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Flashcards in Midterm 6 Deck (199)
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1

Which of the learning processes listed below was extensively studied in Aplysia depilans?

habituation
associative learning
kinestesy
imprinting

habituation

2

Which statement is true for the dorsal spinocerebellar tract?

the first switching over takes place in the thalamus

it is identical with the Gowers' pathway

the pathway bypasses the Clarke nucleus

its third neuron is in cerebellum

its third neuron is in cerebellum

3

Which of the following statements describe best the trichromatic (Young-Maxwell- Helmholtz) theory of color vision?

the trichromatic vision accomplish the sensation of the white, the black and the colored parts of pictures

the cones and rods together are sensitive to three different light wave specifically

the sensation of any color can be produced by sensing green, red and yellow colors

the sensation of any color can be produced by sensing green, red and blue colors

the sensation of any color can be produced by sensing green, red and blue colors

4

What is the function of the Ebner's serous glands located in bottom of foliate and circumvallate buds?

fast wash out of chemical substances

increasing of sweet taste sensation

increasing of sour taste sensation

it provides the pH necessary for taste sensation

fast wash out of chemical substances

5

Which statement is correct regarding to the parasympathetic postganglionic transmission?

muscarinic acetylcholine receptors play a major role in it

NPY is also released in it as a cotransmitter

it has only stimulatory effect

ATP can play a role in it as a neurotransmitter

muscarinic acetylcholine receptors play a major role in it

6

Which statement is correct regarding to the morphology of the autonomic nervous system?

rami communicantes grisei contains postganglionic fibers

rami communicantes albi contains postganglionic fibers

transmission occurs only in the truncus sympathicus

transmission occurs mainly in the wall of the innervated organs

rami communicantes grisei contains postganglionic fibers

7

Which of the following statements is characteristic of the hyperopia?

the parallel rays of light brought to a focus in front of the retina

the parallel rays of light brought to a focus behind the retina

some of the refractory surfaces has more refractory power

the diameter of the eyeball is longer then the normal

the parallel rays of light brought to a focus behind the retina

8

What is the role of the Renshaw cells in the spinal chord in the course of myotatic reflex?

inhibitory cells blunting the strong afferent effects

they facilitate the function of the gamma loop

they inhibit the motor neurones of contralateral flexors

they transmit the effects of the vestibulospinal pathways

inhibitory cells blunting the strong afferent effects

9

What is the role of the periglomerular cells of the bulbus olfactorius?

they make connection between the olfactory epithelium and the bulbus

they give some fibers from the bulbus to the limbic cortex

they make connection between the neighbouring glomeruli

they nourish the sensory cells of the olfactory epithelium as supporting cells

they make connection between the neighbouring glomeruli

10

Which of the following phenomenona is not the result of decortication?

the inability for independent food intake

cessation of reaction to pain

the inability for recognition of the owner

cessation of emotions like happiness and fear

cessation of reaction to pain

11

Which are the most important among the following pairs in determining the extent of an ionic current?

the equilibrium potential of the ion and the membrane potential

the electrochemical potential gradient and the permeability of the given ion

IC and EC concentration of the ion

ratio of leak and voltage-dependent channels of the given ion

the electrochemical potential gradient and the permeability of the given ion

12

Where does the auditory cortex send efferentation to?

directly to the organ of Corti

directly to the cerebellum

directly to the oliva

indirectly to the hair cells and the muscles of the auditory ossicles

indirectly to the hair cells and the muscles of the auditory ossicles

13

Which statement is correct regarding to the molecular explanation of hippocampal mid- term learning?

acetylcholine is released presynaptically

calcium channels are inhibited in the presynaptic terminal

the NMDA receptors are released from the inhibitory effect of magnesium

serotoninergic facilitation takes place

the NMDA receptors are released from the inhibitory effect of magnesium

14

Which nerve provides afferent fibers to the taste buds of the basis of the tongue?

n. facialis (VII.)
n. vagus (X.)
n. trigeminus (V.)
n. hypoglossus (XII.)

n. vagus (X.)

15

How much is the electrochemical potential gradient of potassium in excitable tissues?

- 9 mV
+ 25 mV
- 25 mV
- 58 mV

- 9 mV

16

What is the Mariotte's experiment used for?

for examination of refracting parts of the eye

for demonstration of the presence of the blind spot

for measuring the intraocular pressure

for determination of the refracting power of the lens

for demonstration of the presence of the blind spo

17

Which statement is true for the lingual nerve?

it mediates only mechanical stimuli

it bypasses ganglion geniculi

it provides nerve fibers to the back part of the tongue

it provides nerve fibers to the tip of the tongue

it provides nerve fibers to the tip of the tongue

18

Which of the following factors is the most important according to the up-to-date explanation of inverse myotatic reflex?

the Golgi's tendon receptors

the cortical modulation

the deep type III receptors during active physical work of the muscle

the sudden passive tension of the muscle

the deep type III receptors during active physical work of the muscle

19

Which part of the brain does not belong to the central part of the autonomic nervous system?

frontal and parietal association cortex
limbic system
vestibulocerebellum
hypothalamus

vestibulocerebellum

20

Which is true for the cortical sensory areas?

the secondary sensory area can be found in the postcentral gyrus

by removal the localization of the pain does not change

the main function of them is to establish the emotional aspects of pain

the postcentral gyrus is the main center of the tactile, mechanical and thermal sensation as the primary sensory area

the postcentral gyrus is the main center of the tactile, mechanical and thermal sensation as the primary sensory area

22

Which statement is true for the lateral spinothalamic tract?

its second neuron is in the substantia gelatinosa Rolandi

It conducts unconscious informations

the axon of the third neuron does not leave the thalamus

it bypasses the Lissauer bundle

its second neuron is in the substantia gelatinosa Rolandi

23

Which of the followings is an exteroceptive reflex also used in the clinical practice?
withers reflex
patella reflex
frontal carpus reflex
the dorsal reflex bellow hock

withers reflex

24

Which of the following behaviors belongs to the group of instincts?

distance-keeping
reproductive behavior
modal action series
play

modal action series

25

Which statement is true for the basilar membrane of the inner ear?

