MOD 16 - Acid-Base Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MOD 16 - Acid-Base Homeostasis Deck (21):
1

what is the total amount of CO2 being produced per day

25mol/day

2

what is the total amount of plasma [H+] produced per day?

40nmol/L

3

what is the total amount of unmetabolised acids produced per day?

50mmol/day

4

what are some of the buffering systems in place?

haemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphate, proteins, ammonia, misc organic acids

5

what is the reference range of pH in the human body

7.45-7.35

6

what is the henderson-hasselbalch equation?

H+ + HCO3- = H2CO3 = CO2 + H20

7

where are the sites of acid-base metabolism?

lungs, kidney, liver, GI tract

8

what happens to CO2 after it is taken into the haemoglobin?

it is broken down by enzymes into bicarbonate and H+ ions - H+ ions will combine with haemoglobin

9

where is bicarbonate reclaimed?

it is done in the renal tubule using Na+/H+ pump where bicarbonate is converted into CO2 and reabsorbed

10

what hormone control the buffering level of H+ ?

aldosterone

11

what is secreted from the pancreas in order to reduce the H+ effect from the stomach?

HCO3-

12

what does the liver do in terms of buffering

dominant site of lactate metabolism, only site of urea synthesis

13

what is the main job of the liver in term of urea production?

combin NH4+ and CO2 to give urea and H+

14

what will happen if severe liver failure take place

metabolic alkalosis, NH4+ toxicity

15

what are the 4 different types of acidosis and alkalosis?

metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis

16

what will happen to the H+, pCO2 & pO2 in metabolic acidosis

increase H+
increase pO2
decreased pCO2

17

why does the pCO2 decreased and pO2 increased in metabolic acidosis

Compensate by trying to breathe out CO2 so it decreases and O2 increases- tachyponea- pink puffer

18

what will happen to the H+, pCO2 & pO2 in metabolic alkalosis

decreased H+
increased pCO2
decreased pO2

19

what will happen to the H+, pCO2 & pO2 in respiratory acidosis

increased H+
increased pCO2
decreased pO2

20

what will happen to the H+, pCO2 & pO2 in respiratory alkalosis

decreased H+
decreased pCO2
increased pO2

21

what can cause respiratory acidosis

CO2 retention - inadequate ventilation, parenchymal lung disease, inaqequate perfusion