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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (226):
1

Major Geological Forces that Led to Formation of Current Bay

Bolide Meteor Impact
Ice Age
Drowned River Valley

2

Bolide Meteor

35 mya
a rare bolide- comet- or asteroid-like
hit the area that is now the lower tip of the Delmarva Peninsula, near Cape Charles, Virginia
"Exmore Crater"- as large as Rhode Island and as deep as Grand Canyon
(6th largest crater known of the planet)

3

10-2 Million Years Ago

series of ice ages locks ocean water in massive glaciers- mid- Atlantic coastline extends 180 miles farther than its current location
Warmer times, glacier melts carving a valley through Pennsylvania and pushing sediment into the Coastal Plain

4

18,000 years ago

Glacial sheets from the most recent Ice Age begin to retreat
Regions climate begins to warm

5

Sea levels at last glacial maximum

18kya
sea levels were 200 m lower than today
-chesapeake bay was far inland

6

Ancient Susquehanna River Valley

during last Ice Age, mile-thick glaciers began to melt, carving streams and rivers that flowed toward the coast. sea levels continued to rise, eventually submerging the area now known as the Susquehanna River Valley
-This drowned river valley
became the Chesapeake Bay
-The Chesapeake Bay assumed its present shape about 3,000 years ago. Remnants of the ancient Susquehanna River still exist today as a few troughs that form a deep channel along much of the bay's bottom

7

Features of the Chesapeake Bay

Tributaries
Bathymetry- the contours of the estuary: large and shallow
Watershed and Airshed
Exchange
Human engineering

50 major tributaries and streams

8

Coastline

11,600 miles (instead of 460 miles)

9

Depth of Chesapeake Bay

mean depth of 6 m

10

Watershed area/ Volume ratio

Very large Watershed area/ Volume ratio

much larger area affecting a relatively smaller volume of water
-leads to management challenges

Our actions on LAND affect the Bay waters

11

Size of watershed

64,000 square miles
11,684 miles of shoreline
150 major rivers and streams
Home to over 17 million people

12

States of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Delaware
Maryland
New York
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia
Entire district of Columbia

13

Major rivers

Susquehanna
Potomac
Rappahannock
York
James

14

Airshed size

much larger than the area of land that is in the Chesapeake Bay

15

Chesapeake and Delaware Canal

14 miles long
Authorized by Congress in 1802
Connects upper chesapeake Bay with Delaware Bay

16

1906 C&D canal

President Theodore Roosevelt appointed a commission to establish the feasibility of converting the canal to service larger steam ships

17

1919 C&D canal

federal government purchased it
-Dredged and restructured it

18

1927 C&D canal

reopened to commercial traffic

19

1954 C&D canal

further expansion

20

Today C&D canal

provides for 40% of the ships seeking access to the Port of Baltimore

21

C&D canal

300 mile shortcut for Baltimore- bound ships
Sea level (no locks)
Carries 40% of the shipping traffic in and out of Baltimore

22

Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel

called on of the Seven Engineering Wonders of the Modern World in its opening year, 1964
-created in only 42 months (less than 4 years)
-provides a direct link between the area between points in southeastern Virginia and those found in the Delmarva Peninsula
-Located where the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean meet

23

Length shore to shore

17.6 miles

24

Depth

25 to 100 feet

25

Entire Bridge-tunnel complex

23 miles (shore to shore 17.6)
12 miles of low-level trestle
2 separate 1-mile tunnels
2 bridges
2 miles of causeway
4 man-made islands
5 1/2 miles of approach roads

26

Bay bridge

4 mile span (long bridge)
opened in 1952

27

John Smith

took two voyages in 1608
first: around edges
second: middleish

wrote about the life he saw and the clarity of the bay

28

Animals common to Bay

pilot whales
porpoises
diamondback terrapins
hammerhead sharks
anadromous fish runs
wolves
bears
beavers
Oysters

29

Recent sea level rise

since 1990 3mm per year (about 1 ft per century)
- faster than other places because of land surface and sea level movements

