Flashcards in Midterm Deck (47):
-closed by 160 BC
-established number (24 books with Ezra-Nehemiah, Book of the 12)
The book of Ezekiel is the only book whose sayings and action happen entirely in Babylon.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel
-Ezekiel’s prophecies fall at the early end of the exilic period (stands close to Jeremiah)
-Jeremiah never went to Babylon (he was taken to Egypt in the end), the young Ezekiel may well have known him or of him, in Judah, before he was taken off in Nebuchadnezzar’s first wave of exiles in 597 BC. This might explain why some of the things Ezekiel says are quite like sayings and ideas of Jeremiah
Ezekiel: Canonical Place
The big 3 continue the covenant of Gen 1-2 (image and likeness), but Israel was being unfaithful
1. Opening vision and call of Ezekiel 1:1-3:15
2. Ezekiel’s role and message 3:16-7:27
3. Vision of the glory of the Lord leaving the temple 8-11
4. The exile symbolized 12-24
5. Oracles against the foreign nations 25-32
6. Divine leadership and restoration 33-36
7. The valley of dry bones 37-39
8. Vision of the new temple 40-48
message of Ezekiel
Jerusalem can no longer be the city of God because his glory has departed from it. It cannot be the city of God because God is no longer there. The rest of the book seeks to resolve this problem.
Davidic kingship in Ezekiel
1. The reunited kingdom of north and south is said to be under a new leader “My servant David." This leader is the same one who will come to power through relative obscurity as we saw in the allegorical scene of the tender shoot plucked and taken to Mt. Zion and planted there to grow into a huge tree. During this period of future Davidic leadership, a covenant of shalom will bring a flourishing prosperity and fertility to the land (34:23-31), which will issue in a new Eden (36:35).
2. Ezekiel draws a distinction between a true Davidic servant and imposters
3. Ezekiel only refers to the king with the Hebrew word
שָׂר “prince” (servant kingship)
4. The vision of the valley of dry bones shows that the people will be miraculously resurrected and given victory over their enemies. It appears that the return from exile is depicted as resurrection from the dead. (ch. 37-39)
5. The conclusion of the book and the final vision is very powerful: Yahweh is there. The glory of the Lord has returned to the temple. God is once more dwelling in the midst of his people as king. Thus, for Ezekiel, restoration involves the rebuilding of the Davidic house in both of its meanings in 2 Samuel 7: the dynasty of David and the temple. (40-48)
Meanings of "heart"
(1) placement of the organ of the heart
(3) wish as desire or longing
(5) decisions of the will
(6) heart of God
*the control center, where we understand and will
based on Deuteronomy covenant: loyalty of the heart by...
-circumcision (most importantly, circumcision of the heart)
There are two important points of comparison between Deuteronomy and the Prophets:
(1) Yahweh performs the heart change and (2) he performs it after the people return from exile and they are restored in the land.
The Heart Change in Ezekiel
1. circumcision of the heart theme throughout the prophets
2. Ez 11:16-21 restoration text (the Lord will gather them from the nations, give them a new heart)
3. 36:22-36 restoration text (the Lord will gather them from the nations, cleanse the people from their idols)
4. New covenant in Ezekiel: Messiah, new David will come, perform "heart surgery" on the people
Summary of New Covenant in Big Three
1. Prism illustration
2. NT interpretation
(1) Doctrine of Conversion.
(2) The termination of circumcision of the flesh is not infant baptism.
(3) Church membership? Who should be a member of your church?
As the heart circumcision passes through the prism of the Deut covenant, the three rays of light are colored on the other side: (1) Isaiah uses the metaphor of being “taught by Yahweh” to communicate that no longer will covenant faithfulness from the heart depend on human teachers but now it will depend on God’s supernatural teaching which will make the people of God into servants of Yahweh. (2) Jeremiah uses the metaphor of the torah being written on the heart by God. In Deuteronomy, the people were supposed to lay up the Torah on their hearts but they were unsuccessful at internalizing the torah and therefore they failed to be covenantally faithful to Yahweh from the heart. (3) Ezekiel speaks of a new heart and a new spirit, which God will place in us. Therefore, the prophets allude to the deuteronomic vision that God will recreate his people after they return from exile.
When was Isaiah written? What was the political situation?
-between 742 BC until at least 701 BC approximately.
