mini Quiz- Late 18th Century And 19th Century Health And Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in mini Quiz- Late 18th Century And 19th Century Health And Medicine Deck (70):
1

What year did Edward jenner test his vaccination for small pox

1796

2

When was the first census in Britain

1801

3

When was the first cholera epidemic in Britain

1831-32

4

When was the first public health act

1848

5

Who and when was the first use of antiseptic in surgery

In 1867, lister is the first to use antiseptic in surgery

6

When was the 2nd public health act

1875

7

Was the germ theory conducted (time period)

1860-1864

8

Who was Louis Pasteur

French microbiologist/chemist who argued that micro-organisms were responsible for disease

9

What is the germ theory

Many diseases are caused by the presence and actions of specific microorganisms within the body

10

Why was the germ theory discovery made

The beer industry had asked Pasteur why their beer was going sour

11

How was germ theory proven

Using swan necked flasks to trap different air from various places to see how bacteria and microbes grew, compared it to air from alps (purest and cleanest air) to compare to dirtier air.
Also used liquids such as beer, wine and milk to test his experiments.

12

Who was Robert Koch and what did he do/discover

A German microbiologist, he invented a way to stain bacteria so it was easier to see them under a microscope. This allowed him to identity which bacteria/microorganisms caused disease he and compared good and bad Bacteria.

13

Which diseases was Robert Koch able to identify with his discovery

Septicaemia- 1878
TB- 1882
cholera-1883

14

How did Robert Koch prove his point

By looking at bacteria growing in different conditions, he was able to use a dye that highlighted the bad backer from the good bacteria. As a result his work was more easily proven as people could physically see the colours and microorganisms

15

Who was paul ehrlich and what did he do/discover

A German physician who initially worked for Koch and used staining techniques to study blood cells and then worked on immunity, developing an anti-diphtheria serum

16

What did Paul ehrlichs work on chemotherapy lead him to

Led him to the idea of magic bullets, that would target specific organisms in the body. He developed Salvarsan as a treatment for syphillis.

17

What did most medicines contain in 19th century

Alcohol and opium

18

What is brain salt an example of

An ailment that promised to cure multiple things (sea sickness, head aches, sleeplessness and indigestion) for those who couldn't afford a doctor

19

What book was published in 1961

Mrs Beetons, "the book of household management"
Eg- recommends every household should have opium powders, laudanum to treat small ailments

20

What did Elizabeth Garrett Anderson do?

In 1865 she became the first woman to have an official medical profession and training.
Set up her own practice, included access for poor

21

What did Sophia Jex- Blake do?

3rd female doctor in country, opened own surgery in Edinburgh in 1878

22

What did Florence nightingale do?

Wrote book called notes on nursing
Set up Britains first nurse training school in Britain at St Thomas hospital.
In the Crimean war- cleaned up hospital wards, drastically cut mortality rates from 40% to 2%

23

What is aseptic , anaesthetic and antiseptic technique

Aseptic- using practices and procedures to prevent contamination from pathogens- surgically clean or sterile
Anaesthetic-pain relief- numbing and unconsciousness
Antiseptic- infection, preventing it by cleaning open wounds- kills backfires inside living organisms

24

Blood loss In early 19th century and late 19th century

Early- lots of blood lost, bucket to catch ur and sawdust to absorb it.
Late- blood transfusions, some died but some lived, later developed the idea to match different blood types

25

How has aseptic/cleanliness improved by late 19th century

Rubber gloves introduced

26

How has anaesthetic (pain relief) improved over time?