the high frequency sounds near the helicotrema

the high frequency sounds are captured near the base of the cochlea

it works as a frequency analyser

by contacting the hair cells it is able to move their stereocilia directly

it works as a frequency analyser

26

Which symptom takes place in Parkinson disease?

thalamocortical activity decreases

dopamine production is ceased in the substantia nigra

pallidum activity decreases

the brain stem is under increased inhibition

dopamine production is ceased in the substantia nigra

27

Which of the following features is the most typical of positron emission tomography (PET)?

it creates images of the brain with the help of X-rays

its resolution is higher than images based on NMR

the velocity of metabolic processes in the brain can be demonstrated by this method

the electronic activity of the brain can be measured by this method

the velocity of metabolic processes in the brain can be demonstrated by this method

29

Which transection leads to decebrate rigidity?

below vestibular ganglia
between nucleus ruber and nucleus Deiters
under the nucleus of the phrenical nerve
over the ruber nucleus

between nucleus ruber and nucleus Deiters

29

What is true for the cerebellar module ?

afferentation reaches the module bypassing the cerebellar nuclei

mossy fibers reach directly the Purkinje cells from the olive

climbing fibers synaptize on the granular cells

it has three inhibitory neurons: Pukinje cells,stellar cells and basket cells

it has three inhibitory neurons: Pukinje cells,stellar cells and basket cells

30

Which behaviour belongs to the so called "signalling" behaviour group?

distance keeping
reproductive behavior
exploration
game

distance keeping

31

Which statement is true for the propagation of action potential?

TTX-sensitive sodium channels can only be found at the nodes of Ranvier along the myelinated fibre

between the nodes the resistance is low

between the nodes the capacity is very high

in the nodes of Ranvier the response propagates with a decrement

TTX-sensitive sodium channels can only be found at the nodes of Ranvier along the myelinated fibre

32

What is the consequence of the movement of tectorial membrane forcing the stereocilia toward the kinocilium?

potassium efflux into the endolymph

calcium efflux into the perilymph

oscillating membrane potential

decrease of the glutamate release

oscillating membrane potential

33

What is the reaction of an on- center ganglion cell to a ray of light projected onto the whole receptive field?

decreased AP frequency
unchanged AP frequency
increased AP frequency
the AP discharge is terminated

increased AP frequency

34

Which statement is correct related to the sympathetic postganglionic transmission?

nicotinic acetylcholine receptor dominates in it

acethylcholine release never happens

95% of the cases is due to epinephrine release

ATP can play a role in it as a neurotransmitter

ATP can play a role in it as a neurotransmitter

35

What is characteristic of the so-called DHP (dihydropyridine) sensitive calcium channel of the skeletal muscle?

it is located on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

it activates the ryanodine sensitive calcium channel as a voltage sensor

it carries calcium from the cytoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticulum

it opens upon chemical stimulus

it activates the ryanodine sensitive calcium channel as a voltage sensor

36

Which of the following features is the most typical of nuclear magnetic resonance (MRI or NMR) examination?

it creates images of the brain with the help of X-rays

it reveals hormone- receptor interactions in the brain

the velocity of metabolic processes in the brain can be demonstrated by this method

its resolution is the highest among the in vivo brain imaging methods therefore it gives the most exact "living-anatomy" image about the brain

its resolution is the highest among the in vivo brain imaging methods therefore it gives the most exact "living-anatomy" image about the brain

37

What is the role of the so-called "oval" neurons in the oliva?

they code the frequency

they inhibit the activity of the "bushy" cells of the spiral ganglion

they blunt the effect of the rise of sound intensity

they represent the first elements of the bilateral sound intensity comparison in the auditory pathway

they represent the first elements of the bilateral sound intensity comparison in the auditory pathway

38

Which postural reflex is initiated during dropping a cat turned upside down?

tonic reflex
statocinetic reflex
stepping out reflex
erecting reflex

erecting reflex

41

What is not characteristic of the olfaction?

the ability to localize stimuli is lower than that of other perceptions

it is adapting slowly

there are some substances of attomol/l concentration that can produce stimulus

it has a large differentiating threshold

it is adapting slowly

42

What is the horopter?

it means the sphere what is covered by monocular vision

it means the sphere what is covered by binocular vision

it means the whole visual field

it means the place of points in the space which are projected to corresponding retinal points

it means the place of points in the space which are projected to corresponding retinal points

43

Which statement is true for the optical tract?

the fibers of the lateral bundle terminate mostly at the praetectal area

the lateral bundle is much smaller in diameter than the medial

the greater part of the medial bundle terminate at the geniculate body

the greater part of medial bundle terminates at the superior colliculis

the greater part of medial bundle terminates at the superior colliculis

44

What percentage of the pyramidal tract is crossed over in the pyramidum?

about one third of it
100 %
about half of it
80 %

80%

46

Which statement is correct?

the dark current leads to the release of serotonin

in darkness the cones and rods produce significant amount of glutamate

the cones respond to light by increased release of glutamate

the cones and the rods release different transmitter

in darkness the cones and rods produce significant amount of glutamate

47

Which of the following reflexes - also used in the clinical practice - is proprioceptive?

scrotum reflex
plantar reflex
whither reflex
plantar reflex

plantar reflex

49

Which statement is correct about the structure of the macula lutea?

in the macula only red and green light sensitive cones can be found

the macula is thicker then other areas of retina, because this is the place where the visual acuity is the greatest

the layer of ganglion cells is thickest in the macula

the macula is placed nasally from the optic disk

in the macula only red and green light sensitive cones can be found

50

Which kind of vision is characteristic of the predators?

monocular
binocular
wide visual field
decreased ability to colour vision

binocular

51

What is the maximal angle of the eye movement of which most mammals are capable without head movement while tracking an object?