30

Erosion

due to
-sea level rise
-wave action: fetch, shore orientation, shore types, nearshore bathymetry)
storm surge

31

Fetch

how far wave reaches

32

low- energy fetch

average fetch exposures of <1 nautical mile; found along tidal creeks and small tributary rivers

33

medium-energy

average fetch exposures of 1 to 5 nautical miles;
occur along the main tributary sub-estuaries

34

high-energy

average fetch exposures of >5 nautical miles; along the main stem of the bay and at the mouths of tributaries

35

Nautical mile

1 mile of latitude: 1.15 miles

36

Surface waves

result of fetch, wind speed, and wind direction

37

Storm surge

funnel-shape of the Bay channels storm surge

+1ft waves in low energy
+2-5 ft waves in medium energy
+5-7ft waves in high energy

38

Wetlands

buffer shorelines from erosion
control erosion in Low Wave environments

39

Islands

At least 13 islands have disappeared entirely
-poplar, barren, hambleton, toyston, cows, punch, herring, powell, swan, holland, and turtle egg (either deserted or disappeared)

40

Hardened and Living shorelines

Bulkheads
Riprap or stone revetment
breakwaters

41

Future sea level rise

~3 million people are currently living in areas less than 3 feet above sea level around chesapeake bay

42

Impervious cover and storm water runoff

various indicators of stream quality begins to decline with 10% impervious cover
-more impervious cover = greater flash floods

43

Water quality trouble in Chesapeake Bay

decrease in forest cover + increase in impervious cover + greater fertilizer use on land = higher nutrient influx to the Bay
= water quality trouble

44

Wetlands and nutrient filtration

flood, runoff buffer + carbon sink
-microbial processing of organic and inorganic waters
-erosion control by binding sediments
-nursery grounds for commercial and recreational fish and shellfish

45

Loss of oysters

= loss of the Bay's filtration capacity
-takes more days to filter the Chesapeake bay
in 1880 took 3.6 days
in 2003 took 700 days

46

Double trouble

increasing nutrients (> fertilizer application (& human and animal sewage discharge), >runoff, > impervious cover)
-reducing the Bay's capacity to process nutrients (fewer oysters, wetland loss)

47

Planktonic

water column-dwelling
Centric diatoms: generally planktonic
-more prevalent in eutrophic waters

48

Benthic

bottom-dwelling
Pennate diatoms: generally benthic

49

Indicator of eutrophication

change in diatom community
increase centric:pennate diatom ratio

50

Eutrophication

an enrichment in nutrients
-results in poor living conditions at the estuary floor, favoring water-borne or planktonic forms of algae, among other effects

51

Nitrogen

amino acids, "the building blocks" of proteins
2 times N inputs since 1950
-slight decrease recently as a result of watershed management

52

Phosphorus

metabolic energy (ATP, ADP) and DNA

53

Limiting nutrient in freshwater

Phosphorus

54

Limiting nutrient in marine waters

Nitrogen

55

Phytoplankton

waterborne
responsive-fast growing, fast nutrient uptake, short lifespan

56

types of phytoplankton

Green algae, brown algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria
Lifespan often 1-2 days

57

Seagrasses

rooted, bottom-dwelling
nursery habitat, predation refuge
oxygen producing

58

Species of seagrass

Eelgrass, wild celery, pondweeds, turtle grass

59

Secchi depth

measure of light trasmission

60

Light

secchi depth: common measurement
-suspended sediment: scatters and reflects light
phytoplankton: absorbs light for photosynthesis
Seagrass: need light to penetrate to the bottom for photosynthesis

61

Microbes

sediment is rich in microbes that feed on organic matter (dead material)
Dying phytoplankton = holiday feast for microbes
use oxygen and respire carbon dioxide for growing , reproducing, consuming dead organic

62

Oxygen

most estuarine oxygen comes from dissolution from the surface
-some is produced in water column by plant respiration (ex. seagrass, phytoplankton)
-necessary for nearly all marine life (anaerobic microbes are an exception)

