Flashcards in Midterm Deck (114):
Two ways of thinking about communication
1. Transmissive View
2. Ritual View
Sources that originated in the historical period that is being examined
Secondary sources provide what to historians?
Retrospective accounts on a period through a narrative
The significance of writing can be determined with two key qualities
Storage and Transmission
Harold wrote about storage and transmission by giving them the terms
time-based media and space-based media
media that is durable and persistent through time, but does not promote easy transmission.
lack durability, but can be easily transmitted. They lend themselves to the spread of information across space, rather than its preservation in time
The idea that technology changes cause social effects in a direct and uncomplicated way is called
What does Technological Determinism ignore?
The existing social conditions and needs that drove people to adopt these technologies in the first place
2 ways the agricultural aspects of societies influenced the development of early writing systems
1. Need for permanence for looking further into the future for stability
2. Increase in the interdependence of people meant a need for ways for exchanging goods, keeping records, contracts, etc.
Before writing, tallies were used as
a method of recording quantities of things using a one to one correspondence (ex. notches on a length of a bone)
Requirements of tallies
needed a direct correspondence between the number of notches and the number of things being counted
Problem with tallies
no context for quantity given
The additions of symbols to tallies allowed
necessary context to the quantities given
Small pieces of clay that were formed into shapes to represent various objects were called
Where were clay tokens introduced and when?
8000 BCE in Sumer - an ancient civilization composed of several small city0states in what is now southern Iraq
a form of writing created by pressing wedges into slabs of clay to create formations of shapes representing entities (people and goods) is called....
A Cuneiform Tablet
Uses of the Cuneiform Tablet included:
Mundane recording, legal contracts, lists of goods - your typical paperwork
Pictographs emerged when
writing took the form of individual visual signs that represent objects through simple drawings
Pictographs lacked a connection between
writing and the spoken word
A simplified image or symbol that stands for one or more objects or concepts is called
Difference between pictogram and ideogram
there is not necessarily a resemblance between the image and the thing it represents. Rather, these symbols are accepted by agreement or custom
When was Babylonia established?
Writing from Babylonia was increasingly
Writing in Babylonia lead to the emergence of what type of writing(s)?
histories and myths
The document inscribed in stelae (large stone tablets) and clay tablets that laid out 300 laws was called
The Code of Hammurbai
"Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth" came from
The Code of Hammurbai
3 forms of writing in Ancient Egypt
a form of writing used primarily by rulers
cursive, priestly writing
meaning popular, it was secular writing for everyday uses
The first-ever alphabet and the basis for those that have followed was
The Phoenician Alphabet
A standard set of letters or symbols that signify the phonemes or basic important sounds of a spoken language is an...
Greeks adopted Phoenician alphabet between
1100 and 800 BCE
What did the greeks add to the Phoenician alphabet?
Adding vowels to the alphabet allowed for
clearer approximation of the sound of a word
Transitioning to using the alphabet meant a transition to
Writing that represents sounds, not objects
Individual characters that represent a word or phrase, as seen in China and Japan
3 aspects to a culture without writing
1. Knowledge is largely impermanent because it depends on mental memory
2. Knowledge can't be separated from the knower and so cannot be transmitted or transported easily
3. It is difficult to build on an extend existing knowledge
The introduction of writing allowed (2)
1. Information to be recorded with permanence
2. Information to travel in the absence of the knower and persist through time
3 implications of the greek alphabet
1. It democratized literacy
2. It opened up avenues for new forms of expression
3. It enabled transcription of earlier oral literature
2 persistent problems after the Greek alphabet
1. Writing materials were still rare and expensive
2. Unable to mass-reproduce/mechanize
Walter Ong discussed
the psychodynamics of orality - the mental implications of reliance on speech as a form of communication
Ong argues that since sound is ephemeral (short lasting), there is a need for
mnemonic devices as supports for knowledge in oral cultures
Oral culture often rejects
originality as there is a preference for repitition and familiarity
the re-adoption of aspects of oral culture in an electronic age is called
Gutenberg's moveable printing press was introduced when?
The three cultural preconditions for the printing press includes
1. Beginnings of Christianity
2. Rise of monasteries and scriptoria in the middle ages
3. Rise of universities in the 11th and 12th century
rooms where monastic scribed gathered to copy books by hand
The rise of universities before the printing press meant (2)
1. less control from religious authorities or monarchs
2. Growing demand for books
The 4 material preconditions to the printing press included
2. Block printing and moveable type
3. The screw press
4. Hand copied books
When did paper emerge and where?