25 degree
35 degree
15 degree
5 degree

15 degree

52

Which statement is true for the basilar membrane of the inner ear?

its width decreases gradually towards the helicotrema

its width increases 5- times towards the helicotrema

its width is about 500 micrometers at the base of the cochlea

it forms the the upper border the organ of Corti

its width increases 5- times towards the helicotrema

53

Which type of ionic channel has a main role in the formation of the action potential?

leak potassium channel

voltage-dependent sodium channel

leak sodium channel

voltage-dependent potassium channel

voltage-dependent sodium channel

54

Which statement is true for the pathway of fine tactile sensation of the skin (Goll - Burdach)?

the first switching over takes place in the thalamus

it is constituted of four neurons

the first switching over takes place in the medulla oblongata

the first neuron is typically bipolar

the first switching over takes place in the medulla oblongata

57

What is true for the lateral geniculate body?

it gets only afferentation from the optical nerve

this area is the center of the saccadical eye movements

this filters a part of the retinal information going to higher centers

the parvocellular part of it gets informations from the retinal M-cells

this filters a part of the retinal information going to higher centers

58

What does the concept of "ocular dominance" mean?

it means the organization of the information originating from the ipsilateral and contralateral eyes

it means the priority of visual sensation over audial sensations

it means the organisation of the basic shape recogniton forms in the visual cortex

it means the organisation of representation of opposite colour pairs in the visual cortex

it means the organization of the information originating from the ipsilateral and contralateral eyes

59

What is the internationally accepted term for unmyelinated, naked nerve fibers?

Erlanger-Gasser type Alpha Group

Lloyd-Hunt Type Group IV

Erlanger-Gasser Type A-gamma Group

Lloyd-Hunt Type Group I.

Lloyd-Hunt Type Group IV

60

Which statement is correct?

in darkness the cones hyperpolarize

light produces hyperpolarization lasting for about 100 msec

in darkness the phosphodiesterase enzyme of the outer segment of cones is inactive

in darkness the rods depolarize

in darkness the rods depolarize

62

Which statement is true for the dorsal (superior) colliculus?

here happens the integration of pupillary dilation

this area is the center of the saccadical eye movements

this area gets informations from the vestibular nucleus

here happens the decoding of the properties of the appercipiated object

this area is the center of the saccadical eye movements

63

Which statement is characteristic of the electric synapses consisting of gap junctions?

they consist of three connexin peptides

they are characterized by slow conduction

they conduct in both directions, sometimes they rectify

they made up of six pairs of connexin peptides

they conduct in both directions, sometimes they rectify

63

Which of the following receptors have free nerve endings?

the pacinian corpuscle
the pain- and temperature sensing exteroceptors
the Krause corpuscle
the Merkel cell ending

the pain- and temperature sensing exteroceptors

64

How much is the average resting potential in excitable tissues?

- 75 mV
+ 25 mV
- 25 mV
- 100 mV

- 75 mV

65

Which of the followings belongs to the so-called Sherrington`s "final common pathway" of the motor systems?

to the upper motor system ( UMS )
to the lower motor system ( LMS)
to the motor planning system
to the brain stem motor center

to the lower motor system ( LMS)

66

What does the "protective inhibition" mean in the Pavlov experiments?

multiple conditional reflexes inhibit each other

it is elicited by painful conditional reflex

too frequent application of neutral stimulus inhibit the formation of the conditional reflex

the preformed conditional reflex is blocked if an extreme strong stimulus is applied later

the preformed conditional reflex is blocked if an extreme strong stimulus is applied later

67

What kind of lens is able to correct the myopia?

convex lens
cylindric lens
concave lens
biconvex lens

concave lens

68

Which substance opens the ligand dependent intracellular calcium channel?

DAG
aldosterone
IP3
thyroxines

IP3

69

Which of the following features is the most typical about fast pain sensation?

it produces flexor reflex
it causes blood fall of pressure
it causes sweating
it causes nausea

it produces flexor reflex

70

What is the proper definition for the disinhibition occurring in the neural networks?

stimulation of the neurons generating EPSP

inhibition of the facilitating neurons

inhibition of the neurons generating IPSP

facilitation of the reverberation cycle

inhibition of the neurons generating IPSP

71

Which of the followings does not participate in the reflex of accomodation?

the Edinger-Westphal nucleus
the ciliary ganglion
the praetectal area
the lateral geniculate body

the lateral geniculate body

72

Which of the followings is caracteristic of the neural organization of the olfaction?

large convergence

large divergence

the fibers of the tractus olfactorius send information to the olfactory cortex by several switching over

it constitutes somatotopical representation in the thalamus

large convergence

73

Can the frequency sensitivity of a given hair cell be modulated?

no, because each hair cell always sensitive only one frequency

yes, because there are CNS efferent fibers coming to the hair-cells modulating their sensitivity

only the inner cell row can changes its sensitivity

both hair cell rows can change their sensitivity

yes, because there are CNS efferent fibers coming to the hair-cells modulating their sensitivity

74

Which type of movements can not be executed by the muscles of eye?

horizontal
protrusional
rotational
vertical

protrusional

75

Knowing the somatotopic localization of the cortex, which is true for the postcentral gyrus of different species?

in the dog 60% of the sensory area represents the lip

in the rabbit 60% of the sensory area represents the lip

in the monkey 30% of the sensory area represents the anterior limb

in the rabbit 90% of the sensory area represents the periocular region

in the rabbit 60% of the sensory area represents the lip

76

Which feature is not characteristic of action potentials?

saltatoric propagation
block by tetrodotoxin
decrease during propagation
constant amplitude

decrease during propagation

77

Which area initiates the movements in the brain?

the praecentral motor cortex

the area of the basal ganglia

limbic, orbitofrontal or hypothalamical area

association cortex

limbic, orbitofrontal or hypothalamical area

81

Which of the following receptors belongs to the group stimulating the opening of the G-protein coupled cation channel?

adrenergic beta2 receptor
AMPA receptor
dopamine-D2 receptor
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

dopamine-D2 receptor

83

What does "visus" mean?

it means the binocular vision

it means the ability of differention of contrasts

it means the measurement of refraction of light

it means the least angle what is perceptible as two different point, projected from two points to one of the eyes

it means the least angle what is perceptible as two different point, projected from two points to one of the eyes

84

Where does the foot plate of the stapes attach?

in the round window
in the malleus
in the oval window
in the incus

in the oval window

85

How are the zones of the skin called that belong to certain splanchnic areas?

