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Flashcards in Mineralization Mechanisms 1 Deck (22):
1

Geology:

_____ deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ___ bodies or “___”

Usually made by hydrothermal.

Need incredibly ___ conditions. High heat and high P. This doesn’t work in the body.

Geology: Hydrothermal deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or “lodes” Usually made by hydrothermal. Need incredibly harsh conditions. High heat and high P. This doesn’t work in the body.

2

Diamond formation is an example of _____ ___ ____

 • Comprised entirely of ____molecules

• No external molecule is required to ____ the formation

• __ ___ and ___ ____

Diamond formation is an example of nonbiologically induced mineralization • Comprised entirely of inorganic molecules • No external molecule is required to initiate the formation • High Pressures and High Temperatures

3

•____-only substance

• Requires intense ___ and ____ to form

• No ____ molecules associated with the process

• Carbon-only substance • Requires intense heat and pressure to form • No organic molecules associated with the process

4

Biomineralization

“The “bio” implies that the high __ ___ (extreme temperature, pressure, and concentrations) required to ____ the mineral by strict ____ means, is bypassed by the intervention of ____ that alter the ____ reaction pathways.”

Instead of high Temperatures and Pressures, we have ____ serving to lower the activation E

Biomineralization “The “bio” implies that the high activation energy (extreme temperature, pressure, and concentrations) required to producethe mineral by strict inorganic means, is bypassed by the intervention of biopolymers that alter the crystallization reaction pathways.” Instead of high Temperatures and Pressures, we have biomolecules serving to lower the activation E

5

Biologically Induced

• Coccospheres are capable of precise ____ of____ and ____ of their own biomineralization

• Coccosphere ____  act to ___ mineralization, which lead to accumulations of ___ ____materials of ___ ___.

Biologically Induced • Coccospheres are capable of precise control of nucleation and growth of their own biomineralization • Coccosphere polysaccharides act to direct mineralization, which lead to accumulations of amorphous calcified materials of calcium carbonate.

6

Coccospheres are tiny ____s with ____ mineral____ around them

Here we will control when it  ___s and ___ ___ it grows.

Coccosphere has a _____.

These polysaccharides act to direct mineralization

It will make a mineralized tissue, but that material is very ____, it is not ____ or patterned.

Its making its shell. If you put a lot of these guys together you end up with the ___ ___ of ___.

Looks white chalky. __ _ ___ of organic material

Coccospheres are tiny organisms with Ca mineral shells around them Here we will control when it starts and how much it grows. Coccosphere has a polysaccharide. These polysaccharides act to direct mineralization It will make a mineralized tissue, but that material is very amorphous, it is not regular or patterned. Its making its shell. If you put a lot of these guys together you end up with the white cliffs of clover. Looks white chalky. Not a lot of organic material

7

Oceanic Seamounts:

• Coccolithophores are also responsible, in part, for the continued growth of ___ ___ rising from the ocean floor.

• They are formed by 2 mechanisms

o 1)___ ____ of mineral deposits

o 2)Action of ____

• In area with ___ O2, they make their mineral using their ____ to initiate that

• Then they themselves, because they are a mineral (have mineral coating around them), will act as a ____ for more mineral to deposit here • This is still ____

Oceanic Seamounts: • Coccolithophores are also responsible, in part, for the continued growth of submarine mountains rising from the ocean floor. • They are formed by 2 mechanisms o 1) Natural Accumulation of mineral deposits o 2)Action of Coccolithophores • In area with low O2, they make their mineral using their polysaccharide to initiate that • Then they themselves, because they are a mineral (have mineral coating around them), will act as an nucleator for more mineral to deposit here • This is still amorphous

8

Organic Matrix-mediated (biologically controlled)→ What we see in human body

• ____ is composed of ___ ___ (____) layers with ___ ____ (___ ,___, ___) in between

• The organic molecules will ___/___ the ___ and ___ of the crystalline structures

• The combination of the ___ ___ crystal lattice and the __ __ provides the___, ___, and __ of the pearl

Organic Matrix-mediated (biologically controlled)→ What we see in human body • Nacre is composed of calcium carbonate (aragonite) layers with organic macromolecules (proteins, lipids, proteolipids) in between • The organic molecules will direct/limit the size and shape of the crystalline structures • The combination of the highly ordered crystal lattice and the organic filler provides the luster, iridescence, and strength of the pearl

9

• Biological control allows ___ in the tissues

• We have added organic molecules into the mix

• To culture a pearl, you stick the seed in there, you put grain of ___, so oyster will lay something down around that

• Grain of sand: ____. Causes mineralization right around it

o Could also be something that occurs naturally

• Value of pearl based on color, iridescence, shape→ requires ____of how its made

• Iridescence of pearl made bc you have ___ ___ that are incorporated with it

• This is extremely ____!

