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Flashcards in Midterm #2 Notes Deck (58):
1

Gram +ve bacilli

Peptidoglycan layer, exotoxins, metabolically inactive spore state and active vegetative state

2

Gram -ve bacilli

Enterics (cause GI illness), endotoxins, no peptidoglycan layer

3

Mycobacteria

Wax coat; acid fast stain (which resists decolourization) - - Z/N; inhaled

4

Mycoplasmas

Smallest free living; normal in oropharynx and genitals

5

Bacillus anthracis

pXO1 - 3 proteins to make exotoxin, pXO2 - capsule; spore forming gram +ve

6

Bacillus

Aerobic, Anthrax activate when in host; spore forming +ve

7

Clostridium

Anaerobic; gas gangrene, necrotic skin, pseudocolitis

8

B. cereus

In rice; gram +ve spore forming; enterotoxins; heat-labile = 12-24h food poisoning, heat-stable = short incubation and severe illness

9

C. botulism

Neurotoxin; gram +ve spore forming; baby gets from honey

10

C. tetani

Gram +ve spore former; from punctured skin contaminated w/ spores; tetanospasm neurotoxin

11

C. perfringens

gan gangrene (can cause necrotic skin) and destroy muscle via myonecrosis; gram +ve spore former

12

C. difficile

antibiotic overuse that destroys normal flora; hospitals; gram +ve spore former

13

Listeria monocytogenes

Non spore former gram +ve; can cross barriers, psychrophile; immunosuppress

14

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Gram +ve non spore former can cause diphtheria (heart and neural cells)

15

Enterobacteriaceae
Salmonellae

Gram -ve
Enterocolitis - profuse diarrhea
Enteric fever - in lymphoid tissues (Typhoid Mary - lifelong carrier; convalescence or chronic carriers possible) and can cause necrosis of intestinal lymph

16

Enterobacteriaceae
Shigella

Gram -ve
Acute diarrhea
- S. sonnei - bloody
- S. dysenteria - tropical illness, watery
- S. flexneri - mild

17

Enterobacteriaceae
Escherichia Coli

Gram -ve
UTI
- Enteropathogenic - hamburger disease, hemorrhagic
- Enterotoxigenic - traveller's diarrhea
- Enterohemorrhagic

18

Enterobacteriaceae
Enterobacter spp

Gram -ve
Hospital, naturally resist antibiotics
- Enterobacter sakazakii - infant powder

19

Vibro and Campylobacter

Microaerophillic
Gram -ve

20

Vibro and Campylobacter
Vibro cholerae

Profuse watery diarrhea
Gram -ve; microaerophillic

21

Vibro and Campylobacter
Campylobacter jejuni/coli

Birds/domestic animals normal; traveller's diarrhea; microaerophillic; gram -ve

22

Pseudomonas

Moist, free living that target immunocompromised (CF)
Gram -ve

23

Pseudomonas
P. aeruginosa

CF
Gram -ve

24

Pseudomonas
P. cepacia

CF
Gram -ve

25

Haemophilus influenzae

Gram -ve
Common in kids under 5 - joint infection, meningitis, or the flu

26

Legionella

Gram -ve
H2O born and opportunistic

27

Helicobacteraceae
Helicobacter pylori

Gram -ve
Responsible for ulcers

28

Alcaligenaceae
Bordetella pertussis

Whooping/violent cough
Gram -ve

29

EMB and MacConkey

Selective media for gram -ve, lactose fermenters (EMB - dark purple, McC - pink/purple)

30

Surface antigen things

K = capsule
O = somatic
H = flagella

31

Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Wax coat, acid fast (Z/N)
Mostly from inhalation; test w/ diameter of Mantoux test

32

Mycobacteria
Nontuberculous mycobacteria

Wax coat, acid fast stain
Usu in immunosuppressed or those w/ chronic lung infection; doubtful positive on Mantoux

33

Mycobacteria
Mycobacterium leprae

Wax coat, acid fast stain
Tuberculoid = nerve enlargement and not infective
Lepromatous = tissue destruction and infective

34

Spirochetes
Treponema pallidum

Syphilis
1e (rash), 2e (chancre and rash), latent, late (gummy bear from obliterative endarteritis)
Treponemal - specific testing (FTA for fluorescent and MHA for microhemagglutination)
Non-treponemal - not specific

35

Spirochetes
Lyme disease

From Borrelia burgdoferi tick; bullseye pattern or ELISA

36

Spirochetes
Leptospira interrogans

Humans are accidental end stage hosts from urine of infected animal

37

Chlamydiae

1-2-pee; elementary and reticulate body

38

Chlamydia trachomatis

Most common STD through bacteria that can lead to trachoma or lymphogranuloma

39

Chlamydia psittaci

Bird pathogen

40

Mycoplasmas
M. pneumonia

Walking pneumonia; common in younger people

41

Mycoplasmas
Genital mycoplasmas

M. hominis and ureaplasma urealyticum are normal human flora

42

Mycotic/Fungal infections

Superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic

43

Fungal infections
Cytococcus neoformans

AIDS is more common, inhaled

44

Fungal infections
Aspergillus flavus

Aflaxtoxin that contaminates grains

45

Parasitic infections
Giardia lamblia

Protozoa; causes giardiasis; most frequent internal parasite

46

Parasitic infections
Trichomonas vaginalis

Most common curable STD, no resistant stage like chlamydia; protozoa

47

Parasitic infections
Entamoeba histolytica

Amobiasis of large intestine
Blood and mucoid diarrhea through H2O
Protozoa

48

Parasitic infections
Toxoplasma gondii

Definitive hosts are cats; meat spores into lymph, protozoa

49

Parasitic infections
Plasmodium species

Malaria characterized by spiking fever and chills, protozoa

50

Parasitic infections
Cryptosporidium species

Immunocompromised patients mostly, cattle, protozoa

51

Parasitic infections
Cyclospora cayetanensis

Low infectious dose can cause severe and prolonged diarrhea, protozoa

52

Parasitic infections
Nematodes (roundworm) - Enterobius vermicularis

Pin worm
Bum itch in kids, mild cecum infection, metazoa

53

Parasitic infections
Nematodes (roundworm) - Trichinella spiralis

Affects CNS
Metazoa

54

Parasitic infections
Nematodes (roundworm) - Ascaris

Most common metazoa

55

Parasitic infections
Nematodes (roundworm) - Anisakis simplex

Herringworm; metazoa
Dolphins and whales are definitive hosts (usu sushi handling problem)

56

Parasitic infections
Platyhelminths (flat worm) - Cestodes

Tapeworm; metazoa
Diphyll - fish (phin)
Taenia saginata - beef
Taenia solium - pork

57

Parasitic infections
Platyhelminths (flat worm) - Flukes

Schistosoma; metazoa
- Break in the skin, snails

58

__________ is the second most socioeconomically devastating disease after ___________

Schistosoma (from trematode metazoa parasite); malaria (plasmodium protozoa parasite)