Flashcards in MidtermSci Deck (148):

1

## What is Science

### observation/explanation/testing/validation

1

## hypothesis

### formulation of an idea

2

## Scientific Law

### observations that can be repeated and are consistent/not necessarily unbreakable

2

## Scientific Principle

### more specific than a law but not always clearly

3

## Models

### covey ideas...assemble observations into transferable information

3

## Theory

### explanation that is widely accepted on the basis of extensive testing

4

## Non Science

### untestable and varied..art/religion/philosophy etc

4

## Psuedoscience

### using science in the realm of non-science...undermines the value of scientific inquiry... disregards valid evidence

5

## science can

### forward human development.quality of life. dispel fears.advise the use of resources.not solve all problems.a human endeavor

5

## length

### defined by how far light travels in a vacuum in a very short time

6

## mass

### defined by a platinum iridium cylinder at the international bureau of weights and measures in france

6

## time

### defined by the fluorescence frequency of cesium atom

7

## metrology

### study of measurements.start and end of science.strive to lower uncertainty

7

## significant digits

### degree of precision

8

## error

### range of observational accuracy

8

## scientific notation

### 10^6 means 1000000 so the 10 with 5 o's or 10 E 6

9

## Metic mass determined by

### international bureau of weights and measures in

9

## p

### density

10

## little v big V

### velocity/volume

10

## little a big A

### acceleration. area

11

## s

### speed

11

## m

### mass

12

## t

### time

12

## velocity

###
m/s

rate of change in distance over time

meters per second

13

## acceleration

###
m/s^2

rate of change in velocity

change in velocity/change in time

meters per second squared

13

## density

###
mass per unit volume

measured in kilograms per meter cubed

14

## pressure

###
force per unit area F/A

measured in kg/ms^2 or N/m^2

14

## force

###
Newton

1kgm/s^2

forces out of balance produces change

F=ma

15

## three arrows of time

###
hawking

Thermodynamic

Psychological

Cosmological

15

## thermodynamic-time

### direction in which disorder increases

16

## psychological-time

### direction in which we remember the past and not the future

16

## cosmological-time

### direction in which the universe expands or contracts

17

## time cycles revealed by

### sunrise noon sunset. position of sun. appearance of starts

17

## aztec calendar

### based on position of venus in sky

18

## stonehenge

### druid solar/lunar calendar

18

## seconds as SI unit

### defined by atomic vibrations

19

## used to help keep time with atomic clock

### leap seconds/year

19

## apparent solar day

### consecutive meridian crossings of the sun noon to noon

20

## tropical year

### interval between spring equinoxes

20

## month

###
linked to the phases of the moon

egyptians first 12 month solar year

21

## days for full moon

### 29.5 when it reaches line that passes through the sun earth and moon

21

## variables

###
observed changes

y dependent effect

x axis independent cause

22

## motion

###
change in position relative to some frame of reference over a period of time

Speed= displacement/elapsed time

ft(km)/ h(s)

22

## velocity

###
vector quantity

(due west at 80 km/h)

23

## arrows provide

### magnitude and direction

23

## scalars v vectors

###
speed is scalar

velocity is vector

vector x scalar=vector

24

## slope

### change in y / change in x

24

## Ways to accelerate

###
4 increase speed

slow down

change direction

change direction and speed

25

## types of forces

###
contact interaction

interaction at a distance

25

##
two forces act in same direction

directly opposing forces

balanced

###
add together

are subtracted

resultant is zero

26

## inertia

### in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

26

## galileo

### did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

27

## Newton first law of motion

###
every object stays at rest until acted upon

an object at constant velocity has a net force of zero

27

## Newton second law of motion

###
acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it

F=ma

Force = mass x acceleration

Newton 1kgm/s^2

28

## Weight

### w=mg

28

## little g

###
gravity due to acceleration

earth 9.8 m/s^2

29

## Newton third law of motion

### when two objects interact. the force on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object = and opposite reaction

29

## momentum

### p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

30

## law of conservation of momentum

###
in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same

ex. cue ball hits other ball...sum of momentum of both balls equals cue balls original momentum

30

## centripetal force

###
center directed force a=v^2/r

the smaller the radius. the greater the acceleration needed to maintain uniform circular motion

30

## gravity

###
a force

can accelerate objects

little g= earth's acceleration due to gravity 9.8m/s^2 32ft/s^2

acts on objects at all times

independent of any motion an object may have

30

## compound motion

### vertical horizontal inclined

31

## pressure

###
force applied over an area

Pa=pressure

N/m^2=Pa Pa=F/A

31

## Work

###
Joules=1 kgm2/s^2

w=Fd

requires a change in distance(a displacement)

no change in distance...no work done

32

## Power

###
Watts=1 kgm^2/s^3

P=W/time

the rate at which work is done

32

## Potential Energy

###
the ability to do work

=mgh

33

## Kinetic Energy

###
energy in motion

=PE

PE lost=KE gained

33

## Types of energy

### Mechanical Chemical Radiant Electrical Nuclear

34

## First law of Thermodynamics

### energy may be converted from one form to another but the total amount of energy is the same

34

## atoms

### small unit of matter

35

## elements

###
specific type of atom

atoms characterized by a unique number of protons to produce limited arrangement of electrons