• Biological control allows order in the tissues • We have added organic molecules into the mix • To culture a pearl, you stick the seed in there, you put grain of sand, so oyster will lay something down around that • Grain of sand: Nucleator. Causes mineralization right around it o Could also be something that occurs naturally • Value of pearl based on color, iridescence, shape→ requires regulation of how its made • Iridescence of pearl made bc you have organic molecules that are incorporated with it • This is extremely orderly!

10

Summary

• Mineralized substances = ___ ___ ___

• Biologically-induced = ___ ___e act as a __ to aid in s____ ____

• Biologically-controlled = __ ___s will act as ___ (___) and___/___ mineral growth

o Nucleator and control

Summary • Mineralized substances = no added molecules • Biologically-induced = added molecule act as a seed to aid in spontaneous mineralization • Biologically-controlled = added molecules will act as seeds (nucleators) and direct/limit mineral growth o Nucleator and control

11

-Mineralization: _____

-Biomineralization

• Biologically ____: Coccospheres and Seamounts → _____

• Biologically ____: Pearls→ ____

-Mineralization: Hydrothermal vents -Biomineralization • Biologically Induced: Coccospheres and Seamounts → not organized • Biologically controlled: Pearls→ organized

12

Things to Expect

• Mineralized tissues for bone and teeth are comprised of ___ AND_____ molecules

• Some of the organic molecules found in the tissues will have served to ___ and/or ____ the process of growth and mineralization

• The combination of inorganic and organic molecules give each tissue its ____ biological properties

Things to Expect • Mineralized tissues for bone and teeth are comprised of inorganic AND organic molecules • Some of the organic molecules found in the tissues will have served to initiate and/or regulate the process of growth and mineralization • The combination of inorganic and organic molecules give each tissue its unique biological properties

13

Compositions

Enamel: (____ substance)

____% Inorganic, __% Organic, ___% Water

Very strong.

Bone, Dentin & Cementum:

___% Inorganic, ___% Organic (Proteins), ___% Water

Developing Enamel: (____ substance)

___% Inorganic, ca. ___% Protein, ___% Water

Increase ____--> Stronger

 

Compositions

Enamel: (hardest substance)

96-97% Inorganic, <1% Organic, 2-3% Water

Very strong.

Bone, Dentin & Cementum:

70% Inorganic, 18% Organic (Proteins), 12% Water

Developing Enamel: (softest substance)

50-60% Inorganic, ca. 30% Protein, 10-20% Water

Increase inorganicà Stronger

 

14

Inorganic Substance

• _____

Unit structure = ____

• Central ___ ion

• ___ ions surrounding OH o Like 2 triangles around OH

• Outside of that are the ____

• To create this we wil need source of ____ and_____

Size of the crystal lattice

• Tissue apatite crystals are _____ = ___ in size

• Apatite Crystalites in enamel are much ____ than in bone,dentin, and cementum;

• Enamel: 25nm x 50nm x300nm o Larger, hence its strength • Dentin: 5 nmx 20nm x20nm • (Refers to a x b x c Axes).

Inorganic Substance • Hydroxyapatite • Unit structure = Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 • Central OH ion • Ca ions surrounding OH o Like 2 triangles around OH • Outside of that are the PO4 • To create this we wil need source of Ca and PO4 Size of the crystal lattice • Tissue apatite crystals are microcrystalline = 1μm in size • Apatite Crystalites in enamel are much larger than in bone,dentin, and cementum; • Enamel: 25nm x 50nm x300nm o Larger, hence its strength • Dentin: 5 nmx 20nm x20nm • (Refers to a x b x c Axes).

15

Enamel is not actually ___

It is actually almost ___ and quite translucent.