Head zones
dermatomes
intersegmental zones
splanchnic zones

Head zones

86

Which statement is true for the chiasma opticum?

the fibers originated from the ventral part of the retina cross here

the optical tract fibers terminate here

the fibers originated from the nasal part of the retina cross here

the fibers originated from the temporal part of the retina cross here

the fibers originated from the nasal part of the retina cross here

87

What is characteristic of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum?

they inhibit the efferent nuclei of the cerebellum

they faciltate the efferent nuclei of the cerebellum

their activity decrease by increasing the activity of granular cells

their neurotransmitter is glutamate

they inhibit the efferent nuclei of the cerebellum

88

Which statement is true for taste sensation?

the number of the taste bud of calf is less than that of the dog

the number of taste bud of dogs is more than 25000

birds can taste only saltiness

birds do not recognize salty and sweet taste

birds do not recognize salty and sweet taste

89

How much is the equilibrium potential of chloride ions in excitable tissues?

- 75 mV
+ 25 mV
- 25 mV
- 96 mV

- 96 mV

90

Which statement is true for the innervation of eyemuscles?

The m. rectus lateralis is innervated by the n. oculomotorius

The m. rectus lateralis is innervated by the n. abducens

The m. obliqus ventralis is innervated by the n. trochlealis

The m. obliqus dorsalis is innervated by the n. abducens

The m. rectus lateralis is innervated by the n. abducens

91

Which statement is correct for the retinal cones and rods?

photopic vision is associated with cones

the photopic luminosity curve has a maximum at a wavelength of 650 nm

the cones have predominant importance in object vision

the perception of the wavelength of light is the function of the rods

the cones have predominant importance in object vision

92

Which statement is correct regarding the structure of the retina?

the horizontal cells constitute the connection between cones and rods

the bipolar cells maintain connection between ganglion cells and pigment cells

the most distant layer from the lens in the retina is the layer of ganglion cells

the light reaches first the ganglion cells and afterwards it passes to the cones and rods

the light reaches first the ganglion cells and afterwards it passes to the cones and rods

93

Which statement is true for the function of the organ of Corti?

the tectorial membrane moves the cilia of the outer hair cells and consequently the cilia of the outer hair cells start move the membrana tectoria

the tectorial membrane moves the cilia of the outer hair cells, the hair cells are passively follow the movement

the hair cells move the tectorial membrane actively, the tectorial membrane does not effect the hair cells

the previous three answers are false

the tectorial membrane moves the cilia of the outer hair cells and consequently the cilia of the outer hair cells start move the membrana tectoria

94

Which is not true for the metabotropic mechanism?

it generates a slow, long lasting response

in most of the cases it causes a long lasting alteration of calcium conductance

A typical example of it is the intracellular cAMP- reducing effect of norepinephrine

fast response, generated by IPSP or EPSP

fast response, generated by IPSP or EPSP

95

Which of the following feature is true for thermoreception?

the sensation of hot and cold depends on the two state of the same receptor

the mean discharge frequency of the receptores is significant on any external temperature, there is no neutral zone

the pain and thermal sensation is the function of the same receptors

at 48-50 degree Celsius environmental temperature paradox cold sensation takes place

at 48-50 degree Celsius environmental temperature paradox cold sensation takes place

97

What is characteristic of the function of ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nuclei?

they belong to the so- called bypass nuclei

the trigeminal nerve is the most important afferent of them (enters)

afferent informations come from the spinothalamic tract

there is no somatotopic localization in them

the trigeminal nerve is the most important afferent of them (enters)

98

Which statement is correct regarding to the molecular mechanism of the habituation?

presynaptic release of glutamate

block of calcium channels in the synaptic terminal due to prolonged opening of the potassium channels

NMDA receptors are released from the blocking effect of the magnesium

serotonergic facilitation dominates

block of calcium channels in the synaptic terminal due to prolonged opening of the potassium channels

99

Which is the key determinant of the formation of the resting membrane potential?

the sodium-potassium ATPase

leak sodium channels

leak potassium channels

voltage-dependent sodium channels

leak potassium channels

100

Which is true for the "columnar module" ?

each of them contains about 2500 cells of which 5% are pyramidal cells

pyramidal cells are the main afferent cells of it

Martinotti cells are the main efferent cells of it

Cajal`s cells belong to the efferent group of the column

each of them contains about 2500 cells of which 5% are pyramidal cells

101

To which extent rises the pressure because of the lever function of the auditory ossicles?

2 times
1 to 3 times
22 times
17 times

1 to 3 times

102

Which is characteristic of the myotatic reflex?

it is composed of a polysynaptic reflex arc

it is composed of a monosynaptic reflex arc

the response lasts long after the stimulation

this reflex is "fatigable"

it is composed of a monosynaptic reflex arc

103

What is the role of the neurons having a "bushy" dendritic tree situated in the spiral ganglion?

they function as a rhythm generator so they allow the temporal comparison of the information coming from the two ears

they inhibit the activity of the stellar cells

they code the sound intensity in a tonotopic localization

they help frequency coding by lateral hindrance

they function as a rhythm generator so they allow the temporal comparison of the information coming from the two ears

104

Which species tolerates well the the wide range of pH of the food?

dog
cattle
pig
horse

cattle

105

What happens in the receptor during "transduction"?

the external stimulus opens voltage- dependent sodium channels

the external stimulus generates an action potential

the external stimulus creates a generator potential

a frequency coded electric signal is generated

the external stimulus creates a generator potential

105

Which of the following features is the most typical of computer thomography (CT)?

it gives the highest resolution, nearly anatomical precision image of the brain

its resolution is not so high as of NMR

the velocity of metabolic processes in the brain can be demonstrated by this method

the amount of blood flow of the brain is measurable by this method

its resolution is not so high as of NMR

106

Which of the following substances is the transmitter produced by cones and rods?

glutamate
acetylcholine
GABA
serotonin

glutamate

107

Which statement is correct regarding to the molecular explanation of sensitization?

glutamate is released presynaptically

calcium channels are inhibited in the synaptic terminal

the NMDA receptors are released from the inhibitory effect of magnesium

serotoninergic facilitation takes place

serotoninergic facilitation takes place

108

Which statement is true for the nucleus of the solitary tract?

