Misc. Stuff That I Don't Know Where Else To Put Flashcards Preview

Part II/III Board Review > Misc. Stuff That I Don't Know Where Else To Put > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc. Stuff That I Don't Know Where Else To Put Deck (113):
1

Study of ds in population groups

Epidemiology

2

Number of new cases of a ds

Incidence

3

Length of life

Life span

4

Average length of life for groups

Life expectancy

5

Number of people w/ ds

Morbidity (aka prevalence)

6

Number of people that die from a ds

Mortality

7

Both prevalence & incidence

Frequency

8

Determines difference in risk b/w two groups

Risk difference

9

Exposed risk vs unexposed risk

Risk ratio AKA relative risk

10

The ds rate in exposed subjects

Attributable risk

11

Founded in 1892 & is the largest, most diverse public health organization of health professionals in the world

American Public Health Assoc. (AHPA)

12

Length of time from exposure to expression of a ds

Incubation

13

Infections that are carried in & transmitted by humans

Anthrponoses

14

The subtle changes in influenza HA protein epitope that lead to annual epidemics & create the need for a new vaccine each year

Antigenic drift

15

Antigenic markers to which immune system responds

Epitope

16

Strength of ds

Virulence

17

A distinct group of people who have something in common

Cohort

18

DAST stands for what?

Drug Abuse Screening Test

19

Form of reasoning in which conclusion are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises

Deductive

20

Average number of times in multiple testing that one expects to obtain a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed

E-value

21

Form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances

Inductive

22

Average score w/i a distribution

Mean

23

Measure of variation that indicates average deviation of scores in a distribution from the mean

Mean deviation

24

Center score in a distribution

Median

25

Most frequent score in a distribution

Mode

26

Chance a phenomena has of occurring randomly. A statistical measure.

Probability ("p" factor)

27

Value of statistical significance of testing. Does not represent probability

P-value

28

Extent to which a measure, procedure or instrument yields the same result on repeated trials

Reliability

29

Compare to past evaluations

Retrospective

30

Measure of variation that indicates typical distance b/w scores of a distribution & the mean

Standard deviation

31

Degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure

Validity

32

reviews reports of all public health assessments before information is disclosed to the public

Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry

33

Special US EPA list of national hazardous waste sites

National Priorities List

34

The Clean Air Act was passed in what year?

1970

35

The EPA was established in what year?

1970

36

The WHO says how many people lack safe water?

1 Billion

37

Clean Water Act was passed what year?

1972

38

Safe Drinking Water Act was passed what year?

1974

39

Drinking water is AKA

Potable water

40

Hard water (Mg++, Ca++) causes an increase in what?

Heart disease

41

Sewage tx process to clarify water by removing turbidity

Flocculation

42

What are the M/C flocculent agents?

Aluminum, Iron, & Calcium

43

Sewage tx process that prevents coagulation & clumping

Deflocculation

44

Commercial use of microbes to break down pollutants in soil & water. Pseudomonas & Bacillus M/C agents used

Bioremediation

45

Radon in soil can cause what, especially if inhaled?

Cancer

46

Fastest growing cancer in women?

Thyroid cancer

47

Found in processed meat, this compound makes meat "red" longer. It's carcinogenic

Sodium nitrate

48

Anopheles Mosquito is the vector for what ds?

Malaria

49

Fleas are the vector for what ds?

Plaque (yersinia pestis)

50

Deer tick is the vector for what ds?

Lyme's

51

Mosquito is the vector for what ds?

West nile virus

52

TORCHS is an acronym for perinatal (in utero) diseases. What does it stand for?

Toxoplasmosis
Other (HIV, varicella zoster)
Rubella
Cytomegalovirus
Herpes Simplex
Syphilis

53

Type of Influenza that is most linked to pandemics & is most virulent to date?

Influenza A

54

M/C psychoactive drug in US?

Alcohol

55

M/C illicit drug used?

Marijuana

56

Drug abuse is M/C in what age range?

18-20

57

This group is run by the Department of Labor, enforces laws in the workplace

OSHA

58

Part of Department of Health & Human Services, researches & creates occupational laws

National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH)

59

What are the M/C causes of death in infants?

Congenital
Premature
Birth
SIDS

60

What are the M/C causes of death in children?

Car accidents
Drowning
Fire

61

What is the M/C cause of work-related death in adults?

Cancer (asbestosis)

62

What are the M/C causes of death in the elderly?

Heart
Cancer

63

Unit used to identify irradiation of pts. Measures the radiation energy absorbed

Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD)

64

This unit is typically applied to occupationally exposed persons. Identifies the biological effectiveness of the radiation absorbed. Measured on radiation workers by a photosensitive badge worn on the collar

Radiation Equivalent Man (REM) (1 RAD = 1 REM)

65

The number of REMs a person can get in a lifetime w/o getting radiation poisoning. 5 REMS (RADs) is the safe limit per year

Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD)

66

What is the formula for MPD?

MPD = 5(age-18)

67

This is caused by the fluctuation of the number of photons absorbed by the intensifying screens to form the image on the film

Quantum Mottle AKA radiographic noise

68

Sensory impulses from the periphery to the pos. horn of the spinal cord.

