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Flashcards in Misc info Deck (47)
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1
Q

Name the three primary cerebral vesicles and what they become:

A

Prosencephalon: forebrain
Mesencephalon: midbrain
Rhombencephalon: hindbrain

2
Q

What are the secondary cerebral vesicles formed by the prosencephalon and what do they become?

A

Paired telencephalic vesicles: cerebral hemispheres

Diencephalic vesicle: thalamic structures, 3rd vesicle

3
Q

What are the secondary cerebral vesicles formed by the rhombencephalon and what do they become?

A

Metencephalon: pons & cerebellum
Myelencephalon: medulla

4
Q

What is the 4th ventricle derived from?

A

lumen of entire rhombencephalon

5
Q

What is the pons derived from?

A

Metencephalon

6
Q

What is the 3rd ventricle derived from?

A

Diencephalon

7
Q

What are the cerebral hemispheres derived from?

A

Telencephalon

8
Q

What is the midbrain derived from?

A

Mesencephalon

9
Q

What are the thalamic structures derived from?

A

Diencephalon

10
Q

What is the medulla derived from?

A

Myelencephalon

11
Q

What cells does the neural crest give rise to?

A

Schwaan cells & peripheral neurons

12
Q

What cells does the mesoderm give rise to?

A

Microglia

13
Q

What cells does the neuroectoderm give rise to?

A

CNS neurons, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes & astrocytes

14
Q

What is the Nissl body equivalent to?

A

Rough ER (protein synthesis)

15
Q

Where does reabsorption of the CSF occur?

A

Dural sinuses

16
Q

Which NT initiates voluntary movement?

A

Dopamine

17
Q

What secretes sonic hedgehog (SHH)?

A

Notochord

18
Q

Which genes regulate transcription of genes that code for the vertebral column during embryogenesis?

A

Hox

19
Q

Which genes determine pattern of vertebral segments and rostral caudal patterning?

A

Homeobox genes

20
Q

Which gene determines dorsal ventral patterning which gives rise to distinct cell populations (sensory, motor)?

A

SHH

21
Q

What structure differentiates into the sensory portion of the spinal cord, and receives input from its corresponding dermatome?

A

Alar plate

22
Q

What structure differentiates into the motor portion of the spinal cord?

A

Basal plate

23
Q

What structure separates into the alar and basal plates?

A

Sulcus limitans

24
Q

What does the lumen of the telencephalon become?

A

4th ventricle and choroid plexus

25
Q

During S phase, are cells located superficial or deep?

A

Superficial (closest to pia mater)

26
Q

During M phase, are cells located superficial or deep?

A

Deep, detached from superficial surface

27
Q

What is the secondary zone of neurogenesis called which gives rise to granular progenitor cells which migrate to the cerebellum?

A

The External Granular Layer (EGL)

28
Q

In what stage of the cell cycle do cells migrate from the ventricular zone to a secondary site of neurogenesis?

A

Before exiting mitotic phase

29
Q

Where does neurogenesis occur in the adult?

A

Dentate gyrus and subventricular zone

30
Q

In the cortex, the first neurons to become postmitotic and leave secondary zone of neurogenesis form what structure?

A

Preplate (PP)

31
Q

the dentate gyrus is the secondary site of neurogenesis for which cells?

A

Hippocampal cells

32
Q

What is Syringomyelia?

A

Cystic degeneration of the spinal cord - esp anterior white commissure. Results in cape-like distribution loss of pain and temperature sensation.

33
Q

What is Horner syndrome?

A

If the syrinx of syringomyelia gets so big that it affects the lateral horn, then you disrupt sympathetic input to face and and have ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis.

34
Q

What is Poliomyelitis?

A

Damage to anterior motor horn due to poliovirus infection

35
Q

What is Werding-Hoffman Disease?

A

Inherited degeneration of the anterior motor horn; aut recessive

36
Q

What is ALS?

A

Degenerative disorder of upper and lower motor neurons of the corticospinal tract

37
Q

What kind of drug is used to treat ALS?

A

Glutamate inhibitor

38
Q

What drug is used diagnostically to evaluate MG?

A

Edrophonium, an AChE-I

39
Q

Which G protein is the B1 R associated with?

A

Gs

40
Q

Which G protein is the alpha1 R associated with?

A

Gq

41
Q

What type of receptor is the Glu-NMDA R?

A

non-selective cation channel (NSC)

42
Q

Which G protein is the B2 R associated with?

A

Gs

43
Q

Which G protein is the M2 R associated with?

A

Gi/o

44
Q

Which G protein are the M1,2,3 Rs associated with?

A

Gq

45
Q

Which G protein is the alpha2 R associated with?

A

Gi/o

46
Q

What type of channel is the NMJ AChR?

A

non-selective cation channel (NSC)

47
Q

The notochord releases Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) which induces what?

A

Induces the overlying ectoderm to divide more rapidly, forming a thickened mass, the neural plate.