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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (114):
1

Two ways of thinking about communication

1. Transmissive View
2. Ritual View

2

Primary sources

Sources that originated in the historical period that is being examined

3

Secondary sources provide what to historians?

Retrospective accounts on a period through a narrative

4

The significance of writing can be determined with two key qualities

Storage and Transmission

5

Harold wrote about storage and transmission by giving them the terms

time-based media and space-based media

6

Time-based media

media that is durable and persistent through time, but does not promote easy transmission.

7

Space-based media

lack durability, but can be easily transmitted. They lend themselves to the spread of information across space, rather than its preservation in time

8

The idea that technology changes cause social effects in a direct and uncomplicated way is called

Technological Determinism

9

What does Technological Determinism ignore?

The existing social conditions and needs that drove people to adopt these technologies in the first place

10

2 ways the agricultural aspects of societies influenced the development of early writing systems

1. Need for permanence for looking further into the future for stability
2. Increase in the interdependence of people meant a need for ways for exchanging goods, keeping records, contracts, etc.

11

Before writing, tallies were used as

a method of recording quantities of things using a one to one correspondence (ex. notches on a length of a bone)

12

Requirements of tallies

needed a direct correspondence between the number of notches and the number of things being counted

13

Problem with tallies

no context for quantity given

14

The additions of symbols to tallies allowed

necessary context to the quantities given

15

Small pieces of clay that were formed into shapes to represent various objects were called

clay tokens

16

Where were clay tokens introduced and when?

8000 BCE in Sumer - an ancient civilization composed of several small city0states in what is now southern Iraq

17

Cuneiform means

wedge-shaped

18

a form of writing created by pressing wedges into slabs of clay to create formations of shapes representing entities (people and goods) is called....

A Cuneiform Tablet

19

Uses of the Cuneiform Tablet included:

Mundane recording, legal contracts, lists of goods - your typical paperwork

20

Pictographs emerged when

writing took the form of individual visual signs that represent objects through simple drawings

21

Pictographs lacked a connection between

writing and the spoken word

22

A simplified image or symbol that stands for one or more objects or concepts is called

Ideogram

23

Difference between pictogram and ideogram

there is not necessarily a resemblance between the image and the thing it represents. Rather, these symbols are accepted by agreement or custom

24

When was Babylonia established?

1800BCE

25

Writing from Babylonia was increasingly

phonetic

26

Writing in Babylonia lead to the emergence of what type of writing(s)?

histories and myths

27

The document inscribed in stelae (large stone tablets) and clay tablets that laid out 300 laws was called

The Code of Hammurbai

28

"Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth" came from

The Code of Hammurbai

29

3 forms of writing in Ancient Egypt

1. Hieroglyphic
2. Hieratic
3. Demotic

30

Hieroglyphic

a form of writing used primarily by rulers

31

Hieratic

cursive, priestly writing

32

Demotic

meaning popular, it was secular writing for everyday uses

33

The first-ever alphabet and the basis for those that have followed was

The Phoenician Alphabet

34

A standard set of letters or symbols that signify the phonemes or basic important sounds of a spoken language is an...

Alphabet

35

Greeks adopted Phoenician alphabet between

1100 and 800 BCE

36

What did the greeks add to the Phoenician alphabet?

Vowels

37

Adding vowels to the alphabet allowed for

clearer approximation of the sound of a word

38

Transitioning to using the alphabet meant a transition to

Writing that represents sounds, not objects

39

Logograms

Individual characters that represent a word or phrase, as seen in China and Japan

40

3 aspects to a culture without writing

1. Knowledge is largely impermanent because it depends on mental memory
2. Knowledge can't be separated from the knower and so cannot be transmitted or transported easily
3. It is difficult to build on an extend existing knowledge

41

The introduction of writing allowed (2)

1. Information to be recorded with permanence
2. Information to travel in the absence of the knower and persist through time

42

3 implications of the greek alphabet

1. It democratized literacy
2. It opened up avenues for new forms of expression
3. It enabled transcription of earlier oral literature

43

2 persistent problems after the Greek alphabet

1. Writing materials were still rare and expensive
2. Unable to mass-reproduce/mechanize

44

Walter Ong discussed

the psychodynamics of orality - the mental implications of reliance on speech as a form of communication

45

Ong argues that since sound is ephemeral (short lasting), there is a need for

mnemonic devices as supports for knowledge in oral cultures

46

Oral culture often rejects

originality as there is a preference for repitition and familiarity

47

the re-adoption of aspects of oral culture in an electronic age is called

Secondary Orality

48

Gutenberg's moveable printing press was introduced when?

1440

49

The three cultural preconditions for the printing press includes

1. Beginnings of Christianity
2. Rise of monasteries and scriptoria in the middle ages
3. Rise of universities in the 11th and 12th century

50

Scriptoria

rooms where monastic scribed gathered to copy books by hand

51

The rise of universities before the printing press meant (2)

1. less control from religious authorities or monarchs
2. Growing demand for books

52

The 4 material preconditions to the printing press included

1. Paper
2. Block printing and moveable type
3. The screw press
4. Hand copied books

53

When did paper emerge and where?

