Midterm Flashcards Preview

BCOR > Midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Deck (129):
1

The 6 fundamental beliefs are divided up into what 2 categories?

1.) God's unity
2.) Prophethood

2

What are the 6 fundamental beliefs?

1.) God's unquieness/oneness (tawhid)
2.) God's will (more or less determinism) and how it impacts human "free will"
3.) God's Angels
4.) God's prophet
5.) God's books
6.) Death, resurrection and the hereafter

3

"inshallah"

If God wills

4

Islam v. Christianity

There will be a bodily resurrection followed by judgement

Both

5

Islam v. Christianity

Judgment will be announced by a trumpet

Both

6

Islam v. Christianity

One is judged by one's works with a reliance on God's mercy

Both

7

Islam v. Christianity

All souls have existed from before time and one is placed into a body when a person's earthly life begins

Islam

8

Islam v. Christianity

After death souls go to a "Waiting place" where they are aware of their final destination and of events on Earth

Islam

9

Islam v. Christianity

There are different levels of reward and punishment in the afterlife

Both

10

There will be a new earth after judgement where the righteous will dwell

Christianity

11

5 characteristics of metanarratives

1.) Communal
2.) Connected with their surroundings part of a cultural
3.) Do not include everything, it includes and excludes
4.) They involve language and texts
5.) Have historical/chronological nature

12

Which of the following is the correct penalty for submitting a paper up to five days late?

8 points

13

Based on the course calendar it seems reasonable to assume that the mid-term exam will cover our discussion of our unit(s) on

Islam

14

Who introduced the term "grand narrative"

Jean-Francois Lyotard

15

Describes the kind of story that underlies, gives legitimacy and explain the particular choices a culture perscribes

Grand narratives

16

Another term for grand narrative

Master Narrative

17

4 historical examples of master/grand narratives

1.) Christianity
2.) The Enlightenment
3.) Capitalism
4.) Marxism

18

According to Lyotard it is a technical apparatus for what?

Ordering, storing and retrieving information that is in competition and conflict w/ scientific knowledge

19

2 grand narratives of legitimization of knowledge

1.) The narrative of emancipation
2.) Speculative narrative

20

Which humanity is hero and emancipation is achieved through scientific knowledge

The narrative of emancipation

21

Which arises with the creation of the great modern universities and is summed up in the phrase "science for its own sake"

Speculative narrative

22

2 limitations of most worldview books

1.) Christians have bought into the idea that philosophies born and perpetuated in universities represent the greatest challenge to a Christian worldview
2.) They let Christian readers off the hook so easily

23

8 belief systems we identify as hidden worldviews

1.) Individualism
2.) Consumerism
3.) Nationalism
4.) Moral relativism
5.) Naturalism
6.) The New Age
7.) Postmodern tribalism
8.) Salvation by theraoy

24

What question does every world view answer?

What must we do to be saved?

25

Whose meaning of heart includes the emotion, but also encompasses wisdom, desire and will, spirituality and intellect; in short the heart is “the central defining element of the human person.”

James Sire's

26

Jean-Francois Lyotard formulated his ideas in the ocntext of thinking about...

Knowledge and higher education

27

Worldviews are things that capture our minds but also deal with an orientation of our...

Hearts

28

the BEST definition of what Wilkens and Sanford mean by “a congruent story”?

When a person's life is in continuity with their beliefs

29

Rudolph Otto claimed that _______ somehow existed timelessly on its own

"the holy"

30

Religion functioned as a ____on the progress of humanity and should be eradicated from society

Brake

31

Who proclaimed that the development of rationality and science had killed God?

Friedrich Nietzche

32

Who called for the death of religion?

Freud

33

What 3 people developed the methodology and assumptions of modern religious studies?

1.) William James
2.) Max Weber
3.) Emile Durkheim

34

Who proclaimed that religion came from a personal experience?

William James

35

Who focused on religion's social role?

Durkheim

36

4 main questions

1.) What is essential?
2.) What does it mean to be a human?
3.) How do humans interact with the sacred?
4.) How does the sacred become community?