it is a center exclusively of taste sensation

projects directly to the cortical gustatory areas

processes also the thermal and mechanical stimuli coming from the tongue

gets afferent information from thalamus

processes also the thermal and mechanical stimuli coming from the tongue

109

Which area is the main motility planning area in the brain ?

the praecentral motor cortex

the area of the basal ganglia

the limbic, orbitofrontal or hypothalamical area

the association and motor cortex

the association and motor cortex

109

Which statement is true for sleeping?

sleeping is a passive resting process

the serotonin production of raphe nuclei is determinant of evoking sleep

the noradrenalin production of locus coeruleus is determinant of evoking sleep

the reticular formation has only permissive effect in evoking sleep

the serotonin production of raphe nuclei is determinant of evoking sleep

110

What happens in the 3rd (repolarization) phase of the action potential?

voltage-dependent potassium channels are inactivated

voltage-dependent potassium channels are closed

voltage-dependent potassium channels are opened

voltage-dependent calcium channels are opened

voltage-dependent potassium channels are opened

111

How much is the refractive power of the air-cornea border?

42,5 D
62,5 D
12 D
20 D

42,5 D

113

Which definition describes most appropriately the Babinski reflex?

this reflex is a typical proprioceptive reflex

dorsal flexion of the toe is characteristic of this reflex because of the deficiency of cortical control

the reflex is a normal flexor reflex

pathological response, which takes place while evoking patella reflex

dorsal flexion of the toe is characteristic of this reflex because of the deficiency of cortical control

114

Which part of the limbic system causes severe wildness upon extirpation?

amygdala
corpus mamillare
gyrus cinguli
septum nuclei

septum nuclei

115

Which statement is characteristic of the inner ear?

in the scala media perilymph can be found

the perilymph is rich of potassium

there is a high potassium concentration in the endolymph

the scala tympani is closed by the oval window

there is a high potassium concentration in the endolymph

116

Which of the following spinal cord pathways is the most important motor pathway in mammals?

the tectospinal tract
the Gowers's tract
the rubrospinal tract
the vestibulospinal tract

the rubrospinal tract

118

How many major components compose the classical spinal cord refelex?

afferent and efferent parts

5 major components

receptor, center and effector parts

central and peripheral pathways

5 major components

118

Which of the following phenomenona is not part of the immediate consequence of spinal transection?

areflexia
hypotonia
poikylothermia
active incontinence

active incontinence

121

What is characteristic of the so-called energy sensor receptor?

when it is activated, potassium leaves the cell

it is opened, closed or inactivated by neurotransmitters

its operation is G- protein dependent

its specific activator is the increase of the intracellular ATP level

its specific activator is the increase of the intracellular ATP level

123

Which area is the place of the primary visual cortex in the brain?

the parietal lobe

the Brodmann's area number 18

the orbitofrontal lobe

the Brodmann's area number 17 in the occipital lobe

the Brodmann's area number 17 in the occipital lobe

124

What is the function Brodman 8 area of the motor cortex ?

this is the primary motor center

as a "stare"-center directs the eye movements in concert with body movements

this is the secondary motor center

as a supplementer cortex initiates movements

as a "stare"-center directs the eye movements in concert with body movements

125

Which of the following statements is true for electroencephalography?

it applies X-rays for mapping the brain

it measures the action potentials of brain activity

It measures the activity of dendrites running parallell with the skull

It measures the postsynaptic activity of dendrites running perpendicular to the skull

It measures the postsynaptic activity of dendrites running perpendicular to the skull

126

Which part of the limbic system is responsible for primary learning process?

archipallium
mesopallium
septal nuclei
hypothalamus

archipallium

127

Which of the following ganglions contain postganglionic parasympathetic neurons innervated by preganglionic fibers from the nucleus Edinger- Wastphal?

pelvic ganglion
ganglion pterygopalatinum
ganglion oticum
ganglion ciliare

ganglion ciliare

128

Which formation is not part of the central olfactory pathways?

amygdala
pyriform area
Broadmann's area number 18
olfactory tubercle

Broadmann's area number 18

129

What is true for the vestibular tract?

centripetal fibers go to the lateral (Deiters) nucleus of the vestibular ganglion from the ganglion Scarpae

efferent fibers go to the sacculus from the nucleus Deiters

fibers go to the oculomotor nuclei from the vestibular nuclei without switching over

no direct fibers go to the cerebellum from the nucleus Deiters

centripetal fibers go to the lateral (Deiters) nucleus of the vestibular ganglion from the ganglion Scarpae

130

Which statement is correct?

the receptive field is the area of the retina from which a given ganglion cell receives information

the receptive field is about 1x1 mm area of the retina

the receptive field contains either "off" or "on" cells

2-5 receptive fields belong to one ganglion cell

the receptive field is the area of the retina from which a given ganglion cell receives information

131

Which statement is correct regarding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor?

nicotine inhibits it

atropin inhibits it

it plays a role in the preganglionic neurotransmission

ATP can play a role in it as a neurotransmitter

atropin inhibits it

132

Does the vestibulocerebellum get direct fibers from the retina?

no

yes, because it coordinates the spatial orientation movements

direct contact can be found only in some species

it gets direct fibers only from the auditory organ

yes, because it coordinates the spatial orientation movements

133

Which area is responsible for the execution of movements in the brain ?

the praecentral cortex

the area of the basal ganglia

the postcentral cortex

the association and motor cortex

the praecentral cortex

133

What is characteristic of the movement patterns of the spinal cord?

stereotypia
they cover one segment
they are not repetitive
they ceased immediately after the stimulation

stereotypia

133

What kind of fibers conduct the action potential from the Golgi's tendon receptors?

type Ia
type Ib
type II
type C unmyelinated fibers

type Ib

134

Which tract does not belong to the "Papez-circuit" in the limbic system?

hypothalamus directed efferentation

corpus mamillare - thalamus tract

thalamus - gyrus cinguli directed fibers

bulbus olfactorius - thalamus directed connection

bulbus olfactorius - thalamus directed connection

135

What is the cause of the summation?

inactivation of voltage dependent cation channels

summation of the electric effects of the stimulus

outflow of anions from the cell due to repeated stimuli

presence of a relatively slow cation-removing system

presence of a relatively slow cation-removing system

135

Which of the following statements is true?

