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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (91):
1

The work of scientists usually begins with:

Careful observations

2

How do scientific theories compare to hypotheses?

Theories unify a broad range of observations and hypotheses.

3

How does society help science advance?

Society raises questions that science can help answer.

4

Cells in multicellular organisms have many different sizes and shapes. These differences in cells is called cell specialization. What does cell specialization allow cells to do?

Preform different functions.

5

The process by which organisms keep everything inside their bodies within certain limits is called ____________.

Homeostasis

6

Every living thing is made up of a set of body parts. Each body part, or structure, has a certain job or _________.

Function

7

What is the difference between a theory and hypothesis?

A theory is a well-tested idea that explains something in the common world. Theories are proved true more than once.

Hypotheses are ideas that may explain events in the natural world but they haven't been proven true yet because they are not tested enough.

8

What are two ways in which all living things are similar at the molecular level?

All living things are composed of cells.
All cells contain DNA.

9

Chemical reactions that release energy ________.

Often occur spontaneously.

10

Why is carbon so special compared to other elements?

Carbon atoms can bond to one another and form different structures.

11

Solutions that more OH- than H+ ions are _________

bases

12

T/F: Catalysts higher the activation energy of a chemical reaction.

F: Catalysts lower the activation energy

13

A covalent bond is formed as the result of _____________.

Sharing electrons

14

How many covalent bonds can a Carbon atom form?

4

15

What type of electron is able to form bonds?

Valence

16

Water molecules are polar. Which side is charged in which way?

Oxygen- slightly negative
Hydrogen- slightly positive

17

T/F: Proteins are made up of amino acids.

T

18

T/F: When sugar is dissolved in water, the sugar and water are chemically combined.

F/ Physically combined

19

T/F: Lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings.

T

20

T/F: Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple ionic bonds.

F/ Covalent

21

T/F: When atoms share six electrons, they are joined by a double bond.

F/ Triple bond

22

T/F: It takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water. This means that water has a high pH.

F/ Heat capacity

23

What is the type of energy needed to start a chemical reaction called?

Activation energy

24

Because carbon atoms can bond to one another, they can form long ________ that can be almost unlimited in length.

Chains

25

Water's ______ allows it to dissolve compounds such as table salt (NaCl).

Polarity

26

Describe how a sodium atom forms a bond with a chlorine atom.

Ionic Bond; when sodium and chloride react, sodium loses its electron and it is gained by chloride

27

A model of the complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers is called a _______ _____.

Food web

28

What is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web?

Trophic level

29

A word that means the same thing as consumer is:

Heterotroph

30

Why can matter recycle through the biosphere?

Biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it.

31

Which part of the water cycle is a biological process?

Transpiration

32

What group of organelles carry out nitrogen fixation?

Bacteria

33

Why is phosphorus important to living things?

They need phosphorus to form DNA and RNA.

34

What do producers release into the atmosphere during photosynthesis?

Oxygen

35

T/F: Clouds are formed in the sky when water evaporates.

F/ when water condenses

36

T/F: In an ecological pyramid, the biomass of living things increases at each higher level.

F/ decreases

37

Of what cycle is the burning of fossil fuels and photosynthesis a part of?

Carbon cycle

38

Autotrophs capture energy from sunlight or __________ to produce food.

Chemeosynthesis

39

What is the 10% rule?

Energy decreasing as the organisms move on. 500->50->5

40

T/F: Human activities such as mining and the production and application of fertilizer are part of the nitrogen cycle.

F/ phosphorus cycle

41

Living organisms require nitrogen to make nitrogen-contains compounds such as _______ and nucleic acids.

Proteins

42

Why might a pyramid of numbers be turned upside down?

Producer and it’s inhabitants.

Ex. The tree goes at the bottom and all it’s inhabitants can fill in the top!

43

Compare the movement of energy in the biosphere with the movement of matter through the biosphere.

Energy is constantly moving in one direction and is transformed (never destroyed.

Matter is constantly moving in all different directions and can be destroyed.

44

Freshwater ecosystems that often originate from underground sources in mountains or hills are:

Rivers and streams

45

Are you likely to find zooplankton in the aphotic, benthic zone of an ocean?

No. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and phytoplankton cannot photosynthesize in the dark.

46

T/F: Latitude does not contribute to Earth’s climate.

F/ Longitute

47

T/F: A coastal ocean system at a temperate latitude is likely to be warm.

T

48

T/F: The way an animal gets food is a biological aspect of the organism’s niche.

T

49

An interaction in which an animal feeds on plants is called __________.

Herbivory

50

What is a factor that could interrupt the progress of succession?

Colonization of surfaces by lichens

51

Which two land forms are not classified into major land biomes?

Polar ice caps and mountains

52

Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor trap what kind of energy?

Heat

53

Which type of forest is characterized by a wet season and a dry season?

The dry forest

54

Mangroves are salt tolerant trees that are commonly found ___________.

In the coastal ocean area

55

Why are mountain ranges usually not classified into biomes?

Conditions vary depending on elevation

56

What aspect of climate depends on distance from the equator and on its depth in the ocean?

Temperature

57

What are the four main factors of an aquatic ecosystem that affects the organisms found there?

Depth, flow, temperature, and the availability of nutrients

58

What characteristic do all deserts share?

Less than 25cm of precipitation per year

59

Eukaryotes are cells that ________.

Enclose their DNA in nuclei

60

Prokaryotes are cells that do not _______.

Enclose their DNA in nuclei.

61

What are the three statements of the cell theory?

1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
3. New cells are produced from existing cells

62

Cytoplasm

Portion of a cell outside the nucleus

63

Organelles

Structures that have specialized functions in eukaryotic cells.

64

Vacuoles

Membrane-enclosed saclike structures that store water, salts, and organic molecules.

65

Lysosomes

Small organelles filled with enzymes that break down large molecules and organelles that are no longer useful

66

Cytoskeleton

A network of protein filaments that help the cell maintain its shape and it’s movement

67

Centrioles

Organelles made from tubulins that help organize cell division in animal cells.

68

Ribosomes

Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells. They produce proteins by following coded instructions from DNA.

69

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

An internal membrane system where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials.

70

Golgi Apparatus

An organelle that appears as a stack of flattened membranes. It modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell.

71

Chloroplasts

Capture energy from sunlight and convert it into food (photosynthesis).

Cells of plants and some other organisms contain chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll.

72

Mitochondria

Found in nearly all eukaryotic cells; they convert chemical energy stored in food to a usable form.

73

Cell wall

Help support, shape, and protect the cell. Only plant cells have them.

74

A cell membrane consists of a ________ ________.

Lipid bilayer

75

Most biological membranes are ___________ _______, allowing some substances but not others to pass across them.

Selectively permeable

76

What is the difference between the rough ER and the smooth ER?

The smooth ER is involved in the synthesis of lipids.

The rough ER is involved in the synthesis of proteins.

77

The model of the cell membrane is called the _________ __________ _________.

Fluid mosaic model

78

Diffusion

The process in which particles move from an area of high concentrations to an area of lower concentration.

79

Facilitated diffusion

The process in which molecules cannot directly diffuse across the membrane but rather pass through special protein channels.

80

Osmosis

The facilitated diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

81

Isotonic

Same concentration; no change.

82

Hypertonic

Higher concentration inside the cell; change is outward

83

Hypotonic

Higher concentration outside the cell; change is inward

84

Aquaporins

Water channel proteins that allow water to pass through cell membranes. (used in OSMOSIS)

85

Endocytosis

Movement of large molecules IN. (Type of bulk transport)

86

Phagocytosis

Transport of solid molecules. (Classifies types of bulk transport)

87

Exocytosis

Movement of large molecules OUT. (Type of bulk transport)

88

What are the four organization groups of multicellular organisms?

Cells -> Tissue -> Organ -> Organ System

89

How do unicellular organisms maintain homeostasis?

Growing, responding to the environment, transforming energy, and reproducing.

90

What purpose do “wings” have on plants?

Fly and repopulate through travel.

91

What purpose does cilia have on the air passages of a human?

Trap harmful particles as they enter.