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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (76):
1

How many acres are in a hectare?

1.25 acres

2

What is restoration?

The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed

3

What is rehabilitation?

Restoration with a focus on functions and stabilizing land, less focus on prior species composition

4

What is mitigation?

An action that is intended to compensate for environmental damage

5

What is reforestation?

Planting of trees but not necessarily natives

6

What is passive regeneration?

Removing human disturbance to allow for natural or unassisted recovery

7

What is succession?

Regular progression of communities replacing each other on a site until a relatively permanent community is established

8

What are the two findings of the island biogeography model?

1. # of species at equilibrium is a function of island size.
2. Immigration of species is a function of distance to the mainland.

9

What is an orthodox seed?

A seed that has a dormancy

10

What is a recalcitrant seed?

A seed with no dormancy period

11

What is stochasticity?

Randomness

12

What is a metapopulation?

A set of geographically isolated sub populations interconnected by gene flow and colonization

13

What are three types of particles and their sizes?

Sand (>0.02 mm)
Silt (0.02-0.002mm)
Clay (<0.002mm)

14

What is the cation exchange capacity?

The quantity of cations that can be adsorbed by a soil is a function of soil texture and chemicals - more organic matter and clay raise CEC

15

Traits of ectomycorrhizae

1. Hyphae don’t penetrate plant cells
2. Commonly associated with 3% of plants, mostly trees
3. Obligate: have to have mycorrhizae
Facultative: can handle mycorrhizae but don’t need them
4. Treatments: inoculation with soil, spores

16

Traits of endomycorrhizae

1. Hyphae penetrate plant root
2. Associated with 90% of plants
3. Treatments: stockpiling, (...)

17

What is scarification?

Breaking down seed coat by nicking or soaking

18

What is an endemic species?

A species found nowhere else

19

What are three reasons why invasive species are bad?

1. Predation
2. Hybridize with natives
3. Competition/allelopathy

20

What is reintroduction?

Animals caught and released later (usually bred in captivity)

21

What is translocation?

Moving species around in the wild

22

What is hard release?

Animals released with no support

23

What is a soft release?

Animals released and given some support to start out

24

What are ecosystem services?

Conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems and species that make them up sustain human life

25

Four principles of restoration planning

1. Increases ecological integrity
2. Sustainable in long-term
3. Informed by past and future
4. Benefits and engages society

26

Three restoration take-home points

1. Choosing endpoint involves subjectivity
2. Define goals among multiple stakeholders
3. Restoration is not a substitute for conservation

27

What are the seven steps in restoration?

1. Preliminary goals and objectives
2. Reference model
3. Revised goals and objectives
4. Planning
5. Implementation
6. Monitoring
7. Maintenance

28

What is Coordinated Resource Management and Planning (CRMP)?

Process where people with diverse interests work together on projects

29

What are SMART goals?

Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-bound

30

What are three disturbances and adaptations to surviving them?

1. Fire; seed germination stimulated by fire, resprouting
2. Hurricane; high ability to resprout from broken trunks
3. Flood; plants can withstand flooding and roots grow quickly to reach water table

31

What are r-selected species?

Early-successional, adapted to disturbance, disperse well, multiple offspring, generalist, short lifespan

32

What are K-selected species?

Later-successional, competitors, few offspring, specialist, long lifespan

33

What is facilitation?

When early successional species make the environment more favorable for later-successionals

34

What is inhibition?

When early successional species make the environment less favorable for later-successionals

35

What are the three points of Clements' view of succession?

1. Specific sequence of plant communities occurs on a given site
2. Each community prepares the site for subsequent colonizers
3. At the end of the sequence is a stable climax community

36

What are the three alternative models?

1. Alternative Stable States - Ecosystems can exist under multiple "states" - sets of unique (a)biotic conditions.

2. Initial Floristic Composition - Most species are initially present (seeds/seedlings), succession represents changes in dominance over time.

3. Divergent successional trajectories - ?

37

What are the three points of habitat heterogeneity?

1. Ecosystems recover patchily
2. Ecosystems are patchy at multiple spatial scales
3. Challenge is restoring patchiness - heterogeneity

38

What is a landscape?

A mosaic of two or more ecosystems that exchange organisms, energy, water and nutrients

39

What is the Carbon Copy myth?

The belief that we can restore an ecosystem to be an exact copy of a previous/ideal state.

Rooted in the idea that ecosystems develop in a predictable fashion toward a specified end point.

40

What is the Field of Dreams myth?

"If you build it, they will come"

Notion that all one needs is the physical structure for a particular ecosystem, and biotic composition and function will self-assemble.

41

What is the Fast-Forwarding myth?

