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Flashcards in MIDTERM1 Deck (70):
1

What is personality?

the unique, relatively enduring internal and external aspects of a person's character that influence behavior

2

Study of consciousness

personality is too multidimensional to study

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Study of behavior

personality is what can be seen and observed

4

Study of unconsciousness

personality is the whole person; both conscious and unconscious

5

Study of scientific

personality is what can be studied using scientific methods

6

Assessment in personality study

used for diagnosis, education, counseling and research

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Principles of measurement

reliability-consistency, validity-measure what is intended

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Independent variable

variable manipulated

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Dependent variable

variable measured

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Experimental group

exposed to treatment

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Control group

no treatment

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Correlation method

between two variables, ranges from -1.00 and +1.00

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What is a theory?

broad range to help us understand, test theory using hypothesis

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Correlation does not imply

causation

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What is an expensive study?

case study

16

Freud

unconscious conscious continuem

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Two major drives

sex and aggression

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id

nature

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super ego

nurture

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Psychosexual stages

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

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Jung

mythology

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Alder's goal

better ourselves

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Conscious

experiences in awareness, limited aspect of personality

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Preconscious

storehouse of memories and thoughts, can call into consciousness

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Unconscious

home of the instincts, major driving power behind all behaviors

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Id

pleasure principle, primary process thinking (NO RULES)

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Ego

reality principle secondary process thinking
(IN BETWEEN)

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Superego

internalized values, conscience, ego-ideal
(RULES)

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Defense mechanisms

ego strategies to defend against anxiety

30

Repression

unconscious removal from awareness

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Denial

denying the existence of a threat

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Reaction formation

expression of the opposite id impulse

33

Projection

attribute a disturbing impulse to someone else

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Regression

retreat to an earlier period of life

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Rationalization

reinterpreting behavior

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Displacement

shifting id impulses to a suitable object

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Sublimation

displacing id impulses into socially acceptable behaviors

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Fixation

lack of resolution, excessive frustration or gratification, portion of libido remains invested

39

Free association

saying whatever comes to mind

40

Dream analysis

interpreting unconscious content

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Catharsis

expressing emotion

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Manifest content

actual dream events

43

Resistances

blocks to expression

44

Latent content

symbolic meaning

45

Case study method

detailed history of individual

46

Libido

diffuse and general life energy, fuels the work of the psyche

47

Psyche

jung's term for personality

48

Opposition principle

conflict between opposing processes

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Equivalence principle

continuing redistribution of energy

50

Entropy principle

tendency toward balance and equilibrium

51

Ego

conscious aspect of psyche, selective about what is admitted into awareness

52

Attitudes of the psyche

extraversion-orientation toward external world and others and introversion-orientation toward one's own thoughts and feelings

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Psychological functions

ways of perceiving one's external and internal world

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Accepting functions

sensing and intuiting

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Evaluative functions

thinking and feeling

56

Archetypes

images of universal experiences in the collective unconscious

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Childhood

ego development, distinguish self from others

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Adolescence

consciousness dominant and focused on external reality

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Middle age

shift in focus, external to internal, balance unconscious and conscious

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Individuation

fulfillment of one's capacities to become an individual, integration of conscious and unconscious

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Inferiority feelings

source of human striving, normal condition of all people

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Compensation

motivation to overcome inferiority, may be real or imagined, function of environment

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Style of life

unique structure/pattern of striving, influenced by social environment

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Social interest

innate potential to cooperate to achieve goals

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Gemeinschaftsgefuhl

community feeling, focus on community interest

66

Birth order

1. first born child, 2.second born child, 3.youngest born child, 4.only child

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First born child

focus of attention, then dethroned, authoritarian

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Second born child

older sibling as pacesetter, competition may motivate, underachiever

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Youngest child

pet of the family, fast development to surpass others, high acheivers

70

Only child

remain the focus of attention, spend more time with adults, mature early