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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (74):
1

What is Deontology

Normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on the action adherence to a rule(s)

2

Deontology therefore focuses on....

Intentions rather than consequences

3

Deontology is the same as...

Non-consequentialism

4

What theory did Kant believe in

Deontology

5

What did Kant emphasise

Moral life is centered on duty

6

What did he want us to forget

To forget about consequences

7

What is involved in the Central insight

What is fair for one is fair for all

Complete moral equality

8

What are the two conceptions of Duty

1. Duty as following orders
2. Duty as freely imposing obligation on ones own self

9

Duty by following orders involves (2)

1. Duty being external
2. Duty is imposed by others

10

Duty as a freely imposing obligation involves (3)

1. The Kantian Model
2. Duty is internal
3. We imposed duty on ourselves

11

Kant believes that an action is only moral if...

you want to want to do it

12

What is good will

Morally praiseworthy actions from a sense of duty

13

What is our sense of duty derived from

Our duty is to follow the right...

Reason

Moral rules

14

What are the main points to Categorical immperative (2)

1. Follow moral rules that are universal
2. Always treat persons as ends and never merely as means

15

What was Kant perspective on Universal rule

Always act in such a way that the maxim of your action can be willed as a universal law of humanity

Means: you should only accept a morale rule that a rational person would accept as binding for all persons

16

What was Kant perspective on treating people

Always treat humanity, whether in yourself or in other people, as an end in itself and never as a mere means

Means: we should recognise that each person has the same basic moral worth as we do

17

What is the Admirable side of acting from duty

Person of duty remains committed

18

What is the Evenhandedness of morality

Kantian morality does not play favourites

19

What is Respecting other person

Notion of treating persons as ends in themselves is central to much of modern ethics

20

What 3 things did Kant help us see clearly on

1. Admirable side of acting on Duty
2. The Evenhandedness of morality
3. Respecting others

21

What 3 things did Kant miss out on

1. The neglect of Moral integration
2. The role of emotions
3. The place of consequences in moral life

22

What is the neglect of moral integration

Person of duty can have deep and conflicting inclinations

23

What is the role of emotions

The emotions always suspect because they are fickle and causally determined and passive

24

What is the prima facie duty

Duty that is binding other things equal, that is, unless it is overridden or trumped by another duty or duties

25

What are prima facie duties understood as

Guideline
Not rules without exception

26

What is fidelity

Duties to keep ones promises and contracts and not to engage in deception

27

What is Reparation

to make up for the injuries one has done to others

28

What is Gratitude

duty to be grateful for benefactions done to oneself and if possible to show it by benefactions in return

29

What is non-maleficence

The duty of non-injury
Duty not to harm others physically or psychologically

Looks to avoid harming:
Health
Security
Intelligence
Character
Happiness

30

What is harm prevention

duty of a person to prevent harm to others from causes other than himself

31

What is beneficence

Duty to do good to others

32

What is self improvement

Duty of self improvement is to act so as to promote ones own good

33

What is justice

requires that one act in such a way that one distributes benefits and burdens fairly

To prevent an unjust distribution of benefits or burdens

34

What are the priority rules

Non-maleficence normally overrides other prima facie duties

Fidelity normally overrides beneficence

35

What did Nietzsche attack

What did he urge

Mordern morality - Kant
Utilitarianism - vulgar

Return to ancient greek morality - Aristotle

36

What is Existentialism

the fundamental questions of meaning and choice and the affect on the existing individual

37

Problems with morality to do with killing - why is it wrong (4)

1. Ten commandments
2. Mark of insensitivity
3. Violates peoples rights (Kant)
4. Increases the amount of pain in the world without equally adding to happiness (ultilitarianism)

38

What was similar in what Nietzsche and Aristotle believed duty was

For servants
Few are capable of higher morality

39

Master morality is

seeking ones own virtues and abilities

40

What is Fear is the Mother of Morality

Become a function of the herb

Value only as a function

41

The herd is a life of

What do we not develop when we are a herd

mass produced life of conformity

Own beliefs/values

42

What is conformity

lack of creativity, courage and inwardness

43

Nietzsche attacks...

We are born...

Christian morality - dislikes the herd

We are not born all equal

44

What is an overman/superman

overcoming our herd nature

45

In order to achieve Overman what is required

All the creativity and risk we are capable of - includes rule breaking

46

Nietzsche argument on re-evaluation of values

Moral values are not universal

They arise from human evaluation

47

What did Nietzsche believe morality of duty to be

Slave morality

48

What are the 3 wills to something (Eternal Recurrence)

1. Want it
2. Change nothing
3. Accept responsibility

49

The basic meaning behind eternal recurrence is to...

live life to the fullest

50

Existentialism main themes on the world

The world is:

Irrational
Absurd

51

What does Aristotle emphasis (2)

Ancient Greek Morality

1. Character development
2. Specific virtuous actions

52

What does Kant emphasis (3)

Modern Morality

1. Moral principle and laws
2. Reason and individual autonomy
3. Good intentions and doing ones duty

53

Artistotle scope of applicability (Elite - common)

Small elite capable of true happiness - through virtuous actions

Other people may live and do duties but cannot be happy

54

Kant scope of applicability

All people are to be judged by the same moral standards

There are no elites

55

Who focuses on "thou shalt not"

Kant

56

Kant believes that emotions are not morally valuable

true

57

Kant calls rational motivation...

Respect for law

58

Categorical imperatives are

moral rules - dependent on any particular desire

59

Hypothetical imperatives are

Prudential rules - binding to those with appropriate desire

60

What exceptions are there for Kant

If the situation is consistently universalised

e.g. speeding - ambulance driver

61

What 3 tests must be done in order to reject inlcinations

1. Universal test = If everyone were premitted to act the same

2. Pre-publicity test = If everyone knew you were premitted to act as you propose

3. Moral legislation test = If your doing so required every rational person to approve a general rule permitting actions of that kind

62

What are the 4 ways we can classify actions

1. As done from inclination, opposing duty

2. As done from calculated self interests = cautiousness

3. As done from direct inclination, but according to duty = doing the right thing but not because its right

4. As done from duty = keeping promise no matter what

63

What does inclination mean

Tendency to act/feel in a particular way

64

What are the two versions of Kant's Categorical Imperative

1. Universal rule
2. Always treat others as ends and not means

65

Nietzsche wants you to... (2)

Think for yourself
Choose your own virtues

66

What does fear cause

conformity - lose creativity to our group or master

67

All religion makes you part of a...

herd

68

The overman is able to...

overcome herd nature

69

'Good' for master morality

'Bad' for master morality

noble person

Common person

70

Master morality focuses on a hierarchy between good and bad

True

71

Slave morality looks to reject... (2)

Master morality
Hierarchy

72

'Bad' for slave morality =

'Good' for slave morality =

Evil = traits of the noble

Good = Absence of noble

73

Slave morality opposes noble morality by questioning...

And argues that morality is...

The happiness of the noble

The same for all

74

What happens when slave morality dominates

'Good' becomes stupid