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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (96):
1

Which type of research is considered to be "fundamental" and "pure"?

Basic research.

 

2

What is basic research?

It is research that is designed to:

  • develop a knowledge base
  • Extend theory

3

What is applied research?

It is reseach designed to gather knowledge that has a direct clinical appliciation.

4

What  type of data does etrospective research examine?

It is research that examines data that was collected in the past.

5

What is an example of retrospective research?

Going back into the medical records.

6

What kind of data does prospective research examine?

It examines data that is collected in the future.

7

Which one is more powerful?

Retrospective or Prospective?

Prospective 

8

Why is retrospective research weaker than prospective?

It has more uncontrolled variables.

9

Why is prospective research powerful than retrospective research?

It can control variables and definitions.

10

What is a longitudinal study?

It is a study which follows a cohort  of subjects and collects data over time.

11

What is a cross sectional study?

It is a study that compares a group at one time.

Does not have a follow up.

12

Describe the Nazi Medical Experiment:

  • Subjects had no choice
  • Frequently killed or permanetly damaged.
  • Studies poorly convievedd.

13

Describe the Nuremberg Code 1949:

  • Protection of subjects from harm
  • Voluntary consent and right to withdraw
  • Study conducted by qualified people.
  • Balance of benefits and risks in a study.

14

What is the declaration of Helsinki?

  • It elaborates on the nuremberg code
  • Focuses on:
    • Protecting life, health, privacy and dignity of subjects.

15

What is the tuskegee syhphilis study?

16

What is the willowbrook study?

17

What is the jewish chronic disease hospital study?

18

What does IRB stand for?

Institutional Review Board.

19

What is the definition of research?

It is the process of answering questions by generating new knowledge.

20

What is rigor?

It is striving for excellence in research.

21

How do we acquire knowledge?

  • Tradition
  • Authority
  • Borrowing
  • Person experience
  • Trial and error.

22

What is a goal?

To understand the process of research and apply it to the field.

23

What are the reasons for research?

Research is done to make medical improvement that broaden the health field.

24

What are traditions?

Things that have worked in the past, so we continue to use it.

25

What does authority mean?

If a superior tells you to do it, you do it that way

26

What is trial and error?

Trying something and seeing the outcome.

27

What is personal experience?

You learn overtime from your own eyes.

28

What is role modeling?

Watching others and taking ideas from them.

29

What is intuition?

It is when you feel something should be a certain way.

30

What is reasoning-deductive?

It is when one thing leads to another. 

(Cause and effect)

31

What is the scientific method?

Using books and research to increase knowledge.

32

What are two types of scientific method?

  1. Objectivity
  2. Empirical data

33

What is objectivity?

Open minding. 

No predictions results before the experiment

34

What is empirical data?

Actually collecting data

35

What are the steps to scientific method?

  1. Selecting and defining problem.
  2. Selecting a research design.
  3. Data collecting
  4. Analyzing data
  5. Reporting results

36

What is Spontaneous generation?

Things that appear from non-living objects.

37

What is qualitative research?

Generating knowledge using methods of inquire that emphasize subjectivity and the meaning of the experience of one person.

38

What is quantitative research?

Generating knowledge based on determining how much of a given behavior is present.

39

What are 3 rigor qualities?

  1. Discipline
  2. High attention to detail
  3. Strict accuracy

40

What is a problem statement?

  • The problem statement is the first part of the introduction portion of your research paper.
  • It is after the abstract
  • You present the topic you will be presenting.

41

What are the characteristics of a good problem statement?

  • Define variables
  • Clear cut statements of how the variables are measured.

42

What is a purpose statement?

A statement that describes why the study has been deigned.

43

What does the purpose statment entail?

  • Question
  • Variables
  • Population to be studied.

44

What 3 ways can a purpose statement be written?

  • Declarative statement
  • Question
  • Hypothesis

45

Where can one get their research problems?

  • Own experience/observation
  • Literature
  • Theory
  • Replication

46

What is literature review?

