Flashcards in Misc. Stuff That I Don't Know Where Else To Put Deck (113):
Study of ds in population groups
Number of new cases of a ds
Length of life
Average length of life for groups
Number of people w/ ds
Morbidity (aka prevalence)
Number of people that die from a ds
Both prevalence & incidence
Determines difference in risk b/w two groups
Exposed risk vs unexposed risk
Risk ratio AKA relative risk
The ds rate in exposed subjects
Founded in 1892 & is the largest, most diverse public health organization of health professionals in the world
American Public Health Assoc. (AHPA)
Length of time from exposure to expression of a ds
Infections that are carried in & transmitted by humans
The subtle changes in influenza HA protein epitope that lead to annual epidemics & create the need for a new vaccine each year
Antigenic markers to which immune system responds
Strength of ds
A distinct group of people who have something in common
DAST stands for what?
Drug Abuse Screening Test
Form of reasoning in which conclusion are formulated about particulars from general or universal premises
Average number of times in multiple testing that one expects to obtain a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed
Form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular instances
Average score w/i a distribution
Measure of variation that indicates average deviation of scores in a distribution from the mean
Center score in a distribution
Most frequent score in a distribution
Chance a phenomena has of occurring randomly. A statistical measure.
Probability ("p" factor)
Value of statistical significance of testing. Does not represent probability
Extent to which a measure, procedure or instrument yields the same result on repeated trials
Compare to past evaluations
Measure of variation that indicates typical distance b/w scores of a distribution & the mean
Degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure
reviews reports of all public health assessments before information is disclosed to the public
Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry
Special US EPA list of national hazardous waste sites
National Priorities List
The Clean Air Act was passed in what year?
The EPA was established in what year?
The WHO says how many people lack safe water?
Clean Water Act was passed what year?
Safe Drinking Water Act was passed what year?
Drinking water is AKA
Hard water (Mg++, Ca++) causes an increase in what?
Sewage tx process to clarify water by removing turbidity
What are the M/C flocculent agents?
Aluminum, Iron, & Calcium
Sewage tx process that prevents coagulation & clumping
Commercial use of microbes to break down pollutants in soil & water. Pseudomonas & Bacillus M/C agents used
Radon in soil can cause what, especially if inhaled?
Fastest growing cancer in women?
Found in processed meat, this compound makes meat "red" longer. It's carcinogenic
Anopheles Mosquito is the vector for what ds?
Fleas are the vector for what ds?
Plaque (yersinia pestis)
Deer tick is the vector for what ds?
Mosquito is the vector for what ds?
West nile virus
TORCHS is an acronym for perinatal (in utero) diseases. What does it stand for?
Other (HIV, varicella zoster)
Type of Influenza that is most linked to pandemics & is most virulent to date?
M/C psychoactive drug in US?
M/C illicit drug used?
Drug abuse is M/C in what age range?
This group is run by the Department of Labor, enforces laws in the workplace
Part of Department of Health & Human Services, researches & creates occupational laws
National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH)
What are the M/C causes of death in infants?
What are the M/C causes of death in children?
What is the M/C cause of work-related death in adults?
What are the M/C causes of death in the elderly?
Unit used to identify irradiation of pts. Measures the radiation energy absorbed
Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD)
This unit is typically applied to occupationally exposed persons. Identifies the biological effectiveness of the radiation absorbed. Measured on radiation workers by a photosensitive badge worn on the collar
Radiation Equivalent Man (REM) (1 RAD = 1 REM)
The number of REMs a person can get in a lifetime w/o getting radiation poisoning. 5 REMS (RADs) is the safe limit per year
Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD)
What is the formula for MPD?
MPD = 5(age-18)
This is caused by the fluctuation of the number of photons absorbed by the intensifying screens to form the image on the film
Quantum Mottle AKA radiographic noise
Sensory impulses from the periphery to the pos. horn of the spinal cord.
