mini exam 3 chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in mini exam 3 chapter 6 Deck (46):
1

Light from the right side of the world strikes the left side of the retina

true

2

An object's location, color, and movement are all processed in the same part of the visual cortex.

.

3

According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by

.

4

In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____

biopolar cells

5

Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features

true

6

Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the

.

7

the bipolar cells send their messages to ____, located closer to the center of the eye.

ganglion cells

8

Light is focused as it enters through which of the following structures?

lens and cornea

9

The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?

ganglion cells

10

The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the:

blind spot.

11

Which of the following characterizes the fovea?

It has the greatest perception of detail.

12

What are the two kinds of receptors in the retina?

rods and cones

13

____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.

photopigments

14

Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to:

all-trans-retinal.

15

Most retinal cones are concentrated in the:

fovea

16

____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different wavelengths of light.

opsins; photopigments

17

Peripheral vision mainly depends upon:

rods

18

More than a century ago, researchers had evidence that the human retina contained three kinds of color-sensitive receptors. What was the basis of their evidence?

experiments on mixing colors of light together

19

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the basis for color vision?

three kinds of cones

20

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, the most important factor in determining the color we see is the:

relative activity of short, medium, and long wavelengths.

21

What is perceived when all types of cones are simultaneously and equally active?

white

22

At the level of rods and cones the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells the ____ theory seems to fit best.

trichromatic; opponent process

23

After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?

opponent-process theory

24

Color constancy is the ability to:

recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

25

Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the most common form of color vision deficiency.

red; green

26

The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially meet at the:

optic chiasm.

27

In humans the optic nerves from the two eyes follow what pathway?

Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm.

28

Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?

to the lateral geniculate

29

The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the:

thalamus

30

Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic chiasm would result in blindness in ____.

left eye

31

In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible for lateral inhibition?

horizontal cells

32

Horizontal cells receive their input from ____; they send output to ____.

rods and cones; bipolar cells

33

While light is striking a visual receptor, light begins also to strike the receptor next to it. What effect will this additional light have on the response of the first cell?

inhibition

34

The receptive field of a receptor is the:

point in space from which light strikes the receptor.

35

Which ganglion cells, if any, are located mostly in or near the fovea?

parvocellular

36

The ability to detect movement better than color in our peripheral vision is largely due to:

magnocellular neurons in the periphery.

37

Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from:

bipolar cells that receive input from cones.

38

Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area of the cerebral cortex?

occipital lobe

39

The primary visual cortex sends its information:

to area V2.

40

The primary visual cortex is also known as the:

striate cortex.

41

Blindsight refers to:

the ability to localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field.

42

Within the cerebral cortex, the pathway in the visual system responsible for color information also seems to be responsible for what other information?

brightness

43

Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:

movement.

44

What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?

bar in a particular orientation

45

Which cell responds most strongly to a stimulus moving perpendicular to its axis?

complex

46

Children with strabismus fail to develop :

.