the cones are sensitive either to red or to blue color

the rods are sensitive to colors

some of the cones are sensitive to the wavelength of light

the rods are sensitive only to light intensity

the rods are sensitive only to light intensity

137

What is true for the formation of action potential?

it can be formed only by an active mechanism

it demands no energy investment

it codes the extent of stimulus by the amplitude

it is formed by leak potassium channels

it can be formed only by an active mechanism

138

What is the consequence of the movement of tectorial membrane forcing the stereocilia toward the kinocilium?

potassium efflux into the endolymph

calcium efflux into the perilymph

oscillating membrane potential

decrease of the glutamate release

decrease of the glutamate release

139

What is the the scientific definition of aroma?

the aroma is the total taste effect of the food taken up

the aroma is the smell component of the taste effect of the food taken up

the aroma is the combined smell and taste effect of the food taken up

the aroma signals the energy content of the food taken up

the aroma is the combined smell and taste effect of the food taken up

140

What is the hypothesized neurophysiology of the mid-term memory?

increased lipid synthesis

generation of so called LTP (long term potentiation)

generation of so called reverberal neural circuits

synaptic plasticity

generation of so called LTP (long term potentiation)

141

The learning processes listed below are all present in domestic animals. Which learning process leads to a behavioral pattern evoked always by a key stimulus?

habituation
sensitization
the so called kinestetic learning
remembrance

the so called kinestetic learning

142

Which statement is correct?

the synthesis of cGMP in the outer segment of the cones is ceased in darkness

light produces sodium entry into the cones and rods

in darkness the phosphodiesterase enzyme of the outer segment of cones is inactive

light activates the synthesis of cGMP in cones and rods

in darkness the phosphodiesterase enzyme of the outer segment of cones is inactive

143

Which cranial nerve does not contain preganglionic parasympathetic fibers?

oculomotor nerve (III)
facial nerve (VII)
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
hypoglossal nerve (XII)

hypoglossal nerve (XII)

144

What is characteristic of the so-called ryanodine sensitive calcium channel?

it is located on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

it acts as a voltage sensor

it carries calcium from the cytoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticulum

it opens upon electric stimulus

it is located on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

144

Which of the Purkinje-Sanson pictures changes mostly by the effect of focusing at a near object?

the smaller upright picture

the larger upright picture

the three pictures change about the same degree

the reduced inverted picture

the reduced inverted picture

145

What is characteristic of the alpha waves of the EEG?

it can be recorded in a conscious resting state, as an 50 mV amplitude potential oscillation

it can be recorded in sleeping, resting state

it is a significantly desynchronized waveform recordable in conscious state

it is exhibited in the REM phase of sleeping

it can be recorded in a conscious resting state, as an 50 mV amplitude potential oscillation

146

Which of the following statements is true?

vestibulocerebellum is phylogenetically the newest part of the cerebellum

the efferent function of spinocerebellum is realized by the Fastigial nucleus

the efferent function of spinocerebellum is realized by the dentate nucleus

cerebrocerebellum gets information from the motor cortex by the thalamus

the efferent function of spinocerebellum is realized by the dentate nucleus

147

Which statement is true for the definition of sound intensity?

physiological definition that expresses the sound pressure ratio

it gives the physical measure of the sound performance

its unit of measure is N/ m2

its unit of measure is phon

physiological definition that expresses the sound pressure ratio

148

Which is the correct classification of the receptor of hearing?

according to the type of its receptor cells the organ of hearing contains secondary receptors

the organ of hearing is a primary sensory organ

the organ of hearing is a tertiary sensory organ

according to the degree of adaptation the organ of hearing contains fast adapting receptors

according to the type of its receptor cells the organ of hearing contains secondary receptors

149

What is the hypothesized neurophysiology of the short-term memory?

increased lipid synthesis

generation of so called LTP (long term potentiation)

generation of so called reverberal neural circuits

synaptic plasticity

generation of so called reverberal neural circuits

150

What is the hypothesized neurophysiology of the long-term memory?

increased lipid synthesis

generation of so called LTP (long term potentiation)

generation of so called reverberal neural circuits

synaptic plasticity

synaptic plasticity

151

Which of the following functions does not belong to the functions of the reticular formation?

control of emotions
regulation of sleep- wake cycle
vegetative coordination
control of posture

control of emotions

152

How many major parts does the voltage-dependent sodium channel consist of?

7 transmembrane components
3 peptide chains
9 subunits
4 transmembrane components

4 transmembrane components

152

Which of the following pathway is not efferent?

tectospinal tract
Flechsig's pathway
the reticulospinal tract
the rubrospinal tract

Flechsig's pathway

154

What does the "conditioning" mean in the Pavlov experiments?

parallel application of multiple conditioned stimuli

repetitive application of neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus

multiple application of neutral stimulus

exclusion of unnecessary environmental stimuli

repetitive application of neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus

155

What does the "operant" reflex mean?

it needs a direct role of the experimenter in building up the reflex

the animal confirms the connection between the originally neutral stimulus and the unconditional reflex by its own activity

reflex which is built upon parallel application of different neutral stimulus

reflex which is built upon the concerted use of different sensory organs

the animal confirms the connection between the originally neutral stimulus and the unconditional reflex by its own activity

156

Which statement is true for the "extensor-thrust" phenomenon?

It is a typical exteroceptive reflex

the flexion of the interosseal muscles is characteristic of it

it plays an important role in defense

its role is to ensure the support during executing a step

its role is to ensure the support during executing a step

157

What occurs on the postsynaptic membrane in case of monosynaptic inhibition?

