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Flashcards in MidtermSci Deck (148):
1

What is Science

observation/explanation/testing/validation

1

hypothesis

formulation of an idea

2

Scientific Law

observations that can be repeated and are consistent/not necessarily unbreakable

2

Scientific Principle

more specific than a law but not always clearly

3

Models

covey ideas...assemble observations into transferable information

3

Theory

explanation that is widely accepted on the basis of extensive testing

4

Non Science

untestable and varied..art/religion/philosophy etc

4

Psuedoscience

using science in the realm of non-science...undermines the value of scientific inquiry... disregards valid evidence

5

science can

forward human development.quality of life. dispel fears.advise the use of resources.not solve all problems.a human endeavor

5

length

defined by how far light travels in a vacuum in a very short time

6

mass

defined by a platinum iridium cylinder at the international bureau of weights and measures in france

6

time

defined by the fluorescence frequency of cesium atom

7

metrology

study of measurements.start and end of science.strive to lower uncertainty

7

significant digits

degree of precision

8

error

range of observational accuracy

8

scientific notation

10^6 means 1000000 so the 10 with 5 o's or 10 E 6

9

Metic mass determined by

international bureau of weights and measures in

9

p

density

10

little v big V

velocity/volume

10

little a big A

acceleration. area

11

s

speed

11

m

mass

12

t

time

12

velocity

m/s
rate of change in distance over time
meters per second

13

acceleration

m/s^2
rate of change in velocity
change in velocity/change in time
meters per second squared

13

density

mass per unit volume
measured in kilograms per meter cubed

14

pressure

force per unit area F/A
measured in kg/ms^2 or N/m^2

14

force

Newton
1kgm/s^2
forces out of balance produces change
F=ma

15

three arrows of time

hawking
Thermodynamic
Psychological
Cosmological

15

thermodynamic-time

direction in which disorder increases

16

psychological-time

direction in which we remember the past and not the future

16

cosmological-time

direction in which the universe expands or contracts

17

time cycles revealed by

sunrise noon sunset. position of sun. appearance of starts

17

aztec calendar

based on position of venus in sky

18

stonehenge

druid solar/lunar calendar

18

seconds as SI unit

defined by atomic vibrations

19

used to help keep time with atomic clock

leap seconds/year

19

apparent solar day

consecutive meridian crossings of the sun noon to noon

20

tropical year

interval between spring equinoxes

20

month

linked to the phases of the moon
egyptians first 12 month solar year

21

days for full moon

29.5 when it reaches line that passes through the sun earth and moon

21

variables

observed changes
y dependent effect
x axis independent cause

22

motion

change in position relative to some frame of reference over a period of time
Speed= displacement/elapsed time
ft(km)/ h(s)

22

velocity

vector quantity
(due west at 80 km/h)

23

arrows provide

magnitude and direction

23

scalars v vectors

speed is scalar
velocity is vector
vector x scalar=vector

24

slope

change in y / change in x

24

Ways to accelerate

4 increase speed
slow down
change direction
change direction and speed

25

types of forces

contact interaction
interaction at a distance

25

two forces act in same direction
directly opposing forces
balanced

add together
are subtracted
resultant is zero

26

inertia

in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

26

galileo

did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

27

Newton first law of motion

every object stays at rest until acted upon
an object at constant velocity has a net force of zero

27

Newton second law of motion

acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it
F=ma
Force = mass x acceleration
Newton 1kgm/s^2

28

Weight

w=mg

28

little g

gravity due to acceleration
earth 9.8 m/s^2

29

Newton third law of motion

when two objects interact. the force on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object = and opposite reaction

29

momentum

p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

30

law of conservation of momentum

in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same
ex. cue ball hits other ball...sum of momentum of both balls equals cue balls original momentum

30

centripetal force

center directed force a=v^2/r
the smaller the radius. the greater the acceleration needed to maintain uniform circular motion

30

gravity

a force
can accelerate objects
little g= earth's acceleration due to gravity 9.8m/s^2 32ft/s^2
acts on objects at all times
independent of any motion an object may have

30

compound motion

vertical horizontal inclined

31

pressure

force applied over an area
Pa=pressure
N/m^2=Pa Pa=F/A

31

Work

Joules=1 kgm2/s^2
w=Fd
requires a change in distance(a displacement)
no change in distance...no work done

32

Power

Watts=1 kgm^2/s^3
P=W/time
the rate at which work is done

32

Potential Energy

the ability to do work
=mgh

33

Kinetic Energy

energy in motion
=PE
PE lost=KE gained

33

Types of energy

Mechanical Chemical Radiant Electrical Nuclear

34

First law of Thermodynamics

energy may be converted from one form to another but the total amount of energy is the same

34

atoms

small unit of matter

35

elements

specific type of atom
atoms characterized by a unique number of protons to produce limited arrangement of electrons

35

compounds

combined atoms in a specific ratio

36

molecules

bound group of atoms...smallest fraction of matter that retains the characteristics of the substance

36

Low to high energy in a state

solid liquid gas plasma
higher heat higher energy

37

solids

atoms strongly bound to one another
bonding limits movement

37

liquid

limited bonding rapidly changing

38

gas

very little bonding no form
kinetic movement/translation rotation vibration

38

plasma

no bonding made of charged ions of atoms

39

how many atoms in a period

3 million across

39

diffusion

gas distributed evenly thoughout the room through random movement
higher temp faster diffusion

