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fundamentals of nutrition > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (84):
1

where are minerals found?

soil and rock of earth

2

how much of body weight it mineral matter?

4-5% (mist in skeleton)

3

where are minerals present in body?

tissues, enzymes, organs, blood, some vitamins

4

how do we obtain minerals?

through diet

5

are minerals difficult to absorb?

yes, and there is more competition for uptake between minerals

6

75% of all minerals in our body are... ?

calcium and phosphorus

7

what are minerals essential to?

physical and mental health

8

do minerals provide energy and calories?

no, but they assist in production of energy

9

which minerals help to regulate fluid and acid balance in the body?

sodium, potassium and chloride

10

what do minerals help in, in the body?

nerve transmission
muscle contraction
cell permeability
blood and tissue formation

11

why is it important to get a full spectrum of minerals?

minerals absorb in lower amounts and many compete with each other

12

what is the healthiest approach to obtaining optimum mineral levels?

diet of whole foods

13

what are the 4 categories of minerals?

macrominerals
microminerals
possibly essential trace minerals
toxic minerals and heavy metals

14

what are the macrominerals?

calcium
chloride
potassium
sulfur
sodium
phosphorus
magnesium

15

what are the microminerals?

chromium
cobalt
copper
molybdenum
iodine
iron
manganese
selenium
silicon
zinc

16

what are the possibly essential trace minerals?

boron
fluoride
lithium
nickel
vanadium

17

what are the toxic minerals and heavy metals?

aluminum
arsenic
cadmium
lead
mercury

18

what are electrolytes?

ionized constituents of a living cell, blood, and organic matter

19

what macrominerals are electrolytes?

calcium
magnesium
potassium
sodium
chloride

20

what are the antioxidants?

A, C, E, zinc and selenium

21

which minerals have reduced absorption when there is too much calcium?

magnesium
phosphorus
zinc
manganese

22

which mineral is needed in growth, maintenance and repair of tissues and cells and for the production of DNA and RNA?

phosphorus

23

which minerals build strong bones and teeth?

calcium, phosphorus, fluoride

24

which mineral is most abundant in the body?

calcium

25

how much calcium is stored in bones?

99%

26

what is needed for calcium to be absorbed and used properly?

magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D and vitamin K

27

what factors affect calcium absorption?

age, stress, disease, and medicatins

28

which mineral is needed for the functions in blood, nerves, muscles, tissues, regulating heart and muscle contractions and nerve conduction

calcium

29

what can enhance absorption of calcium and what can decrease it?

carbohydrates enhance
coffee and smoking decrease

30

which mineral is part of the plaque that forms atherosclerosis?

calcium

31

which foods are rich in calcium?

cheese, dairy, tofu, dark leafy greens, almonds, cabbage, brewers yeas, broccoli

32

which mineral is a component in the production of hydrochloric acid?

chloride

33

which mineral is crucial to heart function and plays a key role in skeletal and smooth muscle contraction making it important for normal digestive and muscular function?

chloride

34

which mineral is helpful in allowing the liver to clear waste?

chloride

35

which mineral is known as the "anti-stress mineral?

magnesium

36

what foods are high in chloride?

table salt, sea salt, seaweed, olives and some vegetables

37

which mineral is essential in chlorophyll?

magnesium

38

what mineral does magnesium act along with in body functions

calcium

39

which mineral is needed for hundreds of enzymatic reactions in energy production?

magnesium

40

which mineral works with potassium to regulate water and pH balance?

sodium

41

is potassium an intracellular or extracellular electrolyte?

intracellular... potassium goes in cell, sodium goes out

42

where _____ goes, water goes

sodium

43

which mineral is an extracellular electrolyte?

sodium

44

which mineral is present in keratin, that is need for health of hair, skin, nails

sulfur

45

which sulfur bearing amino acids is sulfur present in?

methionine, cystine, taurine, and vitamins biotin and thiamin

46

which mineral is associated with blood sugar?

chromium

47

which mineral is a component of B12, which supports the RBC production and formation of myelin sheath around nerves

cobalt

48

which vitamin is associated with thyroid?

iodine

49

which mineral has a deficiency symptom of anemia?

iron

50

which mineral can be toxic because its excess cannot be excreted?

iron

51

which mineral helps absorb iron and vitamin C

copper

52

if taking zinc, which mineral should be supplemented with?

copper

53

which mineral acts as a coenzyme?

copper

54

what are the 2 types of iron?

heme (animals) and non-heme (plants)

55

which type of iron is more easily absorbed?

heme

56

which vitamin helps the absorption of non heme iron?

Vitamin C

57

which mineral is used for picky eaters, anorexia, increases taste and hydrochloric acid?

zinc

58

which mineral is associated with bones?

boron

59

Which mineral is associated with connective tissue?

Silicon

60

Which trace mineral is used to treat bipolar and depression?

Lithium

61

If there are high amounts of aluminum what can it be a precursor to?

Alzheimer's and other brain senility syndromes

62

Which 4 minerals can chelation be used on to help with toxicity?

Aluminum, arsenic, lead, mercury

63

What toxic mineral levels increase with age?

Cadmium

64

What vitamins and minerals help eliminate cadmium from body?

Iron, copper and vitamin C

65

What is most common toxic metal ?

Lead

66

What toxic minerals are a neurotoxin that affects brain and nerve function and are also a immunosuppressant

Lead and mercury

67

What sulfur bearing amino acids remove lead

Methionine and cysteine

68

What are detox methods of mercury!

Vitamin C, selenium and fiber

69

What do toxic minerals do to the body?

Affect metabolic enzymes, brain, nervous system and many other body functions

70

Which mineral is associated with hemoglobin and is an oxygen carried ?

Iron

71

Which minerals are metalloenzymes ?

Manganese and zinc

72

Which mineral is associated with lipid metabolism ?

Vanadium

73

Which mineral is important in detoxification process?

Sulfur

74

What % of magnesium is in our bones and teeth?

65%

75

Chloride is found in ______ fluid?

Extracellular

76

Which mineral is a big part of bodies detoxification process?

Sulfur

77

Which amino acid has an odor?

Sulfur

78

Which mineral does phosphorus compete with?

Calcium

79

A SAD diet contains _____ phosphorus and _____ calcium ?

Too much , too little

80

What is the term for elevated potassium levels?

Hyperkalemia

81

Which mineral can help with pernicious anemia?

Cobalt

82

Which mineral is Wilson's disease associated with?

Copper

83

Which vitamin works synergistically with vitamin E?

Selenium

84

Which mineral interferes with copper absorption ?

Zinc