Flashcards in Miscellaneous Deck (42)
What to umbilical arteries develop into?
Round ligament of the bladder
What does the urachus develop into?
Middle ligament of the bladder
What does the umbilical vein develop into?
What nerve provides sympathetic control to the bladder?
Where in the bladder are sympathetic beta receptors?
Where in the bladder are sympathetic alpha receptors?
Internal urethral sphincter
Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the bladder?
Which nerve provides somatic control to the bladder?
Which muscle does the pelvic nerve (parasympathetic) act upon?
What part of the bladder does the pudendal nerve act upon?
External urethral sphincter
What nervous function controls voiding?
Parasympathetic stimulation and sympathetic inhibition
What nervous function controls storage?
Sympathetic and somatic activation
How does beta receptor activation affect the detrusor muscle ?
How are the internal and external urethral sphincters affected by sympathetic and somatic innervation?
How does the pelvic nerve influence the detrusor muscle?
Stimulates contraction = expulsion of urine
What causes urethral incontinence?
How do you treat urethral incontinence/hypotonicity?
What disease occurs with protein losing nephropathies such as glomerulonephritis or amyloidosis?
What are the 4 components of nephrontic syndrome?
Proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, edema/ascites, hypoproteinemia
What renal change indicates thrombosis?
How will a renal infarct present on necropsy?
Triangular/pyramidal shaped lesion fanning out from medulla to cortex
What is pyelonephritis?
Kidney infection resulting from ascending UTI
What will you see in a urinalysis of a pyelonephritis?
Dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria are signs of what kidney disease?
What will a pyelonephritis case look like on ultrasound?
Hydronephrosis (dilated renal pelvis)
How do you diagnose pylonephritis?
How do you treat pylonephritis?
Aggressive IVFT and abx (life-threatening condition)
In which cat breed is polycystic kidneys most commonly seen?
How do you dx polycystic kidneys on ultrasound?
Multiple large fluid-filled structures in kidney parenchyma