63

Eutrophication in the Bay

with increased nutrient inputs in the Bay
- more phytoplankton
chlorophyll a, a proxy for phytoplankton has double in past 50 years
- less light transmission

64

Harmful algal blooms

magnitude has increased
Pfiesteria piscicida (toxic dinoflagellate)
cochlodinium polykrikoide (red tide culprit)

65

Struggling seagrasses

various factors influence how much light is absorbed in the water column before reaching seagrasses on the bottom. these include phytoplankton, humics (organic matter), suspended sediment, and epiphytes growing on the seagrass leaves

66

Hypoxic/anoxic dead zones

result of farming sewage treatment and powerplants, development, and roadways creating nutrient-laden runoff which is entering the bay
-creates excess nutrients to stimulate algae blooms which then die off, sink to bottoms, and decompose
-decomposition uses up dissolved oxygen in Bay
-low oxygen levels, called "hypoxia", cause shellfish to die and fish and crabs to leave habitat or die, creating "dead zones"

67

Dead zone extent

tied to climate change conditions, larger dead zone with rain: jan-may rainfall
low wind (cannot mix in oxygen)
high temperature
fewer storms

68

Diel cycling

hypoxia in shallow areas
diel cycle = daily rhythm
nighttime oxygen consumption exceeds daytime production
Mobile animals: behavioral and reproductive modifications
Sessile animal: lethal and sublethal effects

69

Positive feedbacks

seagrasses can't survive in poor water quality/ loss of seagrasses reduces benthic oxygen production and worsens water quality
-oysters experience lethal and sublethal effects of the dead zone/ fewer oysters to filter sediment and phytoplankton out of the water column

70

Poor water quality and oysters

stressed oysters do not improve the water quality
-salinity too high/low
-high temperature
-low dissolved oxygen
-incoming silt buries reef faster than it can grow
loss of spawning due to low density

71

How many years to see improvement in Phosphorus reductions

10-15 years

72

Eutrophication increasingly common

Early observations in the Chesapeake focused national attention on the issue
why nutrient management efforts are particularly well developed

73

Watershed population

has more than doubled since 1950
-18 million people

74

How algal blooms harm the Bay

cloud the water and block sunlight, causing underwater bay grasses to die
-bay grasses provide a home for many bay creatures
Deplete oxygen in water
-when the algae die and decompose, they use up oxygen needed by other plants and animals living in the Bay's waters

75

Summer oxygen levels

oxygen levels become dangerously low in the deeper water of the bay
- if species cannot move they may be stressed or die
As upper water level temperatures rise, bay creatures would normally retreat to the cooler, deeper waters but they may be restricted due to low oxygen in these waters

76

Bay dissolved oxygen criteria: Migratory spawning and nursery areas

Migratory spawning and nursery areas
- 6mg/L averaged over 7 days and 5mg/L 1-day minimum (feb 15th - june 10th) early stages are often more sensitive

77

Bay dissolved oxygen criteria: Shallow and Open water areas

Shallow and Open water areas
-5mg/L as a 30-day average with 7-day average of 4mg/L and a 1-day minimum of 3.5 mg/L- all year round
-this provides enough oxygen for the survival of larval and juvenile fish found in these areas. the minimum level is enough to prevent lethal effects for the Atlantic shortnose sturgon, the latter of which is listed as an endangered species

78

Bay dissolved oxygen criteria:
Deep water uses

Deep water uses
-3mg/L as a 30-day averages, with 1-day minimum of 1.7 mg/L (april through sept.)
During october through April, the shallow open water use criteria applies
-during the summer, these oxygen levels would protect eggs and larvae of bay anchovy, one of the most abundant fish in the Chesapeake and critical link in the food chain

79

Bay dissolved oxygen criteria:
Deep channel uses

Deep channel uses
-1mg/L minimum from May through September. From October through April, the shallow/open water use criteria applies
-intended to protect worms and other bottom dwellers that can tolerate low oxygen levels during the summer. In winter, these areas are important foraging areas for blue crabs and finfish that seek refuge in these deeper, warmer waters