37

6 Characteristics of Religion

1.) History and Myths
2.) Doctrines
3.) Rituals
4.) Emotions and experiences
5.) Sacred places
6.) Ethics and morals

38

Sets of principles that guide people's understanding or actions

Doctrines

39

Repeated actions that have meaning

Rituals

40

Refers to a satirical idea describing verifiable falsehoods repeated so often that they seem to be true

Truthiness

41

Seeks the truth or tries to find a way to live authentically or genuinely

Truthfulness

42

Which US President's picture is featured prominently in CH 1

Barack Obama

43

Of the following thinkers mentioned in CH 1 which was described as scorning religion and lamenting its influence on society?

Karl Marx

44

Of the following thinkers mentioned in CH 1 which of the following helped develop modern methodologies and assumptions about the study of religion?

William James

45

In CH 2 the author compares thinking about religion to the subculture surrounding which NFL team?

Pittsburgh Steelers

46

T/F

There is little information in the Qur'an about Muhammad

True

47

How many times is Muhammad mentioned in the Qur'an?

4

48

Collections of hadiths

Sahih

49

Sunni two collections

1.) al-Bukhari
2.) al-Muslim

50

Al-Bukhari has how many hadiths?

9,000

51

al Muslim has how many hadiths?

4,000

52

“Tradition” or saying of Muhammad uttered by him either as a general comment or word of advice, or in response to some question or other

Hadith

53

The 2 parts of a hadith are...

1.) Matn
2.) Isnad

54

Main body of text or the actual account of what the Prophet either said or did

Matn

55

Chain of transmitter or the list of people reaching back to one of Muhammad's companions who have handed the account down orally through history

Isnad

56

biography of Muhammad's life

Sira

57

How old was Muhammad when he was "first called"?

40 years

58

How long did Muhammad wrestle with the calling?

6 mo. - 2 years

59

When did his mission begin

After a second "visitation where God 'spoke' to him again"

60

Events of Muhammad's life

He is born
He marries Khadija
He receives his first revelations
He shares his revelations with his family
He shares his revelations with the people of Mecca
His tribe (the Quraysh) rejects his message
He experiences the “night journey”
He migrated to Yathrib with his followers
He establishes the Constitution of Medina
He changes the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca
He engages multiple battles with Mecca
He marries Aisha
He conquers Mecca
He die

61

Chapter 1 of the Qur'an is

The Messenger

62

Chapter 2 of the Qur'an is

The Message

63

The chapters are called

Suras

64

How many total suras?

114

65

The verses are called

Ayas

66

How many verses are in sura 2?

286

67

an invocation that is used as part of the five-times-a-day canonical prayer, or any time believers need/want to praise God.

Fatiha

68

6 steps of the Fatiha

1. In the name of God, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful!
2. Praise be to God, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the World;
3. Most Compassionate, Most Merciful;
4. Master of the Day of Judgement.
5. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid do we seek.
6. The way of those on whom Thou has bestowed Thy Grace, not those whole lot is wrath, or those who have gone astray.

69

The primary distinction that scholars draw between the various passages of the Qur’an concern those revealed in _____ and those revealed in _______

Mecca & Medina

70

The Qur'an includes a number of narratives regarding the various ______ sent by God to human beings

Prophets

71

The Qur'an focused a great deal on God, describing God as what 3 things?

1.) One
2.) The Creator
3.) Different from creation

72

T/F

Muslims think the Qur'an as Muhammad's prayers to God

False

73

T/F

Muslims treat the Qur'an as something pure and unadulterated

True

74

T/F

Muslims consider the Qur'an to be the "word of God"

True

75

T/F

Muslims think of the Qur'an as a guidebook for life

True

76

Who is the intended audience of the Qur'an?

