Flashcards in Midterm Deck (129):
The 6 fundamental beliefs are divided up into what 2 categories?
1.) God's unity
What are the 6 fundamental beliefs?
1.) God's unquieness/oneness (tawhid)
2.) God's will (more or less determinism) and how it impacts human "free will"
3.) God's Angels
4.) God's prophet
5.) God's books
6.) Death, resurrection and the hereafter
If God wills
Islam v. Christianity
There will be a bodily resurrection followed by judgement
Islam v. Christianity
Judgment will be announced by a trumpet
Islam v. Christianity
One is judged by one's works with a reliance on God's mercy
Islam v. Christianity
All souls have existed from before time and one is placed into a body when a person's earthly life begins
Islam v. Christianity
After death souls go to a "Waiting place" where they are aware of their final destination and of events on Earth
Islam v. Christianity
There are different levels of reward and punishment in the afterlife
There will be a new earth after judgement where the righteous will dwell
5 characteristics of metanarratives
2.) Connected with their surroundings part of a cultural
3.) Do not include everything, it includes and excludes
4.) They involve language and texts
5.) Have historical/chronological nature
Which of the following is the correct penalty for submitting a paper up to five days late?
Based on the course calendar it seems reasonable to assume that the mid-term exam will cover our discussion of our unit(s) on
Who introduced the term "grand narrative"
Describes the kind of story that underlies, gives legitimacy and explain the particular choices a culture perscribes
Another term for grand narrative
4 historical examples of master/grand narratives
2.) The Enlightenment
According to Lyotard it is a technical apparatus for what?
Ordering, storing and retrieving information that is in competition and conflict w/ scientific knowledge
2 grand narratives of legitimization of knowledge
1.) The narrative of emancipation
2.) Speculative narrative
Which humanity is hero and emancipation is achieved through scientific knowledge
The narrative of emancipation
Which arises with the creation of the great modern universities and is summed up in the phrase "science for its own sake"
2 limitations of most worldview books
1.) Christians have bought into the idea that philosophies born and perpetuated in universities represent the greatest challenge to a Christian worldview
2.) They let Christian readers off the hook so easily
8 belief systems we identify as hidden worldviews
4.) Moral relativism
6.) The New Age
7.) Postmodern tribalism
8.) Salvation by theraoy
What question does every world view answer?
What must we do to be saved?
Whose meaning of heart includes the emotion, but also encompasses wisdom, desire and will, spirituality and intellect; in short the heart is “the central defining element of the human person.”
Jean-Francois Lyotard formulated his ideas in the ocntext of thinking about...
Knowledge and higher education
Worldviews are things that capture our minds but also deal with an orientation of our...
the BEST definition of what Wilkens and Sanford mean by “a congruent story”?
When a person's life is in continuity with their beliefs
Rudolph Otto claimed that _______ somehow existed timelessly on its own
Religion functioned as a ____on the progress of humanity and should be eradicated from society
Who proclaimed that the development of rationality and science had killed God?
Who called for the death of religion?
What 3 people developed the methodology and assumptions of modern religious studies?
1.) William James
2.) Max Weber
3.) Emile Durkheim
Who proclaimed that religion came from a personal experience?
Who focused on religion's social role?
4 main questions
1.) What is essential?
2.) What does it mean to be a human?
3.) How do humans interact with the sacred?
4.) How does the sacred become community?
6 Characteristics of Religion
1.) History and Myths
4.) Emotions and experiences
5.) Sacred places
6.) Ethics and morals
Sets of principles that guide people's understanding or actions
Repeated actions that have meaning
Refers to a satirical idea describing verifiable falsehoods repeated so often that they seem to be true
Seeks the truth or tries to find a way to live authentically or genuinely
Which US President's picture is featured prominently in CH 1
Of the following thinkers mentioned in CH 1 which was described as scorning religion and lamenting its influence on society?
Of the following thinkers mentioned in CH 1 which of the following helped develop modern methodologies and assumptions about the study of religion?
In CH 2 the author compares thinking about religion to the subculture surrounding which NFL team?
There is little information in the Qur'an about Muhammad
How many times is Muhammad mentioned in the Qur'an?
Collections of hadiths
Sunni two collections
Al-Bukhari has how many hadiths?
al Muslim has how many hadiths?
“Tradition” or saying of Muhammad uttered by him either as a general comment or word of advice, or in response to some question or other
The 2 parts of a hadith are...
Main body of text or the actual account of what the Prophet either said or did
Chain of transmitter or the list of people reaching back to one of Muhammad's companions who have handed the account down orally through history
biography of Muhammad's life
How old was Muhammad when he was "first called"?
How long did Muhammad wrestle with the calling?
