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Flashcards in midterm Deck (74):
1

Psychology

is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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4 Goals of Psycology

description, explanation, prediction and control

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Gestalt Psychology

an organized whole that studied sensation and perception

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Psychologist

have academic degrees and can do counseling, teaching and research and may specialize in any of a large number of areas within psychology.

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Psychiatrists

are medical doctors who provide diagnosis and therapy for persons with mental disorders

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Scientific Method

is a way to determine facts and control the possibilities of error and bias when observing behavior. The five steps are perceiving the question, forming a hypothesis, drawing conclusions and reporting the results

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Naturalistic Observations

involve watching animal or people in their natural habitat

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Laboratory Observations

involve watching animal or people in an artificial but controlled situtation

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Case Studies

are detailed investigations of one subject

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Information gained from case studies cannot be applied to other cases. True or False

True

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Correlation

a statistical technique that allows researchers to discover and predict relationships between variables of interest

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Independent Variable

is a variable thats deliberately manipulated

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Dependent Variable

is the measured behavior of responses

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Single-Blind Studies

where the subjects do not know if they are in an experiment

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Double-Blind Studies

where the experimenters and subjects dont know the information

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Ethical Guidelines of Research

include the well-being of participants, informed consent, justification when deception is used, the right to withdraw at any time, protection from harm, confidentiality, and debriefing of participants at the end

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Random Assignment

assigning subjects randomly so each subject has an equal chance of being in either group

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Nervous System

complex network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body

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Which two cells is the brain made up of?

Neurons and glial cells

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Dendrite

receive input

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Soma

cell body

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Axons

carry the neural message to other cells

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Axon Terminals

the site of neurotransmitter release

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Glial Cells

separate, support and insulate neurons, and influence thinking, memory and other forms of cognition

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Myelin

insulates and protects the axons

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Nerves

bundled Axons

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Seratonin

is associated with sleep, mood and appetite

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Endorphins

control our pain response

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Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of all the neurons and nerves that are not apart of the central nervous system

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Somatic Nervous System

contains the sensory pathway or neurons carrying messages to the central nervous system, and the motor pathway or neurons carrying messages from the central nervous system to the voluntary muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System

contains parasympathetic and sympathetic division

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Parasympathetic Division

eat, drink and rest system

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Sympathetic Division

fight or flight system

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Endocrine Glands

secrete chemicals called hormones directly into our bloodstream influencing the activity of the muscles and organs

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Pituitary Gland

found underneath the hypothalamus and it helps us conserve water and control oxytocin and also regulates growth hormones

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Pineal Gland

located in the brain and its function is to secrete insulin and glucagon

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Thyroid Gland

located in the neck and it controls metabolism by secreting thyroxin

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Adrenal Glands

located on top of each kidney controls stress reaction through the adrenal medulla

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General Adaptation Syndrome

is the bodies reaction to stress and includes three stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion

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CT Scans

are computer aided X-rays of the brain

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MRI Scans

use magnetic fields, radio pulses and the computer to give scientists a more detailed picture

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Cerebellum

found at the base of the back and the brain and coordinates fine rapid motor movement, learned reflexes, posture and muscle tone

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Thalamus

relay station that sends sensory information to the proper areas of the cortex

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Hypothalamus

controls hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, sleeping and waking

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Hippocampus

part of the brain responsible for the formation of long term declarative memories

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Amygdala

controls our fear responses and memory of fearful stimuli

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Occipital Lobes

process vision

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Parietal Lobes

controls sense of touch, temperature and body position

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Temporal Lobes

controls the primary auditory area and also is involved in understanding language

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Brocas Area

located in the left frontal lobe responsible for producing fluent and understandable speech

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Wernicke's Area

located in the left temporal lobe and is responsible for understanding language

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Sensation

is the activation of receptors located in the eyes, ear, skin, nasal cavity and tongue

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Webers Law of just noticeable differences

states that the just noticeable differences between two stimuli is always a constant

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Rods

detect changes in brightness but do not see color and function best in low light

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Cones

are sensitive to color and work best in bright light

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Trichromatic Theory of color perception

assumes there are three types of cones red, blue, green

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Opponent process theory of color perception

assumes there are four primary cones red,blue green and yellow

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Three Aspects of Sound

pitch, loudness and timbre

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Place Theory

hair cells on the organ of the corti correspond to different pitches of sound

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Frequency Theory

states that the speed with the basilar membrane vibrates to create different pitches of sound

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Volley Principle

states that neurons take turns firing for sounds between 400Hz and below 4000Hz

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Gustation

is the sense of taste

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Five Basic Types of Taste

Sweet,sour, salty, bitter and umami (brothy)

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Olfaction

is the sense of smell

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Somesthetic Senses

include the skin senses and vestibular senses

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Kinesthetic Senses

allow the brain to know the position of movement of the body through the activity of special receptors responsive to the movement of the joints and limbs

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Vestibular Sense

contributes to the bodies sense of spacial orientation

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Perception

is the interpretation and organizations of sensations

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Gestalt Principles of Perception

ground relationships, closure, similarity, continuity, contiguity, and common region

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Depth Perception

ability to see in 3D

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Illusions

are perceptions that do not correspond to reality

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Top Down Processing

the use of pre-existant knowledge to organize individual features to an organized whole

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Bottom up Processing

involves the analysis of smaller features building up to a complete perception