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Avoidant Babies in Strange Situation

Do not seek closeness with mother upon reunification

rarely cry when she leaves the room, and then ignore her upon her return.



unevenness in development


Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership

Participating Style
Followers able, unwilling, not confident

Delegating style
Turn over decisons -- Followers able, will, confident

Selling style
followers unable, willing, confident

Telling Style
Followers unable, unwilling, not confident



gradual decrease in an unconditiioned response due to repeated presentation of the unconditioned stimulus is termed

classical conditioning

hum of a light


Disorder most consistently linked to genetic factors

Bipolar I

65% - 80% concordance for monozygotic twins.



Childrens' thoughts and communications are typically egocentric (i.e. about themselves). Egocentrism refers to the child's inability to see a situation from another person's point of view. 

According to Piaget, the egocentric child assumes that other people see, hear, and feel exactly the same as the child does.




This is the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation at one time. When a child can focus on more than one aspect of a situation at the same time they have the ability to decenter.

During this stage children have difficulties thinking about more than one aspect of any situation at the same time; and they have trouble decentering in social situation just as they do in non-social contexts.



play - piaget

Preoperational - At the beginning of this stage you often find children engaging in parallel play. That is to say they often play in the same room as other children but they play next to others rather than with them. 

Each child is absorbed in its own private world and speech is egocentric. That is to say the main function of speech at this stage is to externalize the child’s thinking rather than to communicate with others.

As yet the child has not grasped the social function of either language or rules.


symbolic play

This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself. Language is perhaps the most obvious form of symbolism that young children display. 

However, Piaget (1951) argues that language does not facilitate cognitive development, but merely reflects what the child already knows and contributes little to new knowledge. He believed cognitive development promotes language development, not vice versa.




This is the belief that inanimate objects (such as toys and teddy bears) have human feelings and intentions. By animism Piaget (1929) meant that for the pre-operational child the world of nature is alive, conscious and has a purpose.



This is the belief that certain aspects of the environment are manufactured by people (e.g. clouds in the sky).



This is the inability the reverse the direction of a sequence of events to their starting point.


jacksonian seizure

A Jacksonian seizure is a type of focal partial seizure, also known as a simple partial seizure. This means the seizure is caused by unusual electrical activity that affects only a small area of the brain. The person maintains awareness during the seizure. Jacksonian seizures are also known as a Jacksonian march.


Job Context Factors

Herzberg's Two-factor Theory

dissatisfaction but not satisfaction




Operant Conditioning - New Learning Schedule

Greatest strength to lowest

  1. Variable Ratio
  2. Fixed Ratio
  3. Variable interval
  4. fixed interval


Operant Conditioning - Resistance to extinction

Greatest strength to lowest

  1. Variable ratio
  2. Fixed Ratio
  3. variable interval
  4. Fixed interval (easiest to extinguish)


Operant Conditioning - What has a scalloped pattern to response

Fixed schedules (ratio & interval)


Operant Conditioning - What has a smooth pattern to response

Variable schedules (Ratio & interval)


operant conditioning - New Learning occurs under what circumstances

continuous reinforcement


Superstitious Behavior

  • accidental reinforcement or from non-contingent reinforcement



Festingers Theory

Cognitive dissonance theory


Cogntive Dissonance Theory

You have 2 conflicting thoughts and therefore experience discomfort.



Referent Power

Raven & French's 5 types of Power

Power that comes from viewing another as a role mode or we like the person.


Legitimate Power

Raven & French's 5 types of Power

A Boss 

Legitimate – This comes from the belief that a person has the formal right to make demands, and to expect others to be compliant and obedient.

Reward – This results from one person's ability to compensate another for compliance.

Expert – This is based on a person's high levels of skill and knowledge.

Referent – This is the result of a person's perceived attractiveness, worthiness and right to others' respect.

Coercive – This comes from the belief that a person can punish others for noncompliance.

Six years later, Raven added an extra power base:

Informational – This results from a person's ability to control the information that others need to accomplish something.


Beta Blocker Side Effects

  • Dizziness.
  • Weakness.
  • Drowsiness or fatigue.
  • Cold hands and feet.
  • Dry mouth, skin, or eyes.
  • Headache.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • nightmares
  • impotence (10% males)

Less common - depression, anxiety, & thought disturbances


What do Beta Blockers "block?"

Adrenaline or norepinephrine



Unevenness in development


Habituation always involves the ________ stimulus



What mental disorder has been more consistently linked to genetic factors

bipolar I

65-80% concordance with monozygotic twins


Howard's Meta-analysis about Tx outcomes:

  • 75% after 6 months
  • 50% after 8 sessions

measurable improvement