The perception of pain from a normally non-painful stimulus
Pathological fusion of bones across a joint
Made up of any two vertebral bodies & an intervertebral disc; weight bearing
Anterior Motion Segment
Type II nerve injury. Physical disruption of the axon w/ Wallerian degeneration results in temporary paralysis & sensory changes. Intact sheath of Schwann allows recovery in weeks to months. partial reaction of degeneration.
Release from damaged muscle tissue; inflammatory process & sensitizes nociceptors
Small, slow, non-myelinated nerves carrying pain sensation; nociceptors
Viscoelastic material deforms w/ time when it is subjected to a constant applied load
Seen in nerve root compression; pain pattern follows course of a dermatome; sharp burning pain; radicular pain
Dermatogenous Pain Pattern
Motor impulses from the ant. horn of the spinal cord to the periphery
Increase in afferent stimuli causes a decreased threshold for firing. Continued stimulation results in hyperactive responses
Receptors located at the end of muscles that detect muscle tension. Inhibits muscle contraction when stimulated
Golgi Tendon Organ
Tx's pts w/ heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented
Presence of excess blood in the vessels supplying a particular region of the body hyperactive responses (hypersympathicotonia)
Loss of energy during cyclic loading & unloading of a viscoelastic substance i.e. jumping
Intra-articular synovial tabs; may prevent a joint from having full mobility
A receptor that is sensitive to the length (stretch) of intrafusal fibers
Type I nerve injury. A local nerve conduction block (nerve pressure or blunt trauma) w/ no physical disruption of the axon results in transient paralysis, slight sensory changes, & no reaction of degeneration. Recovery is usually in hours to days.
Type III nerve injury. Partial or complete severance of the nerve. Full reaction of degeneration w/ no recovery possible
Articular facets; responsible for directional guidance; mechanoreceptors & nociceptors surround this
Posterior Motion Segment
Pain originating from a sclerotome. Commonly seen in injury to the facets or SI joint; pain is dull in nature; poorly localized
Sclerotogenous Pain Pattern
Free nerve ending that provides afferent supply to fascia, ligs, periosteum, intervertebral joints, & intervertebral disc. Goes to PLL, Lig. Flava, ant. dura but NOT to the ALL
Sinu-vertebral Nerve AKA recurrent meningeal nerve
Essentially regers to skin, bone, nerve, & muscle
Related to growth & nutrition
The principle that maintains the laws of physics & chemistry can't explain the nature of life
Law having to do w/ bone remodeling d/t stress
The trunk of a nerve sends branches to a particular muscle, the joint moved by the muscle & the skin overlying the insertion of the muscle. Altered nerve activity to a muscle may be assoc. w/ altered nerve activity to the segmentally related spinal joints
Increased epiphyseal pressure leads to decreased growth & vice versa i.e. Scheuermann's Disease
Heuter Volkmann's Law
Ant. horn of the cord is motor while the pos. horn is sensory (law)
The sensation perceived by the examiner during passive range of motion of a joint
The normal resistance felt when joint motion is restricted by soft tissue (elbow flexion)
Soft Tissue Approximation
An abrupt halt as two hard surfaces meet. Full ROM has been achieved (elbow ext)
Bony end feel
Guarded, resisted by muscular contraction. Should feel muscle reaction. End feel can't be asserted b/c of pain or guarding. Possible contraindication to adjusting (torticollis)
Perceived as a hard arrest w/ a slight give. May indicate a sub-acute to chronic arthritis (RA)
Slight "rebound" at the end of range of motion may suggest an internal derangement of the joint as in a meniscus tear (+bounce home test)
Pain is felt by the pt before full ROM is achieved. Suggests possible pathology (bursitis, abscess, or neoplasm)
A written report on the details of a series of related cases
A written report on the details of a single case
A study that reviews events that have already occurred
A prospective longitudinal study in which pts are divided into two or more groups on a randomized basis
The proportion of times a diagnostic procedure is correct in a pt w/o a specific dx
The degree to which an observation or measurement provides an indication of the true state of the phenomena being measured
The consistency of a measurement when repeated
The proportion of times a diagnostic study is correct in pts w/o a specific dx
The proportion of a clearly defined group, initially free of a condition, that develops it over a period of time