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Flashcards in Miscellaneous Deck (42)
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1

What to umbilical arteries develop into?

Round ligament of the bladder

2

What does the urachus develop into?

Middle ligament of the bladder

3

What does the umbilical vein develop into?

Facliform

4

What nerve provides sympathetic control to the bladder?

Hypogastric nerve

5

Where in the bladder are sympathetic beta receptors?

Detrusor muscle

6

Where in the bladder are sympathetic alpha receptors?

Internal urethral sphincter

7

Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the bladder?

Pelvic nerve

8

Which nerve provides somatic control to the bladder?

Pudendal nerve

9

Which muscle does the pelvic nerve (parasympathetic) act upon?

Detrusor muscle

10

What part of the bladder does the pudendal nerve act upon?

External urethral sphincter

11

What nervous function controls voiding?

Parasympathetic stimulation and sympathetic inhibition

12

What nervous function controls storage?

Sympathetic and somatic activation

13

How does beta receptor activation affect the detrusor muscle ?

Stimulates relaxation

14

How are the internal and external urethral sphincters affected by sympathetic and somatic innervation?

Contraction

15

How does the pelvic nerve influence the detrusor muscle?

Stimulates contraction = expulsion of urine

16

What causes urethral incontinence?

Urethral hypotonicity

17

How do you treat urethral incontinence/hypotonicity?

Phenylpropranolamine

18

What disease occurs with protein losing nephropathies such as glomerulonephritis or amyloidosis?

Nephrotic syndrome

19

What are the 4 components of nephrontic syndrome?

Proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, edema/ascites, hypoproteinemia

20

What renal change indicates thrombosis?

Renal infarct

21

How will a renal infarct present on necropsy?

Triangular/pyramidal shaped lesion fanning out from medulla to cortex

22

What is pyelonephritis?

Kidney infection resulting from ascending UTI

23

What will you see in a urinalysis of a pyelonephritis?

WBC casts

24

Dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria are signs of what kidney disease?

Pyelonephritis

25

What will a pyelonephritis case look like on ultrasound?

Hydronephrosis (dilated renal pelvis)

26

How do you diagnose pylonephritis?

Renal biopsy

27

How do you treat pylonephritis?

Aggressive IVFT and abx (life-threatening condition)

28

In which cat breed is polycystic kidneys most commonly seen?

Persians

29

How do you dx polycystic kidneys on ultrasound?

Multiple large fluid-filled structures in kidney parenchyma

30

How will polycystic kidneys feel on palpation?

Bilaterally enlarged