In China, around 1st century CE

54

Paper in china was made of

plant fibres such as mulberry leaves or bamboo. or fishing nets

55

In what century did paper enter europe?

12th century via the islamic world

56

In what century was wood pulp used as the main source of paper?

19th century

57

Block printing made what possible?

for multiple copies of a page to be produced quickly

58

What was the downside of block printing?

carving each block was time-consuming and required hand work

59

What characterized moveable type?

used clay characters rather than metal letters and was limited by the large number of characters required

60

Gutenberg's printing press was probably inspired by...

screw presses

61

Screw presses were

used for pressing grapes for wine and olives for oil

62

What was the most common method for the production of books before the 15th century?

hand-copying

63

Hand-copying was often done by

monastic scribes and laypeople working as wage labourers

64

Illuminated manuscripts were examples of writing as

visual art

65

Mumford said print should not try to copy the decorative but...

should concern itself with function and clarity

66

The origins of lower and upper case type came from

compositors of metal type cases

67

The page size frames that held type lines are called

formes

68

3 Shifts in production with the rise of print

1. Reproduction
2. Standardization
3. Mechanizaton

69

4 societal changes associated with the rise of print

1. Democratization
2. Religious Reform
3. Secularization
4. New forms of community

70

In what year did Gutenberg print the Bible in Latin?

1454

71

What was said to be the first propaganda campaign with the help of the printing press?

Reformation as provided by Martin Luther's 95 theses

72

Pro-Reformation was also known as

Protestant

73

Periodicals

publications printed at regular intervals like magazines and newspapers

74

Daguerreotype

the first popular and commercially successful photographic method

75

When was the Daguerreotype introduced?

1839

76

Cartes de viste

small paper photographs on cardboard mounts

77

When were Cartes de vistes introduced?

1850s

78

The first hand camera was introduced when and called what?

Kodak No.1 (1888)

79

The bootstrap narrative

the belief that anyone can ascend the social and economic ladder

80

5 traits of the daguerreotype

1. Images appeared directly on a metal plate
2. Images were unique and non-reproducible
3. Relatively expensive ($100-$200)
4. Fragile and delicate
5. Overwhelmingly dedicated to portraiture

81

How did people view the daguerreotype

a process that allowed people's likenesses to be captured and made into physical objects

82

Contemporaries of the daguerreotype saw it as

nature reproducing itself

83

Cartes de viste were composed of

paper print mounted on a piece of card stock

84

Characteristics of Cartes de viste was (3)

1. Highly reproducible
2. Inexpensive
3. Extremely popular

85

How were cartes de viste considered democratic?

They were affordable and therefore accessible to more people

86

The hand camera allowed photography to be practiced by

a wider portion of the population

87

James Carey wrote that the use of electricity enabled...

the separation of communication from transportation

88

The etymology of "Telegraph" is

writing at a distance

89

The etymology of "telephone" is

voice at a distance

90

The first successful version of the telegraph was

Claude Chappe's semaphore system introduced in 1792 during the french revolution

91

the first widely successful electrical telegraph was introduced by

Samuel F.B. Morse in 1837

92

What was the phrase that was first demonstrated on the telegraph through morse code?

What hath god wrought?

93

A common response to the telegraph and other new technologies was

disbelief

94

What type of economic shift did the telegraph allow?

Arbitrage (buying low in one place, selling high in another) to futures (speculating on future value)

95

James Carey's 3 major consequences to the movement of commodities into time and out of space

1. Decontextualized markets
2. Commodities separate from representations
3. Standardization of goods

96

When was the telephone patented and by who?

1876, Alexander Graham Bell

97

The telephone was important because it allowed

the transmission of sound

98

What does the telepphone make possible that the telegraph did not?

You did not need to learn morse code and eliminated steps of translating and transcribing

99

Disadvantage of the telephone compared to the telegraph

there is no physical record od the conversation because of the oral nature of the telephone

100

What did the switchboard service allow in telephone communication?

for any telephone subscriber to be connected to any other

101

Who had a monopoly on the telephone business in the 1800s?

Bell

102

Why were switchboard operators primarily women?

Initially young men were lacking in courtesy

103

The role of women in the telephone industry were often as

secretaries - assisting men

104

Initially, Bell emphasized the phone use as what kind of tool?

Business

105

When did telephone ads begin to target women?

1920s and 30s

106

What was the message(s) sent to women in ads for telephones?

That they need the service for their household responsibilities and their social lives

107

Women's domestic use of the telephone became what kind of medium?

A social medium - a tool that allowed people to connect with one another

108

Who spoke of the transmission and ritual views of communication?

James Carey

109

Characters that are syllabic signs representing sounds in a spoken language are called

phonograms

110

An example of a phonogram is

an alphabetic system

111

Who revealed the implications of the Greek alphabet?

Eric Havelock

112

Walter Ong spoke of

Orality and literacy

113

Who spoke of the drawbacks of illuminated manuscripts?

Lewis Mumford

114

Who invented the heliograph?

Nicephore Niepce