People who have already come to believe in God

77

What are the 3 ways in which Islam plays out differently in different people's lives

1.) Religion that individuals follow
2.) A cultural identity
3.) A political ideology, a metanarrative "Isamism"

78

Islam (Islamic) =

Religion

79

Islamism (Islamist) =

Political movement

80

4 Main leaders of Islam in history

1.) Muhammad
2.) 4 Rightly-guided Caliphs
3.) Umayyad Dynasty
4.) Abbasid Dynasty

81

520-632

Muhammad's rule

82

632-661

4 Rightly-Guided Caliphs rule

83

661-750

Umayyad Dynasty

84

750-950

Abbasid Dynasty

85

4 sources of Sharia Law

1.) Qur'an
2.) Hadith
3.) Consensus of the community
4.) Qiyas

86

Often gives more info; specific info on many topics

Hadith

87

"ijma" - scholars discuss and come to an agreement on something

Consensus of the community

88

Analogical reasoning

Qiyas

89

means adhering to sunna (practice) of the Prophet, which is something that all Shi’ites would claim to do anyway, Sunnis however depend on the sunna alone

Sunnism

90

Shi'ites also include...

The twelve Imams as sources of spiritual inspiration and socio-political guidance

91

Largest sect in Islam

Sunni Islam

92

2 primary sources of authority for the Sunni

1.) Qur'an
2.) Traditions of Muhammad

93

Which is the second largest sect and often called shi'ites

Shi'a Islam

94

Where do the Shi'a Islam (Shi'ites) trace their history too?

Followers of Ali

95

Oneness with God

Tawhid

96

Prophethood

Nabuwwa

97

Death and the Hereafter

Ma'ad

98

One belief - do not associate beings with God or you will commit

Shirk

99

T/F

According to Islam nothing happens apart from God's will

True

100

5 pillars of Islam

1.) Profession of Islam
2.) Canonical prayer
3.) Fasting
4.) Alms giving directly to the poor
5.) Pilgrimage to Mecca

101

Hajj

Pilgrimage

102

Zakat

Alms giving directly to the poor

103

Sawm

Fasting

104

Salat

Canonical prayer

105

Shahada

Profession of Islam

106

Which of the 5 pillars of Islam is traditionally understood as a person's entry point into the community of believers?

Shahada (the confession of faith)

107

T/F

Working is forbidden as part of the Ramadan fast

False it is not

108

What 2 topics have had a lot of legal consideration of the many issues involved with them

Marriage and divorce

109

The pilgrimmage to Mecca and all of its rituals are strongly connected with the historical person of _______, thus providing Muslims an important connection with their religious roots that trace back before Muhammad.

Abraham

110

Human beings are God's ______ on Earth

Representatives

111

"Islamic mysticism"

Sufism

112

3 stages of Sufism

1.) Individual's personal submission to God
2.) Communal surrender to the dictates of an "order" or tariqa
3.) Surrender to a person - a sheikh or guru

113

Methodical repetition of the names of God

dhikr

114

Sama

Whirling dervishes

115

Turner argues that the key idea in Muslim spirituality is

Recognizing that one is not like God in any way so that God can reveal Godself to the seeker

116

What was the name of the Persian poet who wrote an extensive corpus of poetry that is so well-loved especially among persian speakers that it is called the "Persian Qur'an"?

Jalal al-Din Rumi

117

The branch of Islam that is typically associated with Muslim spirituality is the group called the

Sufis

118

Turner discusses at some length the thought of the Turkish scholar Said Nursi, who has written at length about the spiritual issues surrounding the human:

"I" or self

119

The practice of du’a refers to the spiritual practice of

Calling on God's names as a form of invocation

120

The Muslim practice of hajj includes doing what 3 things?

1.) Donning symbolic clothing
2.) Throwing stones at the devil
3.) Walking/running between 2 mountains

121

When did Turkey gain independence?

1923 after WW2

122

Who was formally known as the Ottoman Empire?

Turkey

123

What happened in 1915 as a result of Turks wanting a "purer" turkish population?

Armenian genocide of Christian Armenians

124

98% of the population of Turkey was

Muslim

125

European powers controlled much of the developing word from

1400-1900

126

2 main colonial powers in Iran

Great Britain and later Russia

127

The shahs that ruled Iran wanted secular government for 2 reasons

1.) There was more or less freedom of religion
2.) Lots of western influence, economically and otherwise

128

When was the Islamic revolution?

1979

129

Haram

Forbidden