40

absolute zero

-273 degrees C
where energy is minimized

40

External Energy

total kinetic and potental energy an object has because of its speed, position etc
does not depend on the temperature of the object

41

Internal Energy

total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules that make up the object
kinetic energy pulsing twisting rotating of molecules or atoms
depends on temperature density volume pressure

41

difference between heat and temperature

temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy only
heat is a measure of the total internal energy including the energy associated with the bonds between atoms

42

Heat

heat is energy
a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed by a body or transferred from one body to another
heating and cooling-direction of energy transfer...into or out of a body
Joules...measured in

42

Specific heat

related to the internal structure and bonding
different materials require different amounts of heat input to raise their temperatures a given amount
quantity of heat =Q

43

heat capacity

amount of energy required to raise a substances temperature by a given amount

43

motion

change in position relative to some frame of reference over a period of time
Speed= displacement/elapsed time
ft(km)/ h(s)

44

velocity

vector quantity
(due west at 80 km/h)

44

velocity

vector quantity
(due west at 80 km/h)

45

arrows provide

magnitude and direction

45

arrows provide

magnitude and direction

46

scalars v vectors

speed is scalar
velocity is vector
vector x scalar=vector

46

scalars v vectors

speed is scalar
velocity is vector
vector x scalar=vector

47

slope

change in y / change in x

47

slope

change in y / change in x

48

Ways to accelerate

4 increase speed
slow down
change direction
change direction and speed

48

Ways to accelerate

4 increase speed
slow down
change direction
change direction and speed

49

types of forces

contact interaction
interaction at a distance

49

types of forces

contact interaction
interaction at a distance

50

two forces act in same direction
directly opposing forces
balanced

add together
are subtracted
resultant is zero

50

two forces act in same direction
directly opposing forces
balanced

add together
are subtracted
resultant is zero

51

inertia

in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

51

inertia

in the absence of an unbalanced force an object persists in its state of motion at rest

52

galileo

did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

52

galileo

did first scientific observational and thought experiments on gravity

53

Newton first law of motion

every object stays at rest until acted upon

53

Newton first law of motion

every object stays at rest until acted upon
an object at constant velocity has a net force of zero

54

Newton second law of motion

acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it
F=ma
Force = mass x acceleration
Newton 1kgm/s^2

54

Newton second law of motion

acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it
F=ma
Force = mass x acceleration
Newton 1kgm/s^2

55

Weight

w=mg

55

Weight

w=mg

56

little g

gravity due to acceleration
earth 9.8 m/s^2

56

little g

gravity due to acceleration
earth 9.8 m/s^2

57

Newton third law of motion

when two objects interact. the force on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object = and opposite reaction

57

Newton third law of motion

when two objects interact. the force on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the other object = and opposite reaction

58

momentum

p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

58

momentum

p=mv mass of an object times its velocity

59

law of conservation of momentum

in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same

59

law of conservation of momentum

in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a group of interacting objects remains the same
ex. cue ball hits other ball...sum of momentum of both balls equals cue balls original momentum

60

centripetal force

center directed force a=v^2/r
the smaller the radius. the greater the acceleration needed to maintain uniform circular motion

61

gravity

a force
can accelerate objects
little g= earth's acceleration due to gravity 9.8m/s^2 32ft/s^2
acts on objects at all times
independent of any motion an object may have

62

compound motion

vertical horizontal inclined

63

pressure

force applied over an area
Pa=pressure
N/m^2=Pa Pa=F/A

64

Work

Joules=1 kgm2/s^2
w=Fd
requires a change in distance(a displacement)
no change in distance...no work done

65

Power

Watts=1 kgm^2/s^3
P=W/time
the rate at which work is done

66

Potential Energy

the ability to do work
=mgh

67

Kinetic Energy

energy in motion
=PE
PE lost=KE gained

68

Types of energy

Mechanical Chemical Radiant Electrical Nuclear

69

First law of Thermodynamics

energy may be conberted from one form to another but the total amount of energy is the same

70

atoms

small unit of matter

71

elements

specific type of atom
atoms characterized by a unique number of protons to produce limited arrangement of electrons

72

compounds

combined atoms in a specific ratio

73

molecules

bound group of atoms...smallest fraction of matter that retains the characteristics of the substance

74

Low to high energy in a state

solid liquid gas plasma
higher heat higher energy

75

solids

atoms strongly bound to one another
bonding limits movement

76

liquid

limited bonding rapidly changing

77

gas

very little bonding no form
kinetic movement/translation rotation vibration

78

plasma

no bonding made of charged ions of atoms

79

how many atoms in a period

3 million across

80

diffusion

gas distributed evenly thoughout the room through random movement
higher temp faster diffusion

81

absolute zero

-273 degrees C
where energy is minimized

82

External Energy

total kinetic and potental energy an object has because of its speed, position etc
does not depend on the temperature of the object

83

Internal Energy

total kinetic and potential energy of the molecules that make up the object
kinetic energy pulsing twisting rotating of molecules or atoms
depends on temperature density volume pressure

84

difference between heat and temperature

temperature is a measure of the internal kinetic energy only
heat is a measure of the total internal energy including the energy associated with the bonds between atoms

85

Heat

heat is energy
a measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed by a body or transferred from one body to another
heating and cooling-direction of energy transfer...into or out of a body
Joules...measured in

86

Specific heat

related to the internal structure and bonding
different materials require different amounts of heat input to raise their temperatures a given amount
quantity of heat =Q

87

heat capacity

amount of energy required to raise a substances temperature by a given amount