Flashcards in Mod 4 Cardiac Emergencies Deck (32):
Acute Coronary Syndrome
-Sometimes known as cardiac compromise.
-A blanket term
that refers to anytime the heart is not getting enough oxygen.
-A pulse rate faster than 100 beats per minute.
-A pulse rate slower than 60 beats per minute.
-Systolic blood pressure less than 90
-Systolic blood pressure greater than 140 or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90.
Acute coronary syndrome signs and symptoms
-Pain, Pressure, or discomfort in the chest or upper abdomen (Epigastrium)
-Onset of nausea, vomiting, or sweating
-Anxiety (feeling of impending doom)
-Abnormal blood pressure
When to give a repeat dose of nitroglycerin
-Patient experiences no or partial relief
-Systolic pressure remains greater than 90 to 100.
-Medical direction requires additional dosage.
When to give a patient asprin
-Has no history of asthma
-Not already taking medications that prevent clotting of the blood.
-No contraindications to asprin.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
-When coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked.
-Build up of fatty on artery inner walls.
-There are things that can be done to prevent CAD.
-Change in diet, stop smoking, weight loss to lower blood pressure.
-The dilation, or ballooning, of a weakened section of the wall of an artery
-Artery can burst causing rapid life threatening internal bleeding.
-Common sites are in the aorta and brain.
-Blockage, as an artery, by fatty deposits.
-A clot formed of blood and plaque attached to inner artery or vein wall.
-Blockage of a vessel by a clot or foreign material brought by blood current.
-A disturbance in the heart rate and rhythm.
-An electrical malfunction of the heart can result in dysrhythmia.
-Pain in chest when blood to heart is reduced and portion of heart muscle is not receiving enough oxygen.
-Advised to take Nitroglycerin.
Acute mycardial infarction (AMI)
-The myocardium dies as a result of oxygen starvation.
-Often called a heart attack.
-A cardiac arrest that occurs within 2 hours of onset of symptoms.
-May have no prior symptoms.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
-Failure of heart to pump efficiently leading to build up of fluids or blood in the lungs, body, or both.
-Causes edema (swelling)
-Caused by diseased heart valves, hypertension.
-Accumulation of fluid in the feet or ankles.
Chain of survival
-Effective advanced life support
-Integrated post cardiac arrest care
Types of AED
-Semi automatic. The more common type. Prompts user to press a button to administer a shock through pads.
-Fully automatic. Does not advise a shock and sends a shock automatically once enough energy has been accumulated.
Ventricular fibrillation (VF)
-Hearts electrical impulses disorganized preventing heart muscles from contracting normally.
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach)
-Heart beat is rapid. Does not allow hearts chambers to refill with enough blood between beats.
Pulseless electrical activity (PEA)
-Electrical rhythm is normal but yet mechanical pumping activity fails to follow electrical activity.
-A condition in which the heart has ceased generating electrical impulses.
-Commonly known as flatline
AED cardiac arrest treatment sequence for shock indicated (SI)
-Deliver 1 shock if indicated
-If patient does not wake up do 2 mins or 5 cycles of CPR.
-Press analyze button
-Deliver shock if indicated
-After 3 shocks prepare for transport.
AED cardiac arrest treatment sequence for no shock indicated (NSI)
-Do 2 mins or 5 cycles of CPR
-Press analyze button
-No shock indicated
-Perform 2 mins or 5 cycles of CPR
When to transport patient
-You have administered three shocks
-You have received 3 consecutive NSI messages separated by 2 mins of CPR
-Patient regains pulse
Do not defibrillate
-If anyone is touching patient
-If patient is wearing nitro patch
-If patient is lying under water (Dry patient)
-If patient is touching metal
The only contraindication to using defib pads
-If pads wont fit on patient without touching each other.