80

Sources of Nitrogen to the Bay

Agriculture- manure: 17%
Agriculture Atmospheric Deposition: 6%
Atmospheric deposition - Mobile, Utilities and Industries: 19%
Atmospheric Deposition - Natural: 1%
Atmospheric Deposition to Tidal Waters- 7%
Municipal and Industrial Wastewater - 19%
Developed Lands- Chemical fertilizer- 10%
Septic system- 4%
Agriculture- Chemical Fertilizer- 15%

Large percentage of nitrogen is from Agriculture

81

Manure Runoff

we need better ways to store manure or keep animals away from streams
-typical approach is to have cement blocks
-better approach is to have plants

82

Environmental gradient in the Bay Range and Variation in

stratification
salinity
tides and currents
storms and sediment
oxygen
pH

83

What is An Estuary

a partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixd with freshwater from rivers or streams

84

Clean Water Act

Estuary: means a part of river or stream or other body of water that has unimpaired connection with the open sea and where the sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage-

85

Coastal plain Estuary

thousands of years ago, as ancient glaciers melted, some coastal streams and rivers became covered with water as sea levels rose
-Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Narragnansett Bay in Rhode Island

86

Bar-built estuary

sandbars or barrier islands built up by ocean currents and waves in coastal areas created a protected area fed by small streams or rivers
-barrier islands off the Atlantic coastline of North Carolina and Massachusetts

87

Delta System estuary

deltas are formed at the mouths of large rivers from sediment and silt depositing instead of being washed away by currents and waves. When river flow is restricted by the delta, an estuary may form
-estuaries at the mouth of the Nile River in Egypt and the Mississippi river in Louisiana

88

Tectonic estuaries

tectonic estuaries were created when a major crack or a large land sink in the Earth, often caused by earthquakes, produced a basin below sea level that filled with water. These types of estuaries usually occur along fault lines
-san francisco Bay in california

89

Fjords

advancing glaciers ground out long, narrow valleys with steep sides. Then when glaciers melted, seawater flooded in
-kachemak bay in Alaska

90

Types of estuaries based on flow patter

Vertically mixed estuary
Slightly stratified estuary
Highly stratified estuary
Salt wedge estary

91

water column mixing and sratification

-colder water sinks beneath warmer
-saltier water sinks beneath fresher

92

Vertically mixed estuary

stratification vertically

93

Slightly stratified estuary

form where tidal activity is strong and river volume is moderate. halocline is still present but less pronounced than in salt wedge estuaries
-seawater moves landward along the bottom of partially mixed estuaries and is diluted progressively landward with freshwater moving out towards the estuary mouth

94

Fjord/highly stratified

highly stratified

95

salt-wedge estuary

wedge like

96

Chesapeake bay estuary type

slightly stratified
-mixing between salt and freshwater produces vertical salinity gradient

97

Salinity range in estuary

0 to 28 ppt
seawater is 30-35 ppt
Upper bay and tributaries is fresher
lower bay is saltier
changes in salinity seasonally
-spring fresher
-building throughout the summer

98

How saltwater and freshwater move through the estuary

larger surface currents than deep currents
-arrows move clockwise- water comes in along the western shore of the bay and leaves on the easter shore
-currents move upstream a fair ways up tidal tributaries

99

How long does it take for one tidal wave to travel from the Bay mouth to its head

12 hours

100

dominant semidiurnal tide

chesapeake bay is long enough to contain one complete wave length semidiurnal
-when one high tide is reaching the head of the bay near Havre de Grace, the next high tide is just entering the bay

101

Souther bay and tangier sound tides

semidiurnal- generally two high and two low waters each day

102

central and nother Bay

classified as mixed- on days when two high waters and two low waters occur, the two high tides and the two low tides will be of unequal height

103

Tidal range

1 to 3 feet (<1 m)
Highest at the Atlantic Ocean connection
Lowest in the Mid-bay near Annapolis

tides are smaller in the mid bay than at the two extremities

104

Bay Swim

1991: 164 of 884 entrants finished swim, the rest had to be taken from water by rescue boats
1992: 48 of 331 entrants finished