1. The Assyrians are in power and threatening Israel.
2. The Babylonians are also a looming power
Multiple authors view of Isaiah
1. The historical perspective (the mention of Cyrus in 45:1; different geographic orientations: Assyria in 1-39; Babylon in 40-55),
2. The literary style of chapters 40-66 is seen to be different than 1-39,
3. The theological ideas differ too remarkably from those which appear in 1-39 to be identified with Isaiah.
One Author and Unified Message of Isaiah
1. Historical Perspective (Cyrus is not the only name prophesied, Palestine is more probable than Babylon)
2. The book is to be taken as a unity both formally and thematically (vision of Isaiah, heaven/earth transformation inclusio, Hezekiah narrative is pivot of the book, Many Overlapping Literary Themes)
3. The Problem of an Anonymous Prophet
4. Intertestamental Evidence (Ben Sirach / Ecclesiasticus (180 BC),The Dead Sea Scrolls)
5. The NT preserves many citations from all three sections of Isaiah and in all cases these are attributed to Isaiah and no one else
Main theme of Isaiah
The Restoration of Jerusalem from a perverse and unjust city to a new and faithful city.
Structure of Isaiah
1-12 The call of Isaiah and the commencement of his ministry in Jerusalem (ca 740-732 BC)
13-27 Oracles against the Foreign Nations: The emergence of the city of God
28-33 Judah and Jerusalem in Hezekiah’s time (ca 715-687 BC)
34-35 The ransom of the redeemed
36-39 The siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC
40-55 The Work of the Servant
40:12-48:22 The Second/New Exodus
49-55 The restoration of Jerusalem
56-66 The earthly and the New Jerusalem
Other themes in Isaiah
B. 1-12: Promise and Threat.
C. 13-27: Oracles against the Foreign Nations.
D. 28-33: Judah and Jerusalem in Hezekiah’s Time.
E. 34-35: Ransom of the Redeemed.
F. 36-39: Historical situation preceding the siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC.
The key to Isaiah
Sin and Experience
-The National Situation 2-9 (The court convened. The dignity of the Lord whose voice commands all creation)
-The Religious Situation 10-20 (The first summons: The Lord’s displeasure, Second summons: the Lord's invitation)
-The Social Situation 21-26 (The collapse of the faithful city, restoration of a faithful city)
-Explanation: Tensions between Threat and Hope Resolved 27-31
Literary Structure of Isaiah 5
I. Song of the Vineyard 5:1-7
II. Bad Grapes: Indictment of God’s People 5:8-24
III. The Vineyard Ravaged: Announcement of Punishment 5:25-30
The Final “Therefore”
Literary Structure of Isaiah 6
I. Vision of Yahweh 6:1-4 (awesomeness of God)
II. Response of Isaiah 6:5-7 (God is holy, role of the seraphim)
III. Commission of the Prophet 6:8-13
Literary Structure of Isaiah 38-55: Book of the Servant
A. Historical prologue: Hezekiah’s fatal choice 38:1-39:8
B1. Universal consolation 40:1-42:17
1. The Consolation of Israel 40:1-41:20
2. The Consolation of the Gentiles 41:21-42:17
C1. Promises of Redemption 42:18-44:23
1. Release from bondage 42:18-43:21
2. Forgiveness of sins 43:22-44:23
C2. Agents of Redemption 44:24-53:12
1. Cyrus: liberation 44:24-48:22
2. Servant: atonement 48:1-53:12
B2. Universal Proclamation 54:1-55:13
1. The Call to Zion 54:1-17
2. The Call to the World 55:1-13
Know the structures for 42:18-44:23:
Promises of Redemption and 44:24-53:12:
Agents of Redemption
See handout 40-66
Isaiah 54: The Rebuilt Zion
Key text: Isaiah 54:13, “All your children shall be taught by the Lord, and great shall be the peace of your children.”
Picked up in NT: John 6:44-45 and I Thess. 4:9-10
The Lord and his anointed one, glorious Zion
Important dates for Jeremiah
627 BC: Jeremiah’s commissioning as a prophet
586 BC: Destruction of the temple
627-562 BC (65 yrs.): From commission to release of Jehoiachin
628 BC: Josiah’s Reforms, Torah found in 621 BC
Possible meanings of "Jeremiah"
Purpose of Jeremiah
To inform the nation of Israel that they were going to be taken into the Babylonian Captivity for 70 years, but that afterwards God would bring them back to their land.