6 mo. - 2 years
When did his mission begin
After a second "visitation where God 'spoke' to him again"
Events of Muhammad's life
He is born
He marries Khadija
He receives his first revelations
He shares his revelations with his family
He shares his revelations with the people of Mecca
His tribe (the Quraysh) rejects his message
He experiences the “night journey”
He migrated to Yathrib with his followers
He establishes the Constitution of Medina
He changes the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca
He engages multiple battles with Mecca
He marries Aisha
He conquers Mecca
Chapter 1 of the Qur'an is
Chapter 2 of the Qur'an is
The chapters are called
How many total suras?
The verses are called
How many verses are in sura 2?
an invocation that is used as part of the five-times-a-day canonical prayer, or any time believers need/want to praise God.
6 steps of the Fatiha
1. In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful!
2. Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the World;
3. Most Compassionate, Most Merciful;
4. Master of the Day of Judgement.
5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid do we seek.
6. The way of those on whom Thou has bestowed Thy Grace, not those whole lot is wrath, or those who have gone astray.
The primary distinction that scholars draw between the various passages of the Qur’an concern those revealed in _____ and those revealed in _______
Mecca & Medina
The Qur'an includes a number of narratives regarding the various ______ sent by God to human beings
The Qur'an focused a great deal on God, describing God as what 3 things?
2.) The Creator
3.) Different from creation
Muslims think the Qur'an as Muhammad's prayers to God
Muslims treat the Qur'an as something pure and unadulterated
Muslims consider the Qur'an to be the "word of God"
Muslims think of the Qur'an as a guidebook for life
Who is the intended audience of the Qur'an?
People who have already come to believe in God
What are the 3 ways in which Islam plays out differently in different people's lives
1.) Religion that individuals follow
2.) A cultural identity
3.) A political ideology, a metanarrative "Isamism"
Islam (Islamic) =
Islamism (Islamist) =
4 Main leaders of Islam in history
2.) 4 Rightly-guided Caliphs
3.) Umayyad Dynasty
4.) Abbasid Dynasty
4 Rightly-Guided Caliphs rule
4 sources of Sharia Law
3.) Consensus of the community
Often gives more info; specific info on many topics
"ijma" - scholars discuss and come to an agreement on something
Consensus of the community
means adhering to sunna (practice) of the Prophet, which is something that all Shi’ites would claim to do anyway, Sunnis however depend on the sunna alone
Shi'ites also include...
The twelve Imams as sources of spiritual inspiration and socio-political guidance
Largest sect in Islam
2 primary sources of authority for the Sunni
2.) Traditions of Muhammad
Which is the second largest sect and often called shi'ites
Where do the Shi'a Islam (Shi'ites) trace their history too?
Followers of Ali
Oneness with God
Death and the Hereafter
One belief - do not associate beings with God or you will commit
According to Islam nothing happens apart from God's will
5 pillars of Islam
1.) Profession of Islam
2.) Canonical prayer
4.) Alms giving directly to the poor
5.) Pilgrimage to Mecca
Alms giving directly to the poor
Profession of Islam
Which of the 5 pillars of Islam is traditionally understood as a person's entry point into the community of believers?
Shahada (the confession of faith)
Working is forbidden as part of the Ramadan fast
False it is not
What 2 topics have had a lot of legal consideration of the many issues involved with them
Marriage and divorce
The pilgrimmage to Mecca and all of its rituals are strongly connected with the historical person of _______, thus providing Muslims an important connection with their religious roots that trace back before Muhammad.
Human beings are God's ______ on Earth
3 stages of Sufism
1.) Individual's personal submission to God
2.) Communal surrender to the dictates of an "order" or tariqa
3.) Surrender to a person - a sheikh or guru
Methodical repetition of the names of God
Turner argues that the key idea in Muslim spirituality is
Recognizing that one is not like God in any way so that God can reveal Godself to the seeker
What was the name of the Persian poet who wrote an extensive corpus of poetry that is so well-loved especially among persian speakers that it is called the "Persian Qur'an"?
Jalal al-Din Rumi
The branch of Islam that is typically associated with Muslim spirituality is the group called the
Turner discusses at some length the thought of the Turkish scholar Said Nursi, who has written at length about the spiritual issues surrounding the human:
"I" or self
The practice of du’a refers to the spiritual practice of
Calling on God's names as a form of invocation
The Muslim practice of hajj includes doing what 3 things?
1.) Donning symbolic clothing
2.) Throwing stones at the devil
3.) Walking/running between 2 mountains
When did Turkey gain independence?
1923 after WW2
Who was formally known as the Ottoman Empire?
What happened in 1915 as a result of Turks wanting a "purer" turkish population?
Armenian genocide of Christian Armenians
98% of the population of Turkey was
European powers controlled much of the developing word from
2 main colonial powers in Iran
Great Britain and later Russia
The shahs that ruled Iran wanted secular government for 2 reasons
1.) There was more or less freedom of religion
2.) Lots of western influence, economically and otherwise
When was the Islamic revolution?