Mitosis Flashcards Preview

Gd 10 - Life Sciences 2017 > Mitosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mitosis Deck (34):
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Two parts of the cell cycle

  • Interphase
  • Mitosis

1

Three phases of interphase

  • G1 - first growth phase
  • S - synthesis phase
  • G2 - second growth phase

2

Occurs during G1 phase of interphase

  • Cell growth
  • preparation for DNA replication

3

Occurs during S-phase of interphase

DNA replicated (chromatid duplication)

4

Parts of a duplicated chromosome

  • Two sister chromatids
  • Centromere

5

Inefficient if surface area to volume ration is too small

Nutrient and waste exchange by the cell

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Reason for cell division by mitosis

  • Growth - cells divide forming more cells for growth
  • Repair - repair and renew injured, old or worn out cells
  • Reproduction - bacteria and protists reproduce asexually by binary fission or budding

7

Location of mitosis in plants

Apical and lateral meristem in plants

8

Animal tissues continuously replaced by mitosis

  • Epithelium and connective tissues
  • Fairly frequently for repair: liver, skin

9

Two division processes necessary for cell division

  • Karyokinesis - nucleus division
  • Cytokinesis - cytoplasm division

10

Four phases of mitosis

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

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Features of prophase in animal cells

  • Centrosomes start to form spindle
  • Centrosomes start to move towards poles
  • Chromosomes made of two chromatids condense to become visible
  • Nuclear membrane starts to break down

12

Features of prophase in plant cells

  • Spindle forms without centrosomes
  • Chromosomes with two chromatids condense
  • Nuclear membrane starts to break down

13

Features of metaphase

  • Nuclear membrane has disappeared
  • Chromosomes line up along equator region
  • Chromosomes attached to spindle fibre

14

Features of anaphase

  • Chromatids of chromosome separate
  • Spindle fibres pull daughter chromosomes to opposite poles

15

Features of telophase in animal cells

  • Nuclear membrane starts to form in each daughter cell
  • Chromosomes start to form chromatin network
  • Cytokinesis starts by the cell membrane constricting

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Features of telophase in plant cells

  • Nuclear membrane starts to form in each daughter cell
  • Chromosomes form chromatin network
  • Cytokinesis starts by cell plate formation at the equator

17

Different kinds of cancer

  • Carcinomas - epithelium
  • Leukaemia - blood and lymph
  • Sarcomas - other connective tissue

18

a cancer cell

  • A cell with its cell cycle control system disrupted
  • These cells divide uncontrollably

19

Tumour

A mass of cancer cells

20

Two types of tumour

  • Benign - stay in one location
  • Malignant - cells of tumour spread to other locations in the body

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Metastasis

The process of a malignant tumour leaving the first site of cancer and invading other organs and tissues

22

Carcinogen

A factor causing cancer

23

Example carcinogens

  • Faulty genes (inherited)
  • Radiation
  • Smoking
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Processed foods
  • Pollutants and pesticides
  • Viruses

24

Three common methods of treating cancer

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy

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Surgery as a treatment for cancer

Cut out tumour cells with a scalpel or laser

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Chemotherapy as a treatment for cancer

  • Chemicals that kill cancer cells or
  • Stop their DNA from making new cells
  • injections or tablets

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Radiotherapy as a treatment for cancer

  • Machines emitting radiation
  • Injections of radioactive compounds
  • Capsules of radioactive substances

28

Complementary therapy

  • Alternative treatments that can be used together with other treatments in treating a disease.
  • They do not negatively effect each other or harm the patient.
  • E.g. Teas to alleviate nausea during chemotherapy

29

cell phase

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anaphase

  • spindle fibres separate sister chromatids
  • retract pullting them towards poles

30

cell phase

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late prophase of mitosis

  • nulear membrane still disappearing
  • chromosomes condensed and clearly visible

 

31

cell phase

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metaphase of mitosis

  • chromosomes lined up along equator

32

cell phase

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telophase of mitosis

  • chromosomes at opposite 'poles'
  • cytokinesis starting
  • two nuclear membranes forming

33

cell phase

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early prophase of mitosis

  • spindle apparatus just starting to form
  • chromosomes start condensing
  • nuclear membrane starts to break down