EPSP
Increased AP discharge
MEPP
IPSP

IPSP

159

Which of the following parameters is determined by the functional mosaic of the retina?

it determines the effective visual acuity

it determines the ability to binocular vision

it determines the fine discrimination of colour vision

it determines the theoretical visual acuity

it determines the effective visual acuity

159

Why the phon scale had to be established in physiology?

in order to describe the sensibility of the ear by a physical index

because sounds that have the same sound pressure ratio but different frequency
can cause sound sensation at a different extent

because the bel scale does not measure the sound pressure by a physical unit of measure

because the phon- scale describes the sound intensity more exactly

because sounds that have the same sound pressure ratio but different frequency
can cause sound sensation at a different extent

160

What is true for the macula of the of vestibular apparatus?

it senses the rotational acceleration
it records dynamical changes
it mediates static informations
it can be found in the ampullas

it mediates static informations

160

Which of the following pairs is true for the theory of opponent color pairs elaborated by Mach-Hering?

red - green
yellow - red
green - blue
green - yellow

red - green

161

What is characteristic of the bypass nuclei of the thalamus?

afferent informations come from the spinothalamic tract

the trigeminal nerve is the most important afferent of them

none of the axons of its neurons leave the thalamus

their other name is "relay nuclei"

none of the axons of its neurons leave the thalamus

161

What happens if the sterocilia move toward the kinocilium in the vestibular apparatus?

the membrane of the receptors hyperpolarize

the mean discharge frequency does not change significantly in the vestibular nerve

the mean discharge frequency decreases in the vestibular nerve

potassium influx and consequent depolarization

potassium influx and consequent depolarization

162

What is the function of the statocinetic reflexes?

antigravitational support

connecting eye and neck muscles

they responsible for postural reflexes evoked by kinetic stimuli

they responsible for the support of body mass centre in place

they responsible for postural reflexes evoked by kinetic stimuli

164

In which order are the centers of the motor cortex acivated?

supplementer cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex

supplementer cortex is the last in order

primary motor cortex is the first in order

the premotor cortex is the last in order

supplementer cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex

165

Which of the following statements is correct for the luminosity curve?

the photopic vision is achieved by rods

the maximum of the scotopic luminosity curve is at the wavelength of 510 nm

the eye is the most sensitive to the blue color

the eye is the most sensitive to the red color

the maximum of the scotopic luminosity curve is at the wavelength of 510 nm

165

What the minimal angle of motion of an object which is already followed by motion of the head of the cat?

25 degree
35 degree
15 degree
5 degree

5 degree

166

Which anatomical unit belongs exclusively to the basolateral limbic ring?

area piriformis
hippocampus
rostral and dorsomedial thalamus
cortex above amygdala

rostral and dorsomedial thalamus

167

Which of the following functions do not belong to the basal ganglia related to the direction of movements?

sends direct efferentation to the alpha-motoneurons of the spinal cord

movements are initiated here

influences the extent of thalamocortical activity

gives emotional afferentation for the regulation of movements

sends direct efferentation to the alpha-motoneurons of the spinal cord

167

Which instrument is designed to measure the stereoscopic vision?

perimeter
stereoscope
visus table
stroboscope

perimeter

168

What is the speed of sound in water?

3 km/sec
about 300 m/sec
1500 m/sec
in water it is much less than in air because of its high density

1500 m/sec

169

Which anatomical unit belongs exclusively to the medial limbic ring?

gyrus cinguli
hippocampus
septum pellucidum
thalamus

hippocampus

170

What is the reaction of an on- center ganglion cell to a small ray of light projected into its receptive field?

decreased AP frequency

increased AP frequency

increased AP frequency when the light is turned off

decreased AP frequency either when the light is turned off or on

increased AP frequency

170

Which of the following statements is correct related to the movement of the pupil?

dilation of pupil is called "mydriasis"

The m. sphincter pupillae is innervated by the sympatethic nerves

The myosis is the result of the contraction of m. dilatator pupillae

looking at a short distance the pupil is slightly dilates

dilation of pupil is called "mydriasis"

170

Which statements is correct for the granular cells of the bulbus olfactorius?

their fibers are responsible for the nociceptive reactions of the olfactory epithelium

their fibers leave the area of the bulbus

they increase the activity of the periglomerular cells

they are the inhibitory cells of the bulbus

they are the inhibitory cells of the bulbus

171

Which data-pair is lineraly proportional to the speed of sound?

frequency-pitch
amplitude-sound pressure
frequency-amplitude
wavelength- frequency

wavelength- frequency

171

What is the role of the tufted cells of the olfactory organ?

they constitute an intrabulbar connection system

they send information to the bulbus olfactorius situated on the other side

they make connection between the olfactory epithelium and the bulbus

they project into the thalamus

they send information to the bulbus olfactorius situated on the other side

174

Which of the following pairs are the most determining of the refracting power of the eye?

aqueous humor - frontal surface of the lens

back surface of the lens - vitreous humor

air - cornea

vitreous body

air - cornea

176

Which of the following statements is true for the REM phase of sleeping?

during REM phase sleeping is superficial

during REM phase the individual is in an entirely relaxed state

during REM phase paradox sleep takes place

REM phase is a long period of sleeping, lasting for several hours

during REM phase paradox sleep takes place

178

In which state is the voltage-dependent sodium channel at the end of the overshoot?

closed
inactivated
opened
activated

inactivated

179

What is the basis of stereoscopic vision in the case of binocular vision?

the presence of corresponding and dysparate points

the differences of light intensity coming into the two eyes

the effect of different contrast

informations resulting from the head movements

the presence of corresponding and dysparate points

180

Which of the following ganglions contain postganglionic parasympathetic neurons innervated by preganglionic fibers from the ventral salivatory nucleus?

ganglion oticum
ganglion pterygopalatinum
ganglion oticum
pelvic ganglion

ganglion oticum

182

Which part of the limbic system elicits anger upon stimulus?

amygdala
corpus mamillare
gyrus cinguli
septum nuclei

amygdala

183

Which kind of vision is characteristic of the prey animals?

monocular
binocular
of high visual acuity
high contrast of colour vision

monocular

184

Which statement is true for the organ of Corti?

the innervation of the row of inner hair cells is characterized by a large convergence

the innervation of the row of inner hair cells is characterized by a large divergence

it contains medial hair cells in 3-4 rows

it contains outer hair cells in 3-4 rows

it contains outer hair cells in 3-4 rows

185

Which statement is true for the organ of Corti?