105

Sediment

sources-
soil erosion
waste discharge
urban runoff
eroding stream banks
excessive algal growth

106

storms

increase dead zone size

direct correlation between flow and phytoplankton and flow and stratification

107

Dissolved Oxygen

from 0 (anoxic) to >10 (supersaturated)
-varies daily, seasonally, spatially, and by depth

108

problems with less dissolved oxygen

less dissolved oxygen harms organisms we want to see in the bay
ex. stripers, crabs, shellfish
-favors organisms we could do without
-Eutrophication and hypoxia --> "the rise of slime"

109

pH

shell building organisms in acidic waters have slower growth rates, deformities, mortality

110

Climate change and estuaries

climate change is bringing a multitude of changes to the Chesapeake Bay
-sea level rise
warming water
acidification
more intense storms

111

physical gradient within the bay

diversity of habitats within the Bay
-fresh tidal and salt marshes
-various species of seagrasses
-oysters
-coastal forest

112

Executive order 13508

in 2009 President Obama declared the Chesapeake "a national treasure"
-establishing a bay federal leadership committee
-directing EPA to fully use its Clean Water Act authorities
-improving agricultural conservation practices
-developing a Bay climate change strategy
-reducing water pollution from federal property
-expanding public access to the Bay
-restoring the living resources of the Bay

113

Habitat restoration goals

oysters: restore 20 tributaries by 2025

Wetland and seagrasses: restore 30,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands

114

Salt marsh habitat value and ecosystem services

high biodiversity: a total of 286 vascular plant species were recorded and 9 tidal wetland sites across 0.5 - 22 ppt slinity range in the James river estuary
-nursery habitat
-shoreline protection
-nutrient traps and carbon storage

115

Impact and losses

heavy sedimentation due to colonial era
-clearing buried many freshwater nontidal wetlands
-Conversion to agricultural and urban landss
-invasive species
-erosion and loss to sea level rise

116

restoration and invasive control activities

phragmites removal and spraying, nutria trapping
-marsh restoration- Anacostia marsh
Wetland creation- poplar island

117

Executive order progression

in 2012 2,231 acres of wetlands were established or re-established on agricultural lands in the Bay watershed

2014/2015 goal
4,000 acres of wetlands every two years
-enhance 20,000 acres of degraded wetlands every two years

118

Wetlands outcome

restore 30,000 acres of tidal and non tidal wetlands and enhance the function of an additional 150,000 acres of degraded wetlands by 2025
-National wetlands inventory estimates we have about 1 million acres of wetlands available for restoration or enhancement

119

Salinity of tidal freshwater

0 ppt

120

Salinity of Brackish water

1-10 ppt

121

Salinity of salty brackish water

11-18 ppt

122

salinity of saltwater

18-30ppt

123

Wild celery

found in tidal freshwater and a little in brackish water

124

Eurasian milfoil

found in tidal freshwater, brackish water, and a little in salty brackish

125

Widgeon grass

found in salty brackish water and salt water, found a little in tidal and freshwater

126

Eelgrass

found in salty brackish water and saltwater, a little in brackish water

127

Why SAV are important

Submerged aquatic vegetation
-provide food for waterfowl
-provide habitat for juvenile blue crabs, rockfish (striped bass), and other aquatic species= nursery grounds
Shoreline protection: their leaves and stems absorb wave energy, and roots bind the substrate
As plants, they produce oxygen
Nutrient trap

128

Loss of SAV

forced some species of waterfowl to migrate to other wintering areas or to change their feeding habits.

129

Where have the grasses gone?