35

## compounds

### combined atoms in a specific ratio

36

## molecules

### bound group of atoms...smallest fraction of matter that retains the characteristics of the substance

36

## Low to high energy in a state

###
solid liquid gas plasma

higher heat higher energy

37

## solids

###
atoms strongly bound to one another

bonding limits movement

37

## liquid

### limited bonding rapidly changing

38

## gas

###
very little bonding no form

kinetic movement/translation rotation vibration

38

## plasma

### no bonding made of charged ions of atoms

39

## how many atoms in a period

### 3 million across

39

## diffusion

###
gas distributed evenly thoughout the room through random movement

higher temp faster diffusion

40

## absolute zero

###
-273 degrees C

where energy is minimized

40

## External Energy

###
total kinetic and potental energy an object has because of its speed, position etc

does not depend on the temperature of the object

41

## Internal Energy

###
total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules that make up the object

kinetic energy pulsing twisting rotating of molecules or atoms

depends on temperature density volume pressure

41

## difference between heat and temperature

###
temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy only

heat is a measure of the total internal energy including the energy associated with the bonds between atoms

42

## Heat

###
heat is energy

a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed by a body or transferred from one body to another

heating and cooling-direction of energy transfer...into or out of a body

Joules...measured in

42

## Specific heat

###
related to the internal structure and bonding

different materials require different amounts of heat input to raise their temperatures a given amount

quantity of heat =Q

43

## heat capacity

### amount of energy required to raise a substances temperature by a given amount

43

## motion

###
change in position relative to some frame of reference over a period of time

Speed= displacement/elapsed time

ft(km)/ h(s)

44

## velocity

###
vector quantity

(due west at 80 km/h)

44

## velocity

###
vector quantity

(due west at 80 km/h)

45

## arrows provide

### magnitude and direction

45

## arrows provide

### magnitude and direction

46

## scalars v vectors

###
speed is scalar

velocity is vector

vector x scalar=vector

46

## scalars v vectors

###
speed is scalar

velocity is vector

vector x scalar=vector

47

## slope

### change in y / change in x

47

## slope

### change in y / change in x

48

## Ways to accelerate

###
4 increase speed

slow down

change direction

change direction and speed

48

## Ways to accelerate

###
4 increase speed

slow down

change direction

change direction and speed

49

## types of forces

###
contact interaction

interaction at a distance

49

## types of forces

###
contact interaction

interaction at a distance

50

##
two forces act in same direction

directly opposing forces

balanced

###
add together

are subtracted

resultant is zero

50

##
two forces act in same direction

directly opposing forces

balanced

###
add together

are subtracted

resultant is zero

51

## inertia

### in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

51

## inertia

### in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

52

## galileo

### did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

52

## galileo

### did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

53

## Newton first law of motion

### every object stays at rest until acted upon

53

## Newton first law of motion

###
every object stays at rest until acted upon

an object at constant velocity has a net force of zero

54

## Newton second law of motion

###
acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it

F=ma

Force = mass x acceleration

Newton 1kgm/s^2

54

## Newton second law of motion

###
acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it

F=ma

Force = mass x acceleration

Newton 1kgm/s^2

55

## Weight

### w=mg

55

## Weight

### w=mg

56

## little g

###
gravity due to acceleration

earth 9.8 m/s^2

56

## little g

###
gravity due to acceleration

earth 9.8 m/s^2

57

## Newton third law of motion

57

## Newton third law of motion

58

## momentum

### p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

58

## momentum

### p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

59

## law of conservation of momentum

### in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same

59

## law of conservation of momentum

###
in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same

ex. cue ball hits other ball...sum of momentum of both balls equals cue balls original momentum

60

## centripetal force

###
center directed force a=v^2/r

the smaller the radius. the greater the acceleration needed to maintain uniform circular motion

61

## gravity

###
a force

can accelerate objects

little g= earth's acceleration due to gravity 9.8m/s^2 32ft/s^2

acts on objects at all times

independent of any motion an object may have

62

## compound motion

### vertical horizontal inclined

63

## pressure

###
force applied over an area

Pa=pressure

N/m^2=Pa Pa=F/A

64

## Work

###
Joules=1 kgm2/s^2

w=Fd

requires a change in distance(a displacement)

no change in distance...no work done

65

## Power

###
Watts=1 kgm^2/s^3

P=W/time

the rate at which work is done

66

## Potential Energy

###
the ability to do work

=mgh

67

## Kinetic Energy

###
energy in motion

=PE

PE lost=KE gained

68

## Types of energy

### Mechanical Chemical Radiant Electrical Nuclear

69

## First law of Thermodynamics

### energy may be conberted from one form to another but the total amount of energy is the same

70

## atoms

### small unit of matter

71

## elements

###
specific type of atom

atoms characterized by a unique number of protons to produce limited arrangement of electrons

72

## compounds

### combined atoms in a specific ratio

73

## molecules

### bound group of atoms...smallest fraction of matter that retains the characteristics of the substance

74

## Low to high energy in a state

###
solid liquid gas plasma

higher heat higher energy

75

## solids

###
atoms strongly bound to one another

bonding limits movement

76

## liquid

### limited bonding rapidly changing

77

## gas

###
very little bonding no form

kinetic movement/translation rotation vibration

78

## plasma

### no bonding made of charged ions of atoms

79

## how many atoms in a period

### 3 million across

80

## diffusion

###
gas distributed evenly thoughout the room through random movement

higher temp faster diffusion

81

## absolute zero

###
-273 degrees C

where energy is minimized

82

## External Energy

###
total kinetic and potental energy an object has because of its speed, position etc

does not depend on the temperature of the object

83

## Internal Energy

###
total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules that make up the object

kinetic energy pulsing twisting rotating of molecules or atoms

depends on temperature density volume pressure

84

## difference between heat and temperature

###
temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy only

heat is a measure of the total internal energy including the energy associated with the bonds between atoms

85

## Heat

###
heat is energy

a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed by a body or transferred from one body to another

heating and cooling-direction of energy transfer...into or out of a body

Joules...measured in

86

## Specific heat

###
related to the internal structure and bonding

different materials require different amounts of heat input to raise their temperatures a given amount

quantity of heat =Q

87