95% of the afferent fibers in the cochlear nerve comes from the inner hair cells, which represents the lower amount of cells

95% of the afferent fibers in the cochlear nerve comes from the outer hair cells, which represents the higher amount of cells

the inner receptor cells are characterised by the convergence of 25 to 1

the inner receptor cells are characterised by divergence

95% of the afferent fibers in the cochlear nerve comes from the inner hair cells, which represents the lower amount of cells

186

What is the reason of after- hyperpolarization?

influx of sodium ions

calcium influx into the cell

slight chloride ion outflow occurs

voltage-dependent potassium channels close too slowly

voltage-dependent potassium channels close too slowly

186

Which statement is true for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor?

the skeletal muscle type receptor consists of 2 alpha, 2 beta and 1 delta units

the neural type receptor is particularly sensitive to the curare

the neural type receptor contains three alpha subunits

its agonist is the isoproterenol

the skeletal muscle type receptor consists of 2 alpha, 2 beta and 1 delta units

186

Why is the focusing to a near object more exhausting then focusing to long distance?

because during focusing to a near object the ciliary muscles contract

because during focusing to a near object the Zinn's fibers are stretched

because during focusing to a near object spinchter muscles of the pupil constrict

because during focusing to a near object the lens recoil into a more convex state

because during focusing to a near object the ciliary muscles contract

187

The IC concentration of which ion occurs in the denominator of Goldman-Hodgkin- Katz (GHK) equation?

potassium
sodium
hydrocarbonate
chloride

chloride

188

Which nerve provides afferent fibers to the taste buds in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue?

n. facialis (VII.)
n. glossopharyngeus (IX.)
n. trigeminus (V.)
n. hypoglossus (XII.)

n. facialis (VII.)

189

What kind of fine tuning can be exerted by the hair- cells?

mechanical and electrical tuning
only frequency tuning
only electrical tuning
only mechanical tuning

mechanical and electrical tuning

189

How much is the equilibrium potential of potassium in excitable tissue?
- 15 mV
- 84 mV
+ 45 mV
- 95 mV

- 84 mV

190

Which statement is true for the glutamate receptor?

it is activated only by high frequency presynaptic AP

it has three subtypes: NMDA, AMPA and kainate

it primarily can be found on the postsynaptic membranes of the peripheral nervous system

its opening causes selective sodium influx

it has three subtypes: NMDA, AMPA and kainate

190

Which statement is true for the hair cells of the inner ear?

the hair cells situated in a row are sensible for different frequencies increasing the frequency resolution

depolarization takes place in the inner hair cells if stereocilia are moving away from the kinocilium

they posses mechanosensitive anion channels

the outer hair cells can dislocate the tectorial membrane by a sound of a given frequency

the outer hair cells can dislocate the tectorial membrane by a sound of a given frequency

192

What is true for the function of pretectal region?

here happens the integration of pupillary dilation

this area is part of optical radiation

secunder auditory fibers terminate here

this is the one of centers of colour vision

here happens the integration of pupillary dilation

192

Which nerve provides afferent fibers to the taste buds in the pharynx?

n. facialis (VII.)
n. trigeminus (V.)
n. hypoglossus (XII.)
n. glossopharyngeus (IX.)

n. glossopharyngeus (IX.)

193

Which of the following manipulations provides information about a very small brain area on living animal?

computer tomography
electroencephalography
examination using stereotaxic apparatus
nucleomagnetic resonance examination

examination using stereotaxic apparatus

193

Which statement is correct?

the preganglionic neurotransmitter of the autonomic nervous system can be either acetylcholine or norepinephrine

nicotinic acetylcholine receptor plays a role in the parasympathetic postganglionic transmission

95% of the sympathetic postganglionic transmission is due to norepinephrine release

epinephrin is one of the major participant in the sympathetic postganglionic transmission

95% of the sympathetic postganglionic transmission is due to norepinephrine release

194

Which is the proper definition for chronaxia?

chronaxia is the time period necessary for generating an AP in the case of stimulation with the double of the rheobase

chronaxia is the extent of the stimulus twice as large as the treshold stimulus

chronaxia means the time period necessary for achieving the firing level in the case of maximal stimulation

the measure for chronaxia is mV or V

chronaxia is the time period necessary for generating an AP in the case of stimulation with the double of the rheobase

194

Which substance blocks the voltage- dependent potassium channel?

curare
ouabain
tetrodotoxin, TTX
tetraetilammonium, TEA

tetraetilammonium, TEA

196

Which receptor can cause potassium- channel opening?

type M1 muscarinic acethylcholine receptor

type M3 muscarinic
acethylcholine receptor

type M2 muscarinic acethylcholine receptor

type D1 dopamin receptor

type M2 muscarinic acethylcholine receptor

197

What is characteristic of the exteroceptive reflex?

monosynaptic reflex arc

it is not fatigable

it is composed of a widespread polysynaptic network

it does not evoke contralateral responses

it is composed of a widespread polysynaptic network

197

What does the concept of dysparate points mean?

it means the points of the visual field which are not corresponding on the two retinas

the places of colour vision on the retina which exclude each other

it means the points which are out of visual field

It means the points of field of binocular vision which are covered by each other

it means the points of the visual field which are not corresponding on the two retinas

197

To which extent rises the pressure because of the surface difference of the ear drum and the foot plate of the stapes?

2 times
1 to 3 times
22 times
17 times

17 times

197

Which is not characteristic of the local response among the followings?

law of all or nothing
decreased during propagation
the amplitude is proportional with the extent of the stimulus
not self-propagated

law of all or nothing

198

What does dys- diacho-kinesis mean?

flaccid, paralysed state

incoordination of fast, alternating movements because of an injury of the cerebellum

placing reflex of the limbs is diminished

impaired distance estimation during movements because of removal of cerebellum

incoordination of fast, alternating movements because of an injury of the cerebellum

198

How much is the equilibrium potential of sodium in excitable tissues?

- 75 mV
+ 25 mV
+ 58 mV
- 100 mV

+ 58 mV

199

What happens at the unilateral transection of the pyramidal tract in primates?

voluntary movements are ceased

decerebration rigidity takes place

flaccid paralysis of muscles on the other side

fine movements are undamaged

flaccid paralysis of muscles on the other side

199

Which of the following areas gets direct information from the retina?

the suprachiasmatic nucleus
the pineal body
the amygdala
the medial geniculate body

the suprachiasmatic nucleus