-scouring and burial by major storms
-diseases
-poor water quality
-some natives replaced by invasive species

130

in 1930

seagrasses covered 185,000 acres

131

Oyster beds- habitat value and ecosystem service

similar to marshes and seagrass beds, a nursery ground and high biodiversity habitat
-Water quality: remove sediment and phytoplankton from the water column
-shoreline protection: natural wave barrier

132

Oyster fishery fall

<1% historical abundance
-overfishing
-sedimentation
-disease
-feedbacks of low population (not enough spawners, low recruitment, not enough reef habitat for recruits)

133

Urban rivers

Anacostia
-~75% of the watershed is developed
~40% of the impervious cover is roads
-most developed predates modern stormwater control
-aging combined sewer system in parts of DC
Lack of funding for stormwater infrastrucutre

134

Four main pollutants of urban areas

bacteria
nutrients
toxins
trash

135

Urban impacts to the anacostia river

stormwater
-sewage
-trash
-nutrients
-thermal
-toxins
-sediment

136

What we find in our trash

Styrofoam- 30%
Others- 21%
Plastic cups- 7%
Bottles and Cans- 42%

137

Solutions

reconnecting people to place
billions of dollars of investment
anacostia bike trail
anacostia water trail
recreation
wildlife

138

DC Anacostia River Cleanup and Protection act

2009
-5 cent fee on disposable plastic and paper bags
-store gets 1 cent to manage fee
-if store gives 5 cents for reusable bags, they get 2 cents
-fee goes to education reusable bags, and trash collection methods

139

Causes of decline in oysters

overfishing
sedimentation
diseases- MSX and Dermo
Feedbacks of low population

140

Proposed introduction of the Chinese oyster

crassostrea ariakensis
dermo and MSX are Japanese oyster disease and these chinese are resistant

141

Pros of chinese oyster

more disease resistant
fast growing, though maybe not at hight density

142

Cons of chinese oyster

similar habitat needs to the eastern oyster
possible introduction of new oyster diseases
Possibility of escape
might outcompete native oyster
not reef forming

143

Invasive species in the Bay

blue and flathead catfish
mute swans
northern snakehead fish
nutria
Phragmites

Emerald ash borer, Chinese mitten crab, European gysy moth, Hydrilla, Japanese silt grass, Rusty crayfish, Didymo "rock snot"

144

blue catfish

Grow extremely big
take over fish communities

145

Zebra mussel

breissena polymorpha
foul and suffocate native endangered mussles
clog water mains, foal boats
estimated $5 billion to control
spreading all over

146

Keystone resource

resource that is outsized in its importance to an ecosystem relative to biomass

147

Horseshoe crab

keystone resource
-shorebirds feed heavily on horseshoe crab eggs

148

Atlantic menhaden

important food source for striped bass, weakfish, bluefish, and predatory birds such as osprey and eagles
-largest fishery by volume in Chesapeake

product: omega protein- omega-3 fatty acids, fish food, and bait

149

Alaskan Pollock

fish sticks- largest fishery

150

Extinctions

continental - passenger pigeons, carolina parakeets

151

Ecological extinction

still present but in such a small population that it no longer interacts significantly with other species

sea-turttles
Sharks

152

At risk species

U.S. endangered species list 9 plants 27 animals

State level: 445 plants 167 animals

153

Diamondback Terrapin

brackish water only-
threatened by:
harvest
drowning in crab traps
roadkill
habitat loss, sea level rise

154

BRD and TED

bycatch reduction devises
turtle excluder device

to try to reduce catch of turtles

155

Population growth

17.7 million people were estimate to live in Chesapeake Bay watershed

estimated to be 20 million by 2030

156

More people means

more houses
more impervious surfaces
more wastewater
more roads, cars, and traffic
more energy usage

157

Forest acreage

has been declining at a rate of about 100 acres/day

farm acres have been declining faster

158

Land use in chesapeake bay

Undeveloped (forested) -58%
Agriculture- 22%
Urban and suburban- 9%
Other- 11%

159

Sources of Nitrogen pollution in the Chesapeake Bay

Agricultural run-off: 41%
Air pollution: 25%
Wastewater treatment factories: 15%
Urban suburban stormwater runoff: 15%
Septic: 3%