Basic Structure of Jeremiah
Structure is literary, not chronological
The focus and emphasis of the book is the full restoration of Jerusalem and Judah and specifically the new covenant made with the house of Israel and the house of Judah (Jer. 31:31-34)
Literary structure of Jeremiah
1. Introduction: Jeremiah’s Commission and his Two Visions (1)
2. Book 1: Oracles against Jerusalem (2-25)
3. First Biographical Interlude (26-29)
4. Book 2: The Book of Consolation (30-33): Restoration of Judah and Jerusalem
5. Second Biographical Interlude (34-45)
6. Book 3: Oracles Against the Nations (46-51)
7. Historical Appendix: The Fall of Jerusalem (52)
Chiastic structure of Jeremiah
A Introduction: Jeremiah’s Commission and his Two Visions (1)
B Oracles against Jerusalem (2-25)
C First Biographical Interlude (26-29) D The Book of Consolation (30-33)
C1 Second Biographical Interlude (34-45)
B1 Oracles Against the Nations (46-51)
A1 Historical Appendix: The Fall of Jerusalem (52)
The Message of Jeremiah 1-10
A. Jeremiah’s Call as a Prophet to the Nations (1)
B. Israel’s Guilt and Punishment (2:1-6:30)
1. Poems which Lament over Covenant Disloyalty of Judah
2. The Coming Judgment (4:5-6:30)
C. Temple Sermon (7:1-10:25)
Conclusions from Jeremiah 1-10ish
Jeremiah was to be comforted by God’s promise to watch over his word. With Christ’s coming, the prophetic word has been made more sure. How does this truth effect the way we preach and teach Jeremiah and the rest of the Scriptures?
When we examine our lives, are we depending on the grace and promises of God while perverting justice and righteousness? (cp. Rom. 6:1-2; Heb. 2:1-4).
How to Distinguish False Prophecy?
1. Consistency (Deut 13:1-5)
2. Subordination to the Mosaic Pattern (Deut 18:15)
3. Fulfillment (Deut 18:22)
Promises of the new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31-34)
God will “cut” (i.e. initiate) this new covenant.
“New” in the sense of new in time and fresh covenant.
Made with “Israel.”
Better than Sinai covenant.
-Torah written on the heart
-I will be their God and they will be my people
-All will know Yahweh
-Full forgiveness of sins
Know The Second Pass on the New Covenant
in Jeremiah 321
Jeremiah handout page 5
Who is the prophet? Five-fold typology
1. The prophet has an intense experience of the deity.
2. The prophet speaks or writes in a distinctive way.
3. The prophet acts in a particular social setting.
4. The prophet possesses distinctive personal qualities, for example, charisma.
5. The prophet is an intermediary.
titles for intermediary in the OT
A. The intermediary as “seer” (ro’eh) (Samuel; provides omniscient knowledge to humans)
B. The intermediary as Man of God (Elijah and Elisha; personifies the power of God)
C. Visionaries or seers (khozeh) (Micaiah ben Imlah, Isaiah(?), Zechariah(?); They experienced visions)
D. Prophet as declaimer or messenger (navi’) (Most are called Prophets; gives messages and makes oral declarations)
-Report of Sending
-Introduction to the commissioning
-Commissioning of the messenger
-Messenger formula ("Thus says your servant Jacob")
events of sending messenger
Interpreting the Prophets
I. Calling the People Back to the Covenant
II. The End of the Covenant, Judgment, and Restoration
III. Exposition by Resumptive Technique
IV. Purpose of Oracles Against the Foreign Nations (Deut 32)
Calling the People Back to the Covenant
A. Deuteronomy as Context for Prophetic Messages
B. Parable of the Vineyard (Isa 5:1-7)
C. The Bad Fruit that the Vineyard produced results in 6 woes (8-30).
1. Woe to those who join house to house (8-10).
2. The story of Naboth’s vineyard (1 Kings 21)
The End of the Covenant, Judgment, and Restoration
A. Major Prophets as Writing Prophets
B. Role of Future Predictions in the Writing Prophets
1. Yahweh Distinguished from the idols
2. Explanation of the Exile
3. Plan of Deliverance requires Time
4. Demonstrates the Sovereignty of Yahweh
5. Proves Trustworthiness of Yahweh
Purpose of Oracles Against the Foreign Nations (Deut 32)
1. Negative: In response to their arrogant idolatry, YHWH judges these nations.
2. Positive: YHWH judges these nations in order to fulfill the Abrahamic Covenant.