Flashcards in mini Quiz- Late 18th Century And 19th Century Health And Medicine Deck (70):
What year did Edward jenner test his vaccination for small pox
When was the first census in Britain
When was the first cholera epidemic in Britain
When was the first public health act
Who and when was the first use of antiseptic in surgery
In 1867, lister is the first to use antiseptic in surgery
When was the 2nd public health act
Was the germ theory conducted (time period)
Who was Louis Pasteur
French microbiologist/chemist who argued that micro-organisms were responsible for disease
What is the germ theory
Many diseases are caused by the presence and actions of specific microorganisms within the body
Why was the germ theory discovery made
The beer industry had asked Pasteur why their beer was going sour
How was germ theory proven
Using swan necked flasks to trap different air from various places to see how bacteria and microbes grew, compared it to air from alps (purest and cleanest air) to compare to dirtier air.
Also used liquids such as beer, wine and milk to test his experiments.
Who was Robert Koch and what did he do/discover
A German microbiologist, he invented a way to stain bacteria so it was easier to see them under a microscope. This allowed him to identity which bacteria/microorganisms caused disease he and compared good and bad Bacteria.
Which diseases was Robert Koch able to identify with his discovery
How did Robert Koch prove his point
By looking at bacteria growing in different conditions, he was able to use a dye that highlighted the bad backer from the good bacteria. As a result his work was more easily proven as people could physically see the colours and microorganisms
Who was paul ehrlich and what did he do/discover
A German physician who initially worked for Koch and used staining techniques to study blood cells and then worked on immunity, developing an anti-diphtheria serum
What did Paul ehrlichs work on chemotherapy lead him to
Led him to the idea of magic bullets, that would target specific organisms in the body. He developed Salvarsan as a treatment for syphillis.
What did most medicines contain in 19th century
Alcohol and opium
What is brain salt an example of
An ailment that promised to cure multiple things (sea sickness, head aches, sleeplessness and indigestion) for those who couldn't afford a doctor
What book was published in 1961
Mrs Beetons, "the book of household management"
Eg- recommends every household should have opium powders, laudanum to treat small ailments
What did Elizabeth Garrett Anderson do?
In 1865 she became the first woman to have an official medical profession and training.
Set up her own practice, included access for poor
What did Sophia Jex- Blake do?
3rd female doctor in country, opened own surgery in Edinburgh in 1878
What did Florence nightingale do?
Wrote book called notes on nursing
Set up Britains first nurse training school in Britain at St Thomas hospital.
In the Crimean war- cleaned up hospital wards, drastically cut mortality rates from 40% to 2%
What is aseptic , anaesthetic and antiseptic technique
Aseptic- using practices and procedures to prevent contamination from pathogens- surgically clean or sterile
Anaesthetic-pain relief- numbing and unconsciousness
Antiseptic- infection, preventing it by cleaning open wounds- kills backfires inside living organisms
Blood loss In early 19th century and late 19th century
Early- lots of blood lost, bucket to catch ur and sawdust to absorb it.
Late- blood transfusions, some died but some lived, later developed the idea to match different blood types
How has aseptic/cleanliness improved by late 19th century
Rubber gloves introduced
How has anaesthetic (pain relief) improved over time?
Pre 19th century- none, alcohol, beating them up before hand and men holding them down
1830s- nitrous oxide
Late 19th century- chloroform- try riskier operations and more time
When was penicillin invented
Who was Humphrey Davy and what did he do
Invented miner safety lamp and nitrous oxide- antiseptic
Who was James Simpson
A Scottish scientist who was famous for his work with anaesthetics during his operations, he discovered that chloroform was effective, after trying it out on himself and his friends
Who was Joseph lister
An English surgeon who pioneered antiseptic surgery using carbolic acid sprayed over the patient to keep infection at bay
When was the machine that sprayed carbolic acid invented
How was surgical clothing introduced to surgery
William halsted in America started his team wearing surgical gloves because one of his nurses developed an allergic reaction to the carbolic spray
Who was the first British surgeon to wear gloves in an operation
Berkeley Moyniham in Leeds
Impact of British surgeon Berkeley moyniham
Always changed his clothes for surgical gowns before entering operating theatre
Why was public health limited before 1840
Lack of knowledge
Government didn't get involved
Where did cholera originate from
Bengal, slowly spread through trade routes
When were the cholera outbreaks
What caused the cholera outbreaks
Dirty water, no sewage systems- germs in drinking water
What was believed to have cause the cholera outbreaks
Miasma, had air/smells
Who were less likely to be victims to cholera
Men who drank beer rather than water hadn't been victims
How many people died from the first cholera outbreak
1831-1832 = 50,000 people
How many people died from 2nd cholera outbreaks
How many people died from the 1854 cholera outbreak
Where was the first cholera outbreak
What did john snow do
In 1854 over 700 people died in his locality. Snow carefully mapped the location of each death and discovered that they all collected water from broad street pump. He removed the pump and forced people to drink from somewhere else. Immediately the disease abated from broad street. It was later discovered that a chess pit less than a metre away from the pump was leaking dirty water into the supply
What did Edwin Chadwick do in 1847
Linked poor living conditions with disease and life expectancy, he argued for an urgent need to improve living conditions. Set up clean party in 1844 and pushed government into starting action on improving conditions in towns
What did the first public health act do
Created central board of health
, but had limited powers- lack of government and financial support, and no money.
It allowed councils to improve conditions of towns if they wished to
What did the second public health act do
Was compulsory= more power, local councils were forced to provide clean water, appoint medical offices of health and sanitary inspectors.
It's known as the great clean up and the act covered sewage- cover sewers, drains, water, housing and disease, looking after slaughter houses to prevent contamination
Name to other disease that were around at the time
Typhus& small pox
What disease spread in Lincoln in 1905
Typhoid epidemic of 1950
What were residents told to do in Lincoln and what does this tell us about Lincoln and public health
Boil drinking water to kill any germs that could be carrying typhoid fever, Lincoln cooperation took over waterworks has scientific knowledge to know that boiling would kill disease
What caused typhoid outbreak in 1905
Dirty infected water in surgery witham, animals such as pigs and dogs in the streets and overflowing privies
How did council try to control outbreak
Railway companies were brining water by train from nearby Newark and watering carts were delivering it round the city & council ordered a clean up of the town
When was the Black Death
When was the great plague
Who was Edward Jenner
Country doctor in Gloucestershire who saw that milkmaids who caught cowpox, never caught small pox. He thought that having cow pox gave them immunity to small pox.
He experimented on boy James Phillips and injected him with pus from a milk maid who had cow pox, and then gave him a dose of small pox and he was immune.
When was Edward Jenner awarded money for his work
1802 the government awarded him with 10,000 and a further 20,00 in 1807 when the royal collage of physicians confirmed how effective vaccination was
When was vaccination made compulsory
When did the world health organisation declare small pox eradicated
What queen died of smallpox and when
Queen Mary in 1694
Where did the first cholera outbreak occur in Britain
What was the population of Britain in 1801
What was the population of Britain in 1901
What is small pox
A contagious disease caused by variola virus
What 2 french words best some up government attitudes in 19th century
What practice/idea did Lady Mary Montagu bring back from a holiday in Istanbul in 1792
When did Louis Pasteur publish his theory
In what year was the cure for small pox found
Why did the public fear smallpox
It left people blind and scarred