160

Natural ground cover

40% evapotranspiration
10% runoff
25% shallow infiltration
25% deep infiltration

161

10-20% impervious surface

38% evapotranspiration
20% runoff
21% shallow infiltration
21% deep infiltration

162

35-50% impervious surface

35% evapotranspiration
30% runoff
20% shallow infiltration
15% deep infiltration

163

75-100% impervious surface

30% evapotranspiration
55% runoff
10% shallow infiltration
5% deep infiltration

164

Combined sewer overflows

at each point there is an opportunity for management of nutrient inputs

impervious surfaces
runoffs
CSOs
nutrients into bay

165

Point sources

industrial
Wastewater treatment plants
CAFO
-concentrate animal feeding operations

166

Biological nutrient removal

BNR
-using microorganisms to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater during treatment
3 steps
- an anaerobic step called enhanced biological phosphorus removal
-aerobic step called nitrification
-anoxic step called denitrification
-end result wastewater contains less than 8 mg/L of nitrogen

167

Enhanced nutrient removal

ENR- even better
end result: wastewater contains 3mg/L of nitrogen and 0.3 mg/L of phosphorus

168

Maryland's Bay Restoration Fund

"flush fee"
funds ENR upgrades for the state's 66 major wastewater treatment plants that discharge to the Bay

169

Phosphate ban

1970s laundry detergent was about 11% phosphorus
-detergents contributed to 50-70% of the phosphorus treated at sewage treatment plants

Maryland banned it in 1985
DC in 1986
Virginia 1988
Pennsylvania 1990

170

Phosphate ban in dish soap

2010 (MD, VA, and PA)

171

Traffic and nitrogen

fossil fuel burning- cars and power generation produces nitrogenous air pollution
-vehicle miles travled grows faster than population

172

Land cover

58% forest
23% agriclutre
16% urban/suburban
3% wetlands

173

Agriculture

6.5 million acres
87,000 farms
over 50 different crops/commodities

174

TMDL

total maximum daily load
19% of total N load
24% of total P load

only accounts for liquid waste water treatment plant

175

Eutrophication

N or P over enrichment of surface waters
-results in excessive algal growth
limiting nutrient for algal growth

176

Limiting nutrient in freshwater

phosphorus

177

limiting nutrient in saltwater

nitrogen

178

Effects of Eutrophication

low to no oxygen in deep and/or unmixed waters
decrease water clarity in shallows
wrong types and population distribution of phytoplankton for filter feeding consumption
increase number of severity of harmful algal blooms

179

Main pollutants from agriculture

nitrogen phosphorus and sediment

180

Nutrient and sediment losses

leaching
drainage
subsurface flow
erosion
runoff

181

Nitrogen by sector

agriculture- 45%
Point source- 22%
forest 20%
urban runoff- 8%
septic 4%
non-tidal water deposition 1%

182

TMDL for agriculture

33% of N load
39% of P load

183

Phosphorus by sector

Agriculture- 44%
Point source 25%
urban runoff- 15%
forest 15%
non-tidal water deposition- 1%

184

Total delivered sediment by sector

Agriculture-65%
forest- 18%
urban runoff 16%
point source- 1%

185

BMP

Best management practices
so many of them

186

Nitrogen sources in the Chesapeake Bay

agriculture is larges input
wastewater is second

187

Phosphorus sources

ag is larges
wastewater is second

188

Largest pool of nitrogen is

gases in the atmosphere, inaccessible to plants and animals
free nitrogen - unreactive

189

Nitrates NO3-

fixed to terrestrial and aquatic plants then fixed into waste and remains or used by consumers (primary, secondary, and tertiary) which is then fixed into proteins from dead cells
-protein from dead cells are fixed to decaying organisms(aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi) which is ammonified to ammonium

190

Nitrites NO2-

undergo nitrification to be nitrates

191

Ammonium

NH4+ Ammonium is fixed to terrestrial and aquatic plants
undergoes nitrification to be nitrites

192

Why care about reactive and non-reactive nitrogen

we use microbial denitrification to remove N from wastewater before it reaches the estuary
ex. BNR and ENR

make it non reactive

193

Nitrogen

Raw sewage 21-42 mg/L
After BNR: 8 mg/L
After ENR: 3 mg/L

194

Phosphorus

Raw sewage: 3-7 mg/L
After BNR: 3 mg/L
After ENR: 0.3 mg/L

195

denitrification

marshes, seagrasses, and oyster bed habitats have higher rates of denitrification than mud habitats