Based on the idea that time required to create a functional or desired ecosystem can be reduced by controlling pathways, such as dispersal, colonization, and community assembly.

42

What is the Cookbook myth?

Assumption that similar ecological systems respond identically and predictably to restoration techniques.

43

What is the Command and Control myth?

Goals are achieved by active intervention and unending control, or manipulation of physical and biological components of the ecosystem.

Assumes we have knowledge, abilities, and foresight to actively control ecosystem structure and function to manage for a particular ecosystem state indefinitely into the future.

44

What is the Sisyphus Complex myth?

When we act through Command and Control to hold a dynamic system static, or force a system to exist in a transient state.

45

What is the Bionic World myth?

The belief that science and technology will solve the pressing issues of human population growth, finite resources, and altered ecosystems.

46

What are the assumptions of the island biogeographical model?

1. Quality of habitat is equal
2. Matrix is hospitable
3. System is at equilibrium

47

Which is generally the better patch size?

Large

48

What are problems with small patches?

1. Low genetic variability
2. High demographic stochasticity
3. Susceptibility to environmental stochasticity
4. Finding mates with low populations

49

What are direct biological edge effects?

Change sin the abundance or distribution of species caused directly by the physical conditions near the edge - vegetation structure and plant species distribution

50

What are indirect biological edge effects?

Changes in species interactions near the edge - predation, competition, herbivory

51

Improve the quality of the ___________ to make it more hospitable for faunal movement

Habitat matrix

52

_____________ is necessary to break through the abiotic barrier

Physio-chemical modficiation

53

Need to use ________________ to restore topography

Heavy machinery

54

What treatment should be used against soil compaction?

Soil ripping - to increase filtration

* But can also cause erosion if not properly managed

55

What are some treatments for erosion?

1. Plant wind breaks
2. Slow water flow
3. Straw/fabric/mulch
4. Establish vegetation

56

If not managed, irrigation can lead to _______________

Excess salinity

57

What is a treatment for both high salinity and high acidity?

Tolerant plants

58

What are some treatments for the microclimate (light/temp)?

1. Straw/fabric/mulch
2. Establish vegetation
3. Plant under existing vegetation
4. Rock mulch

59

What are some treatments for soil moisture?

1. Straw/fabric/mulch
2. Microtopography
3. Synthetic gels
4. Tall pots
5. Irrigation

60

What are the four steps to create microtopography?

1. Desertification
2. Infiltration
3. Imprintation
4. Revegetation

61

What are the four soil horizons?

O horizon: organic matter, leaf and stem litter
A horizon: accumulation of organic matter and nutrients, roots
B horizon: accumulation of clays
C horizon: parent material and rock

62

What are three facts about soil nutrients?

1. Temperate zone plants are often Nitrogen limited
2. Tropical zone plants are often Phosphorous limited
3. Other nutrients may also be limiting - Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, etc.

63

What are some treatments for low-nutrient soils?

1. Straw/fabric/mulch
2. Establish vegetation
3. Nitrogen-fixing plants
4. Fertilizer/sludge

64

What are two treatments for high-nutrient soils?

1. Establish vegetation
2. Sawdust/carbon source

65

What are microfauna?

Protozoans and nematodes

66

What are mesofauna?

Mites, springtails, fly larvae

67

What are macrofauna?

Worms, isopods, millipedes, ants, termites

68

What are the important factors of soil fauna?

1. Decomposition of organic matter, nutrient cycling
2. Soil structure
3. Nitrogen fixation
4. Primary producers

69

What are mycorrhizae?

Fungi that form a symbiotic association with plant roots

70

What are three treatments for hazardous wastes?

1. Bioremediation - use of microorganisms/plants/fungi to detoxify hazardous chemicals
2. Chemical transformation - toxics transformed into less harmful substances
3. Removal - Physical, thermal (incineration), chemical

71

What are three methods to reduce existing stress on fauna?

1. Removal of exotic and feral animals
2. Eliminating use of toxic chemicals
3. Reducing hunting and overfishing

72

What are some factors that influence success of reintroductions?

- Soft releases
- Herbivores
-Long-term commitment
- Removing cause of initial decline
- Release into core area
- Source population in wild

73

What is bioremediation?

The use of microorganisms/plants/fungi to break down or mineralize hazardous chemicals

74

What is salvaging?

Collecting plants or soil when an ecosystem is destroyed to be used immediately for restoration at another site

75

What is hardening?

The process of exposing plants to the stresses of the natural environment before outplanting

76

What are three ways to reduce introduction of invasive aquatic species in ballast water?

- Exchange ballast water in the open ocean where larvae can't settle
- Chemicals
- UV treatment