Monogamy

A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one person at a time.

21

Non-conjugal family

A woman (or, less commonly, a man) and her (or his) children without a second parent.

22

Nuclear family

A family made up of two generations: parents and their unmarried children.

23

Polygamy

A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one person at a time. Polygamy is called polygyny when it involves multiple wives; when it involves multiple husbands, it is called polyandry.

24

Relatedness

The socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of ways.

25

Unilineal descent

A pattern of descent in which a descent group is formed based on connections of relatedness made through either a father (patrilineal descent) or a mother (matrilineal descent).

26

Caste

A ranked group within a socially stratified society that is closed, prohibiting individuals from one caste into another

27

Class

A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, and/or access to power.

28

Ethnic groups

Social groups that are distinguished from one another on the basis of ethnicity

29

Ethnicity

A social classification based on a common cultural heritage and selected cultural features such as language, religion, or dress. Ethnicity emerges from historical processes that incorporate distinct social groups into a single political structure under conditions of inequality

30

Jāti

A localized, named, endogamous group. A jāti provides ascribed identity

31

Nation

A group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and even physical substance.

32

Race

A broad human population category that allegedly corresponds to distinct, heritable sets of biological attributes and often conflates geographic ancestry and physical type

33

Racialism

Belief in the existence of biologically distinct races.

34

Racism

The systematic oppression of members of one or more socially defined "races" by members of another socially defined "race" that is justified within the ruling society by the rulers' faulty belief in their own biological superiority

35

Strategic essentialism

The use of essentialist rhetoric as a conscious political strategy to create a temporary solidarity to facilitate a specific social action.

36

Varna

Traditional social ranks that divide Indian society into four functional subdivisions: priests, nobility (rulers and warriors), commoners (farmers and merchants), and labourers or servants.

37

Domination

Coercive rule

38

Free agency

The freedom of self-contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance

39

Governmentality

The art of governing appropriate to promoting the welfare of populations within a state

40

Political power

Social power held by a group that is in a position to affect the lives of many people

41

Power

Transformative capacity; the ability to transform a given situation

42

Resistance

The power to refuse being forced against one's will to conform to someone else's wishes

43

Social organization

The patterning of human interdependence in a given society through the actions and decisions of its members