196

Habitat loss and denitrification

habitat loss has reduced denitrification potential in estuaries
-another way the Bay is more difficult to restore because of multiple environmental impacts

197

Indicators of Bay Health

Bernie Fowler's Sneaker index
state of the bay report
Chesapeake Bay Report Card

198

Bernie Fowler's Sneaker index

measured every June in a wade- in in the Patuxent river- see how far he can go in until he can't see his sneakers

199

State of the Bay report

produced by Chesapeake Bay foundation
-3 categories with 4 indicators each (13 in total)

200

pollution: state of the bay report

nitrogen/phosphorus
dissolved oxygen
water clarity
toxics

201

Habitat: state of the bay report

forested buffers
underwater grasses
wetlands
resource lands

202

Fisheries: state of the bay report

rockfish
oysters
crabs
shad

203

Chesapeake Bay Report card

produced by the Chesapeake Bay programs
- for comparison with the 3 major categories of the State of the Bay report

204

Chesapeake Watershed Model

land use, fertilizer use, wastewater, atmospheric deposition, livestock production, weather and other variables to predict how much and where pollutants originate

205

Chesapeake Bay Fisheries Ecosystem Model

food web model for fisheries management decisions

206

Chesapeake Atlantis Model

food web + habitat + human activities and nutrient inputs; spatially explicit

207

Policies that affect individuals

flush tax
rain tax
rain garden and rain barrel subsidies
point source pollution permitting

208

Maryland Chesapeake Bay restoration fee

Flush tax
-used for upgrades to ENR in marylands 67 WWTPs
-upgrades for failing septic systems
-fund cover crops for fields
$60 per person for coastal
$30 per person for non-coastal

209

Maryland impervious surfaces tax

rain tax
-user fee charge to property owners for the service of managing the polluted runoff coming from their property
took effect in 2013
-set by county

rain garden, rain barrel lower fees

210

Rain gardens

planted hole with permeable and filter layers
-native plants
-fed by runoff water and rain barrels
subsidy programs
-funded by DC plastic bag fee

211

point source nutrient pollution

point sources- individually permitted by the EPA
-National Pollutant Discharge Elimitation System
-Controls pollution at the pipe to meet water quality standards set by the states

212

Chesapeake Bay Agreement

1983:
1 page agreement
Voluntary pledge
Partners: MD, VA, PA, DC, EPA

the chair of the Chesapeake Bay commission

-responsibilities
establish policy direction for restoration and protection of the bay
marshall public support for the bay
sign directives, agreements, amendments that set goals
be accountable to public for progress

213

1987 agreement

7 pages
to achieve 40% reduction of pollutants by 2000

based on 1985 point source loads and non point loads in average rainfall year

214

2000 approaches

little or no progress made in meeting the 40% goal

by 2010: correct the nutrient and sediment problems in the Chesapeake Bay

215

Voluntary agreements

1983
1987
2000
-reductions by 2010

216

Regulatory agreements

Clean water act (1972)(

217

Clean water act

identifies "impaired" waters
-fishable
-swimmable
Requires plan to delist
-total maximum daily load (TMDL)

218

2006

a report a statements by EPA's Rich Batiuk say that the EPA's Bay restoration efforts will miss the goals

219

2008

Chesapeake bay foundation files suit agains the EPA for its failure to enforce the Clean Waters Act

220

Executive order

President Obama signed executive order in 2009 stating the bay is a national treasure

221

2010

chesapeake bay foundation sues and settles with EPA
-legally binding and enforceable plan requires action by dates
TMDL

222

Setting a TMDL

"the sleeping giant" of legislation part of 1972 act

223

WLA

Waste Load Allocation
-amount of pollutant form existing point sources

224

LA

load allocation
-amount of pollutant form existing nonpoint sources and natural bacground

225

MOS

margin of safety

226

Complex management scheme: TMDL

watersheds transcend political boundaries
in the Chesapeake Bay: a history of settling and missing targets for nutrient management