In China, around 1st century CE
Paper in china was made of
plant fibres such as mulberry leaves or bamboo. or fishing nets
In what century did paper enter europe?
12th century via the islamic world
In what century was wood pulp used as the main source of paper?
Block printing made what possible?
for multiple copies of a page to be produced quickly
What was the downside of block printing?
carving each block was time-consuming and required hand work
What characterized moveable type?
used clay characters rather than metal letters and was limited by the large number of characters required
Gutenberg's printing press was probably inspired by...
Screw presses were
used for pressing grapes for wine and olives for oil
What was the most common method for the production of books before the 15th century?
Hand-copying was often done by
monastic scribes and laypeople working as wage labourers
Illuminated manuscripts were examples of writing as
Mumford said print should not try to copy the decorative but...
should concern itself with function and clarity
The origins of lower and upper case type came from
compositors of metal type cases
The page size frames that held type lines are called
3 Shifts in production with the rise of print
4 societal changes associated with the rise of print
2. Religious Reform
4. New forms of community
In what year did Gutenberg print the Bible in Latin?
What was said to be the first propaganda campaign with the help of the printing press?
Reformation as provided by Martin Luther's 95 theses
Pro-Reformation was also known as
publications printed at regular intervals like magazines and newspapers
the first popular and commercially successful photographic method
When was the Daguerreotype introduced?
Cartes de viste
small paper photographs on cardboard mounts
When were Cartes de vistes introduced?
The first hand camera was introduced when and called what?
Kodak No.1 (1888)
The bootstrap narrative
the belief that anyone can ascend the social and economic ladder
5 traits of the daguerreotype
1. Images appeared directly on a metal plate
2. Images were unique and non-reproducible
3. Relatively expensive ($100-$200)
4. Fragile and delicate
5. Overwhelmingly dedicated to portraiture
How did people view the daguerreotype
a process that allowed people's likenesses to be captured and made into physical objects
Contemporaries of the daguerreotype saw it as
nature reproducing itself
Cartes de viste were composed of
paper print mounted on a piece of card stock
Characteristics of Cartes de viste was (3)
1. Highly reproducible
3. Extremely popular
How were cartes de viste considered democratic?
They were affordable and therefore accessible to more people
The hand camera allowed photography to be practiced by
a wider portion of the population
James Carey wrote that the use of electricity enabled...
the separation of communication from transportation
The etymology of "Telegraph" is
writing at a distance
The etymology of "telephone" is
voice at a distance
The first successful version of the telegraph was
Claude Chappe's semaphore system introduced in 1792 during the french revolution
the first widely successful electrical telegraph was introduced by
Samuel F.B. Morse in 1837
What was the phrase that was first demonstrated on the telegraph through morse code?
What hath god wrought?
A common response to the telegraph and other new technologies was
What type of economic shift did the telegraph allow?
Arbitrage (buying low in one place, selling high in another) to futures (speculating on future value)
James Carey's 3 major consequences to the movement of commodities into time and out of space
1. Decontextualized markets
2. Commodities separate from representations
3. Standardization of goods
When was the telephone patented and by who?
1876, Alexander Graham Bell
The telephone was important because it allowed
the transmission of sound
What does the telepphone make possible that the telegraph did not?
You did not need to learn morse code and eliminated steps of translating and transcribing
Disadvantage of the telephone compared to the telegraph
there is no physical record od the conversation because of the oral nature of the telephone
What did the switchboard service allow in telephone communication?
for any telephone subscriber to be connected to any other
Who had a monopoly on the telephone business in the 1800s?
Why were switchboard operators primarily women?
Initially young men were lacking in courtesy
The role of women in the telephone industry were often as
secretaries - assisting men
Initially, Bell emphasized the phone use as what kind of tool?
When did telephone ads begin to target women?
1920s and 30s
What was the message(s) sent to women in ads for telephones?
That they need the service for their household responsibilities and their social lives
Women's domestic use of the telephone became what kind of medium?
A social medium - a tool that allowed people to connect with one another
Who spoke of the transmission and ritual views of communication?
Characters that are syllabic signs representing sounds in a spoken language are called
An example of a phonogram is
an alphabetic system
Who revealed the implications of the Greek alphabet?
Walter Ong spoke of
Orality and literacy
Who spoke of the drawbacks of illuminated manuscripts?