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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (46):
1

Ad Hominem

attacking the person not the argument

2

Hasty Generalization

arguments that move from examples to generalizations too quickly or without sufficient rationale

3

Fallacy of Composition

Arguing that what is true of a part is true for the whole. Whole may not posses qualities of individual parts
Example: When grandma said I have an Asian neighbor that drives very well therefore all Asians should know how to drive well.

4

Fallacy of Analogy

Comparing two things that are more unalike than alike

5

Fallacy of Division

assuming that what is true of the whole is automatically true of the part. Part of the component may not posses the qualities of the whole
OPP. of fallacy of composition

6

Ethos

Source of credibility and integrity that contributes to the persuasiveness of an argumentative claim

7

Logos

logical proof

8

Pathos

appeals to emotion, sympathy or empathy

9

Values

principles, standards, or qualities that are considered to be important

10

Arguing

process of resolving differences of opinion through communication

11

Arguments

The claims that people make when they are asserting their opinions and/or supporting their beliefs

12

Argument 1

claims people make

13

Argument 2

the type of interactions in which the claims are developed. Interaction characterized by disagreement

14

Symbols

special types of signs that represent something by association; building blocks of language system

15

Argumentation as a human symbolic activity

In argumentation we use signs and symbols to communicate and create meaning

16

Narrative of Fidelity

test of stories that concerns whether a story represents accurate assertions about social reality (example). Fidelity determines how the story fits into the background of the world as a person has known it

17

Narrative of Probability

refers to whether the story seems coherent (internal coherence, no loose ends, are actors portrayed in heroic/villainous ways)

18

Partisanship

the concept that refers to when a group internally divides

19

Stories

accounts of events ; the plot; an allegation of the facts. Reflect our views of the issues we regard as significant ; they become our reality

20

Proposition

Statements that express the subject and defines the grounds for dispute

21

Burden of Proof

The understanding that whoever advances an argumentative claim has the responsibility to provide evidentiary support for it. (In academic debate, this refers to the expectation that the affirmative has the obligation to prove the resolution true.)

22

Proposition of fact

a statement that asserts a claim known as certainty
proposes wether something is true or false and can usually be resolved through empirical evidence.

23

Proposition of value

a statement that asserts a principle, standard, or moral claim
judges whether something is good or bad, ethical/unethical etc.
example: Intervention in the middle east is unethical

24

Proposition of policy

a statement that advocates a specific course of action
"should" US Federal government should (always implies that there will be some type of policy, act, behavior) intensify its sanctions against Russia.

25

Toulmin model

multi-step system of rational argument

26

Primary Triad

an argument is not complete if it is missing part of the primary triad
claim, grounds, warrant

27

claim

the main; the specific conclusion you want to prove to audience
factual, policy, value, definitional

28

Grounds

information on which arguments rests; evidence

proof, data, testimony, scientific examples

29

Warrant

an explanation of why the grounds supports claim
reasoning, connect the dots

30

Secondary Triad

backing, modality/qualifier, rebuttal

31

Backing

support for the warrant

32

Modality/Qualifier

degree of certainty with which the advocate makes the claim

33

Rebuttal

exceptions that might be offered to the claim

34

Inductive reasoning

arguing from specific cases to more general conlcusions

35

deductive reasoning

moving from overall theories or generally accepted principles to conclusions about specific cases

36

Premises

Point accepted without the requirements of additional support
based on personal knowledge and cultural knowledge

37

statistics

information communicated in numeric format

38

testimony

observations and judgements by individuals
expert and lay

39

reluctant testimony

highly credible form of supporting material in which sources speak against their apparent self-interest

40

concerns with statistics

snapshot study or across the board
sample size
timeframe
source

41

concerns with testimony

untrustworthy source
credibility
observations not reported fairly
use of reluctant testimony
internal/external consensus

42

research

the process of inquiry to identify supplemental facts & opinions

43

mainstream thinking

when using websites one need to be cautious of search engines that show sites readers go to the most

44

descriptive statistic

describes what is or what the data shows

45

inferential statistics

used to make inferences from data to general conditions

46

credibility

the audience's assessment of the competence and trustworthiness of the source