Afferent

69

The perception of pain from a normally non-painful stimulus

Allodynia

70

Pathological fusion of bones across a joint

Ankylosis

71

Made up of any two vertebral bodies & an intervertebral disc; weight bearing

Anterior Motion Segment

72

Type II nerve injury. Physical disruption of the axon w/ Wallerian degeneration results in temporary paralysis & sensory changes. Intact sheath of Schwann allows recovery in weeks to months. partial reaction of degeneration.

Axonotmesis

73

Release from damaged muscle tissue; inflammatory process & sensitizes nociceptors

Bradykinin

74

Small, slow, non-myelinated nerves carrying pain sensation; nociceptors

C fibers

75

Viscoelastic material deforms w/ time when it is subjected to a constant applied load

Creep

76

Seen in nerve root compression; pain pattern follows course of a dermatome; sharp burning pain; radicular pain

Dermatogenous Pain Pattern

77

Motor impulses from the ant. horn of the spinal cord to the periphery

Efferent

78

Increase in afferent stimuli causes a decreased threshold for firing. Continued stimulation results in hyperactive responses

Facilitation

79

Receptors located at the end of muscles that detect muscle tension. Inhibits muscle contraction when stimulated

Golgi Tendon Organ

80

Tx's pts w/ heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented

Homeopathy

81

Presence of excess blood in the vessels supplying a particular region of the body hyperactive responses (hypersympathicotonia)

Hyperemia

82

Loss of energy during cyclic loading & unloading of a viscoelastic substance i.e. jumping

Hysteresis

83

Intra-articular synovial tabs; may prevent a joint from having full mobility

Meniscoid

84

A receptor that is sensitive to the length (stretch) of intrafusal fibers

Muscle spindle

85

Type I nerve injury. A local nerve conduction block (nerve pressure or blunt trauma) w/ no physical disruption of the axon results in transient paralysis, slight sensory changes, & no reaction of degeneration. Recovery is usually in hours to days.

Neuropraxis

86

Type III nerve injury. Partial or complete severance of the nerve. Full reaction of degeneration w/ no recovery possible

Neurotmesis

87

Articular facets; responsible for directional guidance; mechanoreceptors & nociceptors surround this

Posterior Motion Segment

88

Pain originating from a sclerotome. Commonly seen in injury to the facets or SI joint; pain is dull in nature; poorly localized

Sclerotogenous Pain Pattern

89

Free nerve ending that provides afferent supply to fascia, ligs, periosteum, intervertebral joints, & intervertebral disc. Goes to PLL, Lig. Flava, ant. dura but NOT to the ALL

Sinu-vertebral Nerve AKA recurrent meningeal nerve

90

Essentially regers to skin, bone, nerve, & muscle

Soma (Somatic)

91

Related to growth & nutrition

Trophic

92

The principle that maintains the laws of physics & chemistry can't explain the nature of life

Vitalism

93

Law having to do w/ bone remodeling d/t stress

Wolff's Law

94

The trunk of a nerve sends branches to a particular muscle, the joint moved by the muscle & the skin overlying the insertion of the muscle. Altered nerve activity to a muscle may be assoc. w/ altered nerve activity to the segmentally related spinal joints

Hilton's Law

95

Increased epiphyseal pressure leads to decreased growth & vice versa i.e. Scheuermann's Disease

Heuter Volkmann's Law

96

Ant. horn of the cord is motor while the pos. horn is sensory (law)

Bell-Magendie

97

The sensation perceived by the examiner during passive range of motion of a joint

End feel

98

The normal resistance felt when joint motion is restricted by soft tissue (elbow flexion)

Soft Tissue Approximation

99

An abrupt halt as two hard surfaces meet. Full ROM has been achieved (elbow ext)

Bony end feel

100

Guarded, resisted by muscular contraction. Should feel muscle reaction. End feel can't be asserted b/c of pain or guarding. Possible contraindication to adjusting (torticollis)

Spasm

101

Perceived as a hard arrest w/ a slight give. May indicate a sub-acute to chronic arthritis (RA)

Capsular feel

102

Slight "rebound" at the end of range of motion may suggest an internal derangement of the joint as in a meniscus tear (+bounce home test)

Springy Block

103

Pain is felt by the pt before full ROM is achieved. Suggests possible pathology (bursitis, abscess, or neoplasm)

Empty feel

104

A written report on the details of a series of related cases

Case series

105

A written report on the details of a single case

Case study

106

A study that reviews events that have already occurred

Prospective study

107

A prospective longitudinal study in which pts are divided into two or more groups on a randomized basis

Randomized control

108

The proportion of times a diagnostic procedure is correct in a pt w/o a specific dx

Specificity

109

The degree to which an observation or measurement provides an indication of the true state of the phenomena being measured

Validity

110

The consistency of a measurement when repeated

Reliability

111

The proportion of times a diagnostic study is correct in pts w/o a specific dx

Sensitivity

112

The proportion of a clearly defined group, initially free of a condition, that develops it over a period of time

Incidence

113

Proportion of a population having a particular condition

Prevalence