Flashcards in Midterm Deck (76):
How many acres are in a hectare?
What is restoration?
The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed
What is rehabilitation?
Restoration with a focus on functions and stabilizing land, less focus on prior species composition
What is mitigation?
An action that is intended to compensate for environmental damage
What is reforestation?
Planting of trees but not necessarily natives
What is passive regeneration?
Removing human disturbance to allow for natural or unassisted recovery
What is succession?
Regular progression of communities replacing each other on a site until a relatively permanent community is established
What are the two findings of the island biogeography model?
1. # of species at equilibrium is a function of island size.
2. Immigration of species is a function of distance to the mainland.
What is an orthodox seed?
A seed that has a dormancy
What is a recalcitrant seed?
A seed with no dormancy period
What is stochasticity?
What is a metapopulation?
A set of geographically isolated sub populations interconnected by gene flow and colonization
What are three types of particles and their sizes?
Sand (>0.02 mm)
What is the cation exchange capacity?
The quantity of cations that can be adsorbed by a soil is a function of soil texture and chemicals - more organic matter and clay raise CEC
Traits of ectomycorrhizae
1. Hyphae don’t penetrate plant cells
2. Commonly associated with 3% of plants, mostly trees
3. Obligate: have to have mycorrhizae
Facultative: can handle mycorrhizae but don’t need them
4. Treatments: inoculation with soil, spores
Traits of endomycorrhizae
1. Hyphae penetrate plant root
2. Associated with 90% of plants
3. Treatments: stockpiling, (...)
What is scarification?
Breaking down seed coat by nicking or soaking
What is an endemic species?
A species found nowhere else
What are three reasons why invasive species are bad?
2. Hybridize with natives
What is reintroduction?
Animals caught and released later (usually bred in captivity)
What is translocation?
Moving species around in the wild
What is hard release?
Animals released with no support
What is a soft release?
Animals released and given some support to start out
What are ecosystem services?
Conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems and species that make them up sustain human life
Four principles of restoration planning
1. Increases ecological integrity
2. Sustainable in long-term
3. Informed by past and future
4. Benefits and engages society
Three restoration take-home points
1. Choosing endpoint involves subjectivity
2. Define goals among multiple stakeholders
3. Restoration is not a substitute for conservation
What are the seven steps in restoration?
1. Preliminary goals and objectives
2. Reference model
3. Revised goals and objectives
What is Coordinated Resource Management and Planning (CRMP)?
Process where people with diverse interests work together on projects
What are SMART goals?
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-bound
What are three disturbances and adaptations to surviving them?
1. Fire; seed germination stimulated by fire, resprouting
2. Hurricane; high ability to resprout from broken trunks
3. Flood; plants can withstand flooding and roots grow quickly to reach water table
What are r-selected species?
Early-successional, adapted to disturbance, disperse well, multiple offspring, generalist, short lifespan
What are K-selected species?
Later-successional, competitors, few offspring, specialist, long lifespan
What is facilitation?
When early successional species make the environment more favorable for later-successionals
What is inhibition?
When early successional species make the environment less favorable for later-successionals
What are the three points of Clements' view of succession?
1. Specific sequence of plant communities occurs on a given site
2. Each community prepares the site for subsequent colonizers
3. At the end of the sequence is a stable climax community
What are the three alternative models?
1. Alternative Stable States - Ecosystems can exist under multiple "states" - sets of unique (a)biotic conditions.
2. Initial Floristic Composition - Most species are initially present (seeds/seedlings), succession represents changes in dominance over time.
3. Divergent successional trajectories - ?
What are the three points of habitat heterogeneity?
1. Ecosystems recover patchily
2. Ecosystems are patchy at multiple spatial scales
3. Challenge is restoring patchiness - heterogeneity
What is a landscape?
A mosaic of two or more ecosystems that exchange organisms, energy, water and nutrients
What is the Carbon Copy myth?
The belief that we can restore an ecosystem to be an exact copy of a previous/ideal state.
Rooted in the idea that ecosystems develop in a predictable fashion toward a specified end point.
