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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (50):
1

smallest identifiable unit of an element

atom

2

an ion composed of a group of atoms with an overall charge

polyatomic ion

3

a 1 or 2 letter abbreviation for an element, listed directly below the atomic number in the periodic table

chemical symbol

4

positively charged nuclear particle, its mass is approximately 1 amu

proton

5

a nuclear particle with no electrical charge and nearly the same mass as a proton

neutron

6

a negatively charged particle that occupies most of the atoms volume but contributes almost none of its mass

electron

7

number of protons in the nucleus of an atom represented with a Z

atomic number

8

elements that have similar outer electron configurations and therefore similar properties, occurs in verticle columns in the periodic table

group

9

elemtns that fallalong the boundry between the metals an the nonmetals in the periodic table; their properties are intermediate between those of metals and those of nonmetals

metalloid

10

an arrangement of the elements in which atomic number increases from left to right and elements with similar properties fall in columns called families or groups

periodic table

11

atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

isotope

12

mixture that has 2 or more regions with different compositions

heterogenous

13

mixture that has the same composition throughout

homogenous

14

elemnt that exists of two atoms of that element bonded together

diatomic molecule

15

temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid

melting point

16

temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure above it

boiling point

17

measure of how close a series of measurments are to one another, reproductibility, deals with uncertainty of a tool

precision

18

measure of how close a measurment comes to the actual value, correctness, deals with human error in making the measurments

accuaracy

19

compound that attarcts and holds water molecules in thier crystal structure

hydrate

20

heating a mixture to seperate the parts

distillation

21

have both a number and a unit

quantitive measurement

22

is discriptive

qualitive measurement

23

a weighted average of the masses of each naturally occuring isotope of an element , it is the average mass of the atoms of an element

atomic mass

24

sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom

mass number

25

mixture containing a metal and another element

alloy

26

the science that tries to understand how matter behaves by studying how atoms and molecules behave

chemistry

27

tentative interpretations of observations, falsifiable, tested by experiments

hypothesis

28

in a chemical reaction, matter/energy is neither created nor destroyed

Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy

29

depends on size of sample ex: mass, volume, length, weight

extensive property

30

constant regardless of sample size, used to identify, ex: density, color, melting point, boiling point, crystal shape, malleability, ductility, conductivity

intensive property

31

measure of how much matter is in an object

mass

32

energy associated with the motion of an object

kinetic energy

33

the energy of a body that is associated with its position or the arrangement of its parts

potential energy

34

anything that occupies space and has mass; exists in as a solid, liquid, or gas

matter

35

the capacity to do work

energy

36

a substance composed of 2+ different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions; can be separated by physical means; heterogenous or homogenous

mixture

37

solvent and solute; homogeneous mixture of 2+ substances

solution

38

the minority component of a solution; dissolved in a solvent

solute

39

the majority component of a solution; dissolves a solute; if water, it’s an aqueous solution

solvent

40

relation of mass to volume; identifies a substance (intensive property); mass / volume

density

41

a horizontal row of the periodic table; tell energy level of valence electrons

period

42

a change in which matter does not change its composition, even though its appearance might change; ex: adding dye, distillation, solubility, mp, bp, dissolving, freezing, condensing, subliming

physical change

43

a change in which matter changes its composition; ex: gas released, energy change, new substance w new properties, color change, exothermic, endothermic

chemical change

44

absorbs heat energy; temp goes down

endothermic

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releases heat energy to surroundings; temp goes up

exothermic

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a substance composed of 2+ elements in fixed, definite proportions

compound

47

2+ atoms joined in a specific arrangement by chemical bonds; smallest identifiable unit of a molecular compound

molecule

48

an atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost 1+ electrons, so that it has an electric charges

ion

49

a positively charged ion

cation

50

a negatively charged ion

anion