Pre 19th century- none, alcohol, beating them up before hand and men holding them down
1830s- nitrous oxide
Late 19th century- chloroform- try riskier operations and more time

27

When was penicillin invented

1928

28

Who was Humphrey Davy and what did he do

Invented miner safety lamp and nitrous oxide- antiseptic

29

Who was James Simpson

A Scottish scientist who was famous for his work with anaesthetics during his operations, he discovered that chloroform was effective, after trying it out on himself and his friends

30

Who was Joseph lister

An English surgeon who pioneered antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid sprayed over the patient to keep infection at bay

31

When was the machine that sprayed carbolic acid invented

1871

32

How was surgical clothing introduced to surgery

William halsted in America started his team wearing surgical gloves because one of his nurses developed an allergic reaction to the carbolic spray

33

Who was the first British surgeon to wear gloves in an operation

Berkeley Moyniham in Leeds

34

Impact of British surgeon Berkeley moyniham

Always changed his clothes for surgical gowns before entering operating theatre

35

Why was public health limited before 1840

Industrialisation
Living conditions
Over crowding
Lack of knowledge
Government didn't get involved
Religious beliefs

36

Where did cholera originate from

Bengal, slowly spread through trade routes

37

When were the cholera outbreaks

1832
1848/9

38

What caused the cholera outbreaks

Dirty water, no sewage systems- germs in drinking water

39

What was believed to have cause the cholera outbreaks

Miasma, had air/smells

40

Who were less likely to be victims to cholera

Men who drank beer rather than water hadn't been victims

41

How many people died from the first cholera outbreak

1831-1832 = 50,000 people

42

How many people died from 2nd cholera outbreaks

1848-60,00 people

43

How many people died from the 1854 cholera outbreak

1854- 20,000

44

Where was the first cholera outbreak

East London

45

What did john snow do

In 1854 over 700 people died in his locality. Snow carefully mapped the location of each death and discovered that they all collected water from broad street pump. He removed the pump and forced people to drink from somewhere else. Immediately the disease abated from broad street. It was later discovered that a chess pit less than a metre away from the pump was leaking dirty water into the supply

46

What did Edwin Chadwick do in 1847

Linked poor living conditions with disease and life expectancy, he argued for an urgent need to improve living conditions. Set up clean party in 1844 and pushed government into starting action on improving conditions in towns

47

What did the first public health act do

Created central board of health
, but had limited powers- lack of government and financial support, and no money.
It allowed councils to improve conditions of towns if they wished to

48

What did the second public health act do

Was compulsory= more power, local councils were forced to provide clean water, appoint medical offices of health and sanitary inspectors.
It's known as the great clean up and the act covered sewage- cover sewers, drains, water, housing and disease, looking after slaughter houses to prevent contamination

49

Name to other disease that were around at the time

Typhus& small pox

50

What disease spread in Lincoln in 1905

Typhoid epidemic of 1950

51

What were residents told to do in Lincoln and what does this tell us about Lincoln and public health

Boil drinking water to kill any germs that could be carrying typhoid fever, Lincoln cooperation took over waterworks has scientific knowledge to know that boiling would kill disease

52

What caused typhoid outbreak in 1905

Dirty infected water in surgery witham, animals such as pigs and dogs in the streets and overflowing privies

53

How did council try to control outbreak

Railway companies were brining water by train from nearby Newark and watering carts were delivering it round the city & council ordered a clean up of the town

54

When was the Black Death

1347

55

When was the great plague

1665

56

Who was Edward Jenner

Country doctor in Gloucestershire who saw that milkmaids who caught cowpox, never caught small pox. He thought that having cow pox gave them immunity to small pox.
He experimented on boy James Phillips and injected him with pus from a milk maid who had cow pox, and then gave him a dose of small pox and he was immune.

57

When was Edward Jenner awarded money for his work

1802 the government awarded him with 10,000 and a further 20,00 in 1807 when the royal collage of physicians confirmed how effective vaccination was

58

When was vaccination made compulsory

1853

59

When did the world health organisation declare small pox eradicated

1980

60

What queen died of smallpox and when

Queen Mary in 1694

61

Where did the first cholera outbreak occur in Britain

Sunderland

62

What was the population of Britain in 1801

16 million

63

What was the population of Britain in 1901

38 million

64

What is small pox

A contagious disease caused by variola virus

65

What 2 french words best some up government attitudes in 19th century

Laissez Faire

66

What practice/idea did Lady Mary Montagu bring back from a holiday in Istanbul in 1792

Innoculation

67

When did Louis Pasteur publish his theory

1861

68

In what year was the cure for small pox found

1798

69

Why did the public fear smallpox

It left people blind and scarred

70

When was carbolic acid first used

1865 by Lister