What is the Field of Dreams myth?
"If you build it, they will come"
Notion that all one needs is the physical structure for a particular ecosystem, and biotic composition and function will self-assemble.
What is the Fast-Forwarding myth?
Based on the idea that time required to create a functional or desired ecosystem can be reduced by controlling pathways, such as dispersal, colonization, and community assembly.
What is the Cookbook myth?
Assumption that similar ecological systems respond identically and predictably to restoration techniques.
What is the Command and Control myth?
Goals are achieved by active intervention and unending control, or manipulation of physical and biological components of the ecosystem.
Assumes we have knowledge, abilities, and foresight to actively control ecosystem structure and function to manage for a particular ecosystem state indefinitely into the future.
What is the Sisyphus Complex myth?
When we act through Command and Control to hold a dynamic system static, or force a system to exist in a transient state.
What is the Bionic World myth?
The belief that science and technology will solve the pressing issues of human population growth, finite resources, and altered ecosystems.
What are the assumptions of the island biogeographical model?
1. Quality of habitat is equal
2. Matrix is hospitable
3. System is at equilibrium
Which is generally the better patch size?
What are problems with small patches?
1. Low genetic variability
2. High demographic stochasticity
3. Susceptibility to environmental stochasticity
4. Finding mates with low populations
What are direct biological edge effects?
Change sin the abundance or distribution of species caused directly by the physical conditions near the edge - vegetation structure and plant species distribution
What are indirect biological edge effects?
Changes in species interactions near the edge - predation, competition, herbivory
Improve the quality of the ___________ to make it more hospitable for faunal movement
_____________ is necessary to break through the abiotic barrier
Need to use ________________ to restore topography
What treatment should be used against soil compaction?
Soil ripping - to increase filtration
* But can also cause erosion if not properly managed
What are some treatments for erosion?
1. Plant wind breaks
2. Slow water flow
4. Establish vegetation
If not managed, irrigation can lead to _______________
What is a treatment for both high salinity and high acidity?
What are some treatments for the microclimate (light/temp)?
2. Establish vegetation
3. Plant under existing vegetation
4. Rock mulch
What are some treatments for soil moisture?
3. Synthetic gels
4. Tall pots
What are the four steps to create microtopography?
What are the four soil horizons?
O horizon: organic matter, leaf and stem litter
A horizon: accumulation of organic matter and nutrients, roots
B horizon: accumulation of clays
C horizon: parent material and rock
What are three facts about soil nutrients?
1. Temperate zone plants are often Nitrogen limited
2. Tropical zone plants are often Phosphorous limited
3. Other nutrients may also be limiting - Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, etc.
What are some treatments for low-nutrient soils?
2. Establish vegetation
3. Nitrogen-fixing plants
What are two treatments for high-nutrient soils?
1. Establish vegetation
2. Sawdust/carbon source
What are microfauna?
Protozoans and nematodes
What are mesofauna?
Mites, springtails, fly larvae
What are macrofauna?
Worms, isopods, millipedes, ants, termites
What are the important factors of soil fauna?
1. Decomposition of organic matter, nutrient cycling
2. Soil structure
3. Nitrogen fixation
4. Primary producers
What are mycorrhizae?
Fungi that form a symbiotic association with plant roots
What are three treatments for hazardous wastes?
1. Bioremediation - use of microorganisms/plants/fungi to detoxify hazardous chemicals
2. Chemical transformation - toxics transformed into less harmful substances
3. Removal - Physical, thermal (incineration), chemical
What are three methods to reduce existing stress on fauna?
1. Removal of exotic and feral animals
2. Eliminating use of toxic chemicals
3. Reducing hunting and overfishing
What are some factors that influence success of reintroductions?
- Soft releases
- Removing cause of initial decline
- Release into core area
- Source population in wild
What is bioremediation?
The use of microorganisms/plants/fungi to break down or mineralize hazardous chemicals
What is salvaging?
Collecting plants or soil when an ecosystem is destroyed to be used immediately for restoration at another site
What is hardening?
The process of exposing plants to the stresses of the natural environment before outplanting