Misc., Oncology, Diet/Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Clinical Medicine Final Exam > Misc., Oncology, Diet/Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc., Oncology, Diet/Nutrition Deck (49)
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1

Why do Optometrists need to know about Leukemia and Lymphoma?

• Cause of specific retinal findings
• Diseases can be fatal

2

define leukemia.

Leukemia is the malignant proliferation of WBC

• Infiltration of the blood and bone marrow by neoplastic blood cells

3

There are 4 main types of leukemia. Name them

Myeloid:
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Lymphocytic: B-cell, T-cell, or natural killer (NK)
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia-ALL (IMMATURE CELLS)
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia-CLL (MATURE CELLS)

4

define - chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Increased number of immature granulocytes in the marrow and peripheral circulation

5

define - Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

From myeloid stem cells, (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)

6

define lymphoma.

Lymphoma is a malignancy of mature B and T lymphocytes in lymph tissue

7

Tumor of lymph tissue:

• Lymph nodes and vessels
• Spleen and thymus
• Bone marrow
• Adenoids, tonsils

8

Lymphoma has 3 main subtypes

1. Hodgkin
• Reed–Sternberg cells (enlarged B lymphocytes)
• More easily treated

2. Non-Hodgkin
• More common

3. Plasma cell myeloma (formerly “multiple myeloma”)
• malignant proliferation of terminally differentiated B cells (plasma cells)

9

Leukemia AND lymphoma primarily affect who?

also affects:

children and older adults

• Immune deficiency
- HIV
- Transplant

10

t/f: Leukemia/Lymphoma are often asymptomatic

t

11

if Leukemia/Lymphoma were to present with symptoms, what would they be?

Weight loss
• Sweats
• Symptoms from other conditions (anemia)

12

Leukemia/Lymphoma: 3 signs

Lymphadenopathy
(enlarged lymph nodes, liver, and spleen)
• Fever
• Weight loss

13

name 5 tests for Leukemia/Lymphoma:

• CBC with diff
• Blood smear
• Lymph node biopsy
• Bone marrow biopsy
• (CT/MRI if orbital signs)

14

Leukemia/Lymphoma can affect most systems, particularly the eye: 4 ophthalmic sequelae

• Cranial nerve palsies
• Orbital lymphoma
• Retinopathy
• Papilledema

15

management of Leukemia/Lymphoma depends on what?

List 4 management strategies.

depends on the type and age of onset
• Includes:
• Radiation
• Chemotherapy
• Bone marrow transplant
• Lymphectomy

16

• LEUKEMIA:

neoplasm of blood

17

• LYMPHOMA:

independent tumor of lymph nodes

18

Why do Optometrists need to know about Systemic Cancer?

- Can occur at any age, but very common in older patients

• Can metastasize to eye

19

what is the patho. for cancer

Cell mutations can lead to disordered regulation of cell growth

Neoplasia is the uncontrolled growth of cells.
A neoplasm = tumor = mass = growth

Non-benign or malignant tumor is a cancer

20

what is the most common type of cancer?

Carcinoma (***most common)
• From epithelial cells

21

• Sarcoma is from?

From mesenchymal cells
• Ex. bone, muscle, cartilage, and connective tissues

22

Neoplasm can occur because of many factors: 5

• Genetic
• Pathogen (virus, bacteria, etc)
• Inflammation
• Environment
(UV light, Chemicals)
• Lifestyle
(Diet, Smoking)

GPIEL

23

Cancer type is
based on:

organ of origin and subtype

24

• Tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) staging: 3

• T (for tumor stage)
size and extent of the tumor

• N (for node stage)
extent of lymph node metastases


• M (for metastasis stage)
0 - no distant metastases
1 - distant metastases are present

25

T/F: Cancer signs and symptoms can be vague

T

26

how is cancer diagnosed (test)

Tissue biopsy **
• Imaging (x-ray, CT, MRI)
• Tumor markers to gauge therapy
(hormones, oncofetal antigens, enzymes, tumor-associated proteins)

27

t/f: cancer can metastasize anywhere

t

28

what can cure cancer?

Excision can cure a
cancer…but most still need
treatment
• Surgical excision (40% cure)
• Radiation
• Chemotherapy

29

• Adverse effects of excision:

pain
nausea
vomiting
anorexia
weight loss
recurrent infections;

• Pain:
mild-NSAID,
acetaminophen,
ASA,
codeine,
oxycodone
morphine
• Psychosocial support

30

what does GERD stand for? what are 3 other names?

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Reflux Esophagitis,
acid reflux,
heartburn