That has to do with what its made out of and the ____of crystals itself. → it’s extremely orderly

If crystals were not orderly, and crystals were ___ ___ other randomly, it wouldn’t be so clear bc each time it crossed, you would have ____of light as it ____ thru.

We are actually looking at color of ___ showing thru the enamel.

This makes it hard to do crowns because have to make it look like color is coming from within

Enamel is not actually white. It is actually almost clear and quite translucent. That has to do with what its made out of and the orderliness of crystals itself. → it’s extremely orderly If crystals were not orderly, and crystals were crossing each other randomly, it wouldn’t be so clear bc each time it crossed, you would have blocking of light as it refracts thru. We are actually looking at color of dentin showing thru the enamel. This makes it hard to do crowns because have to make it look like color is coming from within

16

Have to look at layers of it when doing crowns

Build ___ ___ of ceramic first.

This will determine the____r.

Build it up and then cut back. Make a slice. You are trying to make a gradual cut back to add __ ___ of enamel on top

Have to look at layers of it when doing crowns Build dentin layer of ceramic first. This will determine the color. Build it up and then cut back. Make a slice. You are trying to make a gradual cut back to add clear layer of enamel on top

17

If you are going to do a composite Try to make cut at ___ ___ to make it more clear

If you are going to do a composite Try to make cut at incisal edge to make it more clear

18

Substitutions

• Carbonate substitutes for ____% of the ____ in ___/___mineral.

Known as ____ ____, which is ____ soluble than hydroxyapatite

• Unit cell formula is: o ______________ o ___ ____

• In the body we have a ton of carbonate running around • 3-6 % of hydroxyapatite has carbonate instead of the phosphate o Gives it some different properties

Substitutions • Carbonate substitutes for 3-6% of the phosphates in bone/dentin mineral. Known as carbonate apatite, which is more soluble than hydroxyapatite • Unit cell formula is: o Ca10(PO4)6-x(CO3)x(OH)2 o Carbonate Apatite • In the body we have a ton of carbonate running around • 3-6 % of hydroxyapatite has carbonate instead of the phosphate o Gives it some different properties

19

What is the function of hydroxyapatite?

• Used as a _____ (scaffold?) for ____ molecules

• _____ factor = acts as a framework for ____ ____, but cannot ____ ___ ____ on its own

o If you put HAP in muscle, it will ___ form bone!

• Adds ____, but also provides____

o If I took enamel (primarily HAP) off of the tooth and dropped it on the floor, it would ____

 Its strong but will break

o If I took bone (HAP+ organic molecules) it probably wont shatter

o Higher HAP→ ____r strength and____ brittleness

What is the function of hydroxyapatite? • Used as a framework (scaffold?) for organic molecules • Osteoconductive factor = acts as a framework for structural support, but cannot induce bone formation on its own o If you put HAP in muscle, it will not form bone! • Adds strength, but also provides brittleness o If I took enamel (primarily HAP) off of the tooth and dropped it on the floor, it would shatter. Its strong but will break o If I took bone (HAP+ organic molecules) it probably wont shatter o Higher HAP→ Higher strength and higher brittleness

20

Organic molecules are present so they must be doing something

18% organic molecules in bone, dentin and cementum

The composition of the organic is going to be

• ____ o Major protein that you see o Majority of that is ___ ___

 • ______

• _____ Proteins o Act as ____ and ____ o ____ in number but are very important

Organic molecules are present so they must be doing something 18% organic molecules in bone, dentin and cementum The composition of the organic is going to be • Collagen o Major protein that you see o Majority of that is Type I • Mucopolysaccharides • Noncollagenous Proteins o Act as nucleators and directors o Small in number but are very important

21

Organic molecules

 

Organic molecules • Type I collagens • Other collagens

• Proteoglycans: biglycan, decorin

• Glycoproteins: osteonectin, thrombospondin

• Sialoproteins: osteopontin, bone sialoprotein

• Fibronectin

• Osteocalcin (bone gla protein)

22

How do the organic matrix components and the inorganic apatite interact to create a mineralized tissue?

• Recruit ____ , build a ____, gather the right _____s, ____ and grow regulated _____ (HAP is one type of scaffold)

How do the organic matrix components and the inorganic apatite interact to create a mineralized tissue? • Recruit players, build a scaffold, gather the right ingredients, nucleate and grow regulated crystals (HAP is one type of scaffold)