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Flashcards in Misc Deck (68):
1

in Scotland, if some is under the age of 15 and competent can they refuse treatment

yes

2

who are transition clinics for

16-18 year olds (approx.)

3

what is a transition clinic

a cross between a paediatric and adult clinic

4

what are the 4 things that define puberty in boys

Axillary hair
Pubic hair
Genitalia
(APG)

growth spurt

5

what are the 5 things that define puberty in girls

Axillary hair
Pubic hair
Breasts (thelarche)
(APB)

menarche (periods)
growth spurt

6

average puberty in boys

11.5

7

precocious puberty in boys

<9

8

delayed puberty in boys

>14

9

average puberty in girls

11

10

precocious puberty in girls

<8

11

delayed puberty in girls

>13

12

thelarche definition

breast budding

13

testicular volume in puberty

what is this the same size as

>4mls

'teaser' celebration

14

whats the pneumonic used for things to discuss with young people one their own in a consultation

HEEADSSS

15

what does HEEADSSS stand for

Home - relationships
Education/Employment - progress
Eating - weight, body image
Activities - physical, peers
Drugs - medication and recreational
Sex
Suicidal
Safety

16

if someone <12 has sex what is it

criminal offence

17

if 2 14 year olds have sex will they get convicted

no

18

if a >18 year old has sex with a <18 year old will they get convicted

yes

19

what are the 4 types of child abuse

physical abuse (NAI)
neglect
emotional abuse
sexual abuse

20

if a kid is too young to move and they come in with a fracture what do you ALWAYS suspect

non accidental injury

21

which fractures are a sign of non accidental injury (2)

posterior ribs
corner joint/bucket handle fracture

22

what is distinctive of a tramline bruise

lighter area between 2 bruises

23

what causes a tramline bruise

thin linear object hitting the skin

24

in a tramline bruise what happens to the blood vessels directly beneath the object

compressed (not stretched and burst)

25

what distribution pattern of burns/scalds is non accidental injury suggestive of (3)

glove and stocking
buttocks
dorsum of hands

26

what causes a burn

dry heat eg flame

27

what causes a scald

wet heat eg oil, steam

28

when do you do a skeletal survey if non accidental injury is suspected

<2 year olds

29

investigation for child with bruising

why

clotting screen

to rule out bleeding disorder

30

investigation for child with ?intracranial injury

head CT

31

is it necessary to have parent consent when referring a child to child protection

no but you must tell them you are doing so

32

what is the infant mortality rate a measure of

probability of death <1 year/1000 live births

33

what is the neonatal mortality rate a measure of

probability of death <1 month/1000 live births

34

what is perinatal mortality rate a measure of

probability of death 24 weeks before birth until 1 week after birth

35

what are the 6 preventable reasons of child mortality from WHO

breastfeeding
access to level 3 neonatal intensive care
nutrition!!!!
skilled healthcare professionals around birth
knowledge of child health 'red flags'
water sanitation and hygiene

36

most common cause of child mortality worldwide

pneumonia

37

treatment of HIV in <3 year olds

2 NRTI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and 1 NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor)

38

treatment of HIV in >3 year olds

protease inhibitor eg kaletra

39

how is HIV transmitted

sex
mother to child

40

what is the first sign of puberty in girls

thelarche (breast budding)

41

how long after thelarche (breast budding) does menstruation (periods) begin

2/3 years

42

recommended hours of activity per day

3

43

recommended hours of moderate activity per day

>1

44

how many day per week should kids be doing vigorous exercise

3

45

weaning definition

when should it be done

introduction to foods alongside breast feeding/formula

4-6 months

46

are kids resp rates higher or lower than adults

higher

47

are kid pulses higher or lower than adults

higher

48

if a kid presents to GP and you send them home, what must you always do!

safety net!!!

bring them back/phone NHS 24 if things change/get worse

49

are kids bp higher or lower than adults

lower

50

when does brain development start

3 weeks post conception

51

what 2 things happen between weeks 3 and 9 after conception in brain development

gastrulation
neural tube development

52

what is gastrulation in brain development

epiblast and hypoblast layers changes into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

53

what 2 things happen between week 9 and birth in brain development

sulci and gyri development
neurone development

54

what 2 things happen in childhood (after birth, before adolescence) in brain development

proliferation and migration
myelination

55

what does myelination in brain development involve (2)

when does it happen

OPCs wrap around axons = myelin sheaths

occurs during childhood

56

why is nature vs NURTURE a valid argument

bc your brain is still developing during childhood (and adolescence)

57

in what direction does brain myelination/maturation/pruning happen

what develops last

from back to front

front - higher cognitive functions eg self control, emotion, planning

58

example of medical proof of nature vs NURTURE

need to stimulate both eyes otherwise ocular dominance will occur in one eye

59

when a kid is lying down with neck to one side, opposite hand is flexed to prevent them rolling over

what reflex is this

fencing reflex

60

up until what age is fencing reflex normal

what should you suspect after this age

6 months

cerebral palsy

61

in growth charts (and generally) what is Z score

number of standard deviations you are from the mean

62

what is global developmental delay

not reaching the developmental milestones in more than one category (gross motor, fine motor, speech and language, social skills)

eg downs

63

history taking questions for child health (10)

birth - complications, delivery method, NICU, term?, birth weight
developmental milestones - when did they start walking, talking, how are they with other kids, what do they like to draw
immunisations
feeding, sleeping, nappies

64

in which centile is a kid clinically overweight

>91st centile

65

in which centile is a kid clinically obese

>98th centile

66

what is the environment that has influenced childhood obesity by encouraging high energy low nutrient foods

obesogenic environment

67

lifestyle changes for an obese kid (3)

family changes! 123;

>1hour of exercise per day
<2hours screen time
3 balanced meals

68

drug for morbidly obese kids (from specialist not GP)

orlistat