It is critical summary of the most important scholarly literature on a topic.

47

What are some sources for literature review?

  • Referred journals
  • Other journals
  • Books
  • Dissertations.

48

What are two types of literature review?

  1. Primary source
  2. Secondary source

49

What is a variable?

It is a measurable characteristic that varies among the subjects being studied.

50

What does a purpose statement describe?

It describes why the study has been designed.

51

How can a purpose statement be written?

  • Declarative statement
  • Question
  • Hypothese

52

What is a hypothesis?

 It is a statement about the relationship between the variables that are being investigated

53

What are the characteristics of a hypothesis?

  • Variables being studied
  • The population being studied

54

What is a predicted outcome?

It states clearly and concisely the expected relationship between two or more variables.

55

A well-stated hypothesis must be _________.

Testable.

56

What is an independent variable?

It is one variable that can be manipulated.

57

What is a dependent variable?

It is one variable that can be observed for change.

58

What is an extraneous variable?

IT is a variable that can not be controlled in a study.

59

What is a simple hypothesis?

It is one independent variable, and one dependent variable.

60

What is a complex hypothesis?

It states a relationship  between three or more variables.

61

Which is the perferred hypothesis?

Simple.

62

What is a nondirectional hypothesis?

It states a relationship between variables with no specific direction.

63

What is a directional hypothesis?

It states direction of relationship between variables.

64

What is a statistical hypothesis?

It is a null hypothesis that states no relationship exist between variables.

65

What is a research hypothesis?

It is an alternate hypothesis that states the experimenters excepted relationship.

66

67

what does N equal?

Population-entire set of subjects.

 

68

What does n equal?

Sample- a subset of a population.

69

What is a bias?

It is an influence or action that distorts the sample from the population.

70

What does "non-probability sample" mean?

Not random.

71

What does probability sampling mean?

It means that every element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen.

72

What are the 4 types of probability sampling?

  1. SImple random sample
  2. Stratified random sample
  3. CLuster random sample
  4. Systematic sample.

73

What is a simple random sample?

Every subject has an equal chance of being chosen.

74

What is a stratified random sample?

It is used where the population has sub groups.

75

What is cluster sampling?

It is simple random sampling that is used on a cluster of a larger population.

76

What are the 3 types of non-probability sampling?

  1. Convience
  2. Quota sampling
  3. Purposive sampling

77

What is convience?

It is sampling that selects subjects from those readily available.

78

What is quota sampling?

It is when there are subgroups in the population.

79

What is purposive sampling?

Researchers hand picks subjects to fit some criteria.

80

What does sample size depend on?

It depends on how much variability and how many variables there are.

81

What is a scale?

It is a level of measurement

82

What does a scale depend on?

Type of data collected and the instrument used.

83

What does the type of scale determine?

The statistical test to use.

84

What are 4 types of scales?

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal
  3. Interval
  4. Ratio

85

Which is the most powerful scale?

Ratio.

86

What are the charactersitcs of a nominal scale?

  • It has catergories.
    • No rank.
  • Variables are classified by quality it posses rather than by numerical measurements.

87

What is a ordinal scale?

It is a measurement that yeilds rank in an ordered data.

88

What is an interval scale?

It is a measurement that yields rank ordered data with equal intervals and NO zero point.

89

What is a ratio scale?

Its a measurement that yeilds rank ordered data with equal intervals and a zero point.

90

What is a continuous variable?

It is a variable that takes on an infinite number of different values presented on a continuum.

91

What is a discrete variable?

It is a variable that takes on a finite number of values presented on a continuum.

92

What does reliability refer to?

It refers to the consistancy with which an instrument or test measures whatever it is supposed to measure.

93

What is test retest reliability?

Repeated measurements.

94

What is internal consistency reliability?

Used wih questionaires-same question is repeated in different ways and responses are compared.

95

What is interrater reliability?

Have several people evaluate the same thing and compare results.

96

What is validity?

It is the accuracy with which